Questions tagged [purification]

For questions about purification - the process of rendering something pure, clean of foreign or undesired elements. Not to be confused with [metallurgy] or [chromatography].

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How can should one separate and purify benzophenone from salicylic acid?

I am working with two solids and I know that they are benzophenone (s)(ketone) and salicylic acid (s) (carboxylic acid). I am curious to know what is/are the best method of extraction and ...
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297 views

Refining Tin (