Questions tagged [reaction-mechanism]

The detailed (and as complete as possible) description of plausible or observable pathways leading from reactants to products of a chemical process. This tag should be applied to questions about these processes. It may be applied to hypothetical and/or proposed mechanisms.

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47 views

Diborane reduction

I am stuck at a step in reduction of alkene using $\ce{B2H6}.$ I assume that step 1 is the addition of borane to alkene. After that a water molecule attacks $\ce{-BH2},$ it being a Lewis acid. ...
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1answer
1k views

Birch reduction of anisole

Hepworth, Waring and Waring (2002) mentions that: In general, electron-withdrawing substituents make the arene more susceptible to reduction, while the opposite applies for electron-donating ...
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How to synthesize iron acetate from Iron chloride [on hold]

This is the Practices I use: Iron ii chloride was converted to hydroxide by adding NaOH, and then I added acetic acid to give the Fe 2 O 3 compound (with strong stirring and a temperature of 80-100 ° ...
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2answers
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Why is HCl used in hydrolysis of sucrose?

I am aware that $\ce{HCl}$ can be used to help speed up the hydrolysis of sucrose but I haven't really been able to find out why. I've read somewhere that the glycosidic link in sucrose is broken off ...
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20 views

ZnSe and Carboxylate [on hold]

As part of an experiment, I need to immerse a piece of ZnSe crystal into a glass that contains a solution of water and carboxylate microspheres. I just want to make sure that the carboxylate will not ...
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1answer
1k views

Hydrolysis of Sucrose over Sn1Ac or Sn2Ac

In "March's Advanced Organic Chemistry" I have read about the general mechanism of the acetal hydrolysis. It names the acid-catalyzed SN1 or SN2 as a possible mechanism for a Acetal-hydrolysis. Now I ...
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What reactions involving hydrazine, dinitrogen tetroxide and possibly a contaminant can produce a salt?

Hydrazine $\ce{N2H4}$ and dinitrogen tetroxide $\ce{N2O4}$ form a hypergolic fuel and oxidizer pair widely used in spacecraft including Akatsuki. Wikipedia states: Hydrazine can be monoprotonated ...
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1answer
30 views

Bromination of an alkene in presence of water

Bromination of an alkene in presence of water results in its mechanism in a cyclic bromonium ion and "afterwards $\ce{H2O}$ binds to the carbon atom surrounded by more electron donating groups." This ...
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1answer
40 views

Which reaction occurs first when 5-hexen-1-ol reacts with sulfuric acid?

I am trying to solve this question: Find the major product of the following reaction: Now we could either do electrophilic addition on the alkene or do dehydration of alcohol. These two ...
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45 views

Is a maleimide reaction inhibited by ethylene glycol?

Due to a recent switch in systems, we have to add 45% ethylene glycol to a maleimide reaction with Sulfo-MBS (m-maleimidobenzoyl-N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide ester) and a reduced oligonucleotide ...
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49 views

Why does the reaction between 2‐methylbut‐3‐en‐2‐ol and hydrogen bromide show allylic shift?

In the following reaction shouldn't the minor product be the major one as the carbocation formed before attachment of bromine is 3°? Also, can someone tell me why the product includes only ...
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Acidic cleavage of ether with a 2° alkyl group

I know that an ether with a 3° alkyl group and a 1° alkyl group is cleaved by $\mathrm{S_N1}$ mechanism to give a tertiary alkyl halide and a 1° alcohol. And an ether with a two 1° alkyl groups is ...
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How to confirm experimentally that a hemi-acetal compound has formed?

I have read that under mildly acidic or alkaline conditions alcohols can attack aldehydes/ketones to produce hemi-acetals. But the reaction is reversible, so the reactants and the hemia-cetal are in ...
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14 views

What makes a chemical reaction reversible? [closed]

Is there a way to determine whether a chemical reaction will be reversible or not?
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Why primary alcohol follows SN1 mechanism?

Example 2: Identify all the products formed in the following reaction and indicate the major product. Solution: Three products will be formed in the given reaction as shown below: In ...
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gibbs free energy equation implication [closed]

Why is RTlnQ an energy term? Also how does this term actually affect the amount of energy released/absorbed in a reaction? It seems counterintuitive because somehow changing reactant: product ratio ...
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51 views

Reaction between CuSO4.5H2O and NH3 [on hold]

Today in the laboratory we did a confirmatory reaction for Copper (II) in CuSO4. The reaction we carried out was adding NH4OH to a little of original salt solution. So the reaction that took place is ...
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1answer
58 views

Reaction of ether with HCl

Most of the reactions undergo ring expansion whenever favourable. But this reaction [1, p. 514] doesn't seems to do so: Practice Problem 11.18 Provide a mechanism for the following reaction. ...
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Why do NaNO3 + Al + NaOH yield ammonia?

From Russian test problem 4301: $$\ce{3NaNO3 + 8Al + 5NaOH + 18H2O -> 8Na[Al(OH)4] + 3NH3(g)}$$ How does ammonia evolve here? Is it that we get hydrogen gas evolving in the reaction between Al ...
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2answers
598 views

Mercury vapor release from amalgam fillings [closed]

What would cause vapour release from elemental mercury? Would it be pressure, friction... could one stop the vapour release through cooling the mercury?
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1answer
78 views

Required HLB on the Griffin Scale [closed]

What is the required HLB on the Griffin Scale of 94% water and 6% mineral oil for producing a stable micro-emulsion?
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Reaction rate multiple choice problem

Consider the reaction between solid CaCo3 and aqueous HCl. The reaction will be speeded up by an increase in which of the following conditions? The concentration of the HCl Size of the CaCo3 ...
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1answer
56 views

Friedel-Crafts Alkylation of Pyrrole [duplicate]

I thought that I already know how the Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution (EArs) for Aromatic rings work but then this reaction was shown to me and I was really sure that my professors didn't bothered ...
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Where will the oxygen atom be inserted on the Baeyer-Villiger esterification? [duplicate]

On our exam in organic chemistry, there was a question that I failed to answer correctly. The question is about the Baeyer-Villiger esterification of propiophenone or ethyl phenyl ketone: On the exam,...
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1answer
101 views

What is the mechanism of oxidation of phenol to benzoquinone?

I looked up the mechanism in a lot of organic chemistry books, including Clayden, Klein, Solomons, McMurry but I couldn't find the mechanism of oxidation of a phenol. I also looked it up in ...
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3answers
68 views

Was it CO2 or Muriatic Acid?

We had a malfunction with the chlorination system at our pool. There was a reaction between the Calcium Hypochlorite tablets and either $\ce{CO2}$, Carbonic Acid, or Muriatic Acid. There was a ...
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1answer
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Calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid - data analysis [closed]

I conducted an experiment in which $\pu{10mL}$ of dilute hydrochloric acid was added to a beaker, and this acid was heated up to room temperature ($\pu{22 ^\circ C}$) using a Bunsen burner. Then, $\pu{...
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0answers
84 views

Mechanism of decarboxylation of cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid

According to FIITJEE's Sankalp Test-II answer key, it was given that the following compound decarboxylates on heating: Then, I read Why are beta-ketoacids better at decarboxylation than gamma or ...
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1answer
294 views

Hydroxyl group to free amine in polyethylene glycol using CDI?

For converting $\ce{OH}$ of methylated polyethylene glycol. The first step is converting hydroxyl group to imidazole carbamate as an active intermediate. But what about the next step? If I will add ...
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23 views

Is activation energy directly related to the reaction rate? (keeping the temperature, concentration, catalyst, particle size and pressure constant)

For different chemical reactions, does the activation energy of that reaction directly relate to the reaction rate? In other words, would a reaction always be slower if it had a higher activation ...
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2answers
102 views

How does the equilibrium shift when concentration of reactant and product are increased simulatenously

Before answering my question, take a look at this example $$\ce{2NOCl <=> 2NO + Cl2}$$ Let's suppose I have 2 mol/l $\ce{NOCl}$, 2 mol/l $\ce{NO}$, and 1 mol/l $\ce{Cl2}$ in a closed system. ...
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31 views

What effect does the dye color have on the kinetics of a commercial lightstick?

According to thoughtco: If fluorescent dyes weren't put in glow sticks, you wouldn't see any light at all. This is because the energy produced is usually invisible ultraviolet light. Fluorescent dyes ...
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1answer
38 views

Role of hcl gas in organic reactions [closed]

I encountered many questions in the competitive exam field of high school organic chemistry where we add some compounds and treat it in excess alcohol solutions in the presence of dry hcl gas, it is ...
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34 views

Hemiacetal formation mechanism

The question is asking which reagents can be used to carry out this reaction. I get the L (PCC) is used to turn the primary alcohol into an aldehyde. However, I believe that is not the only reagent ...
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1answer
39 views

Testing for manganese in water [closed]

Is there a decent way to test for solvable manganese in water without purchasing a 150USD test kit? I have a fair chemistry set available (I use it to teach my kids chemistry), and would rather pay ...
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0answers
15 views

Removing potash from water using poly-aluminum chloride

I have been conducting an experiment for a school project, (removing metals from water)I added 50 grams of sulphate of potash to 2 litres of water, then allowed it to dissolve for a 24hrs. On two ...
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1answer
39 views

Is it possible to predict release of acid fumes in certain acid reactions? [closed]

Upon mixing both acids, the reaction between Formic Acid and Sulfuric Acid, besides producing Carbon Monoxide and Water, releases a certain amount of acid fumes. Does anyone know if the fumes, in ...
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1answer
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Role of methanol in NaBH4 reduction

In reduction of carbonyls (aldehyde and ketones) to alcohols using NaBH4/Methanol, alkoxides are formed with the Boron which usually gets protonated on addition of water/acid. My question is what is ...
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1answer
1k views

Reaction of amines with diethyl oxalate (Hofmann Separation Method)

Why does only one molecule of secondary amine react with diethyl oxalate and two molecules of primary amine react with diethyl oxalate? I feel secondary amine also should have reacted similar to ...
63
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4answers
17k views

How does Walter White make pure crystal meth using a non-stereospecific reaction?

In the fantastic TV series Breaking Bad, Walter White, the dying chemistry teacher, takes to making crystal meth (d-methamphetamine) by several routes. Initially, he uses the common small-scale route ...
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331 views

Why are two three-membered rings preferred to a single five-membered ring in the reaction of a dihalide with alcoholic KOH?

The given answer is 1,1-dicyclopropylmethanone: Step 1 is abstraction of acidic H by the strong base. Then, there's surely going to be anchimeric assistance. But there can be two places where the ...
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1answer
29 views

Role of THF in oxymercuration of alkenes

I am trying to self learn solomon's organic chemistry book, but there is no explanation over why we should use THF in oxymercuration. After a quick search I found out that THF help stabilize in ...
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1answer
144 views

Gold Plating on Glass?

I am considering labware options to handle NaOH solutions at ~150°C. One appealing idea would be to coat my current glassware with gold. I've read different sources mentioning the possibility without ...
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1answer
4k views
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38 views

Reacting ZnSO4 with KCl

I'm considering the following reaction: $\ce{ZnSO4} + 2 \ce{KCl} \ce{->} \ce{ZnCl2} + \ce{K2SO4}$ The high solubility of $\ce{ZnCl2}$ would favour the $\ce{ZnSO4}$ & $\ce{KCl}$ direction of ...
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1answer
6k views

What will form in the hydrolysis of urea in urine?

I just wanna know what is the end product of hydrolysis of urea in urine. I know that the hydrolysis of urea will form ammonia and a subsequent rise in pH but will the ammonia react with the water ...
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1answer
187 views

Organic chemistry. how to control the Friedel–Crafts alkylation rection to methylbenzene as the major product?

My question is due to a discrepancy I founnd in reactivity and organic conversions. In reactivity of organic compounds it has been established that an alkyl group activates the benzene ring and hence ...
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1answer
760 views

Mechanism for Chromyl Chloride Formation

This is the very famous chromyl chloride test, used for detection of chloride ion in solution - $$\ce{K2Cr2O7 + 4NaCl + 6H2SO4 -> 2CrO2Cl2 + 2KHSO4 + 4NaHSO4 +3H2O}$$ When a mixture containing ...
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1answer
263 views

When does a pinacol undergo dehydration or rearrangement?

What happens when the above pinacol is treated with - (a) conc. sulphuric acid (b) dil. sulphuric acid I'm confused between pinacol rearrangement and dehydration (E1 or E2?), as both possibilities ...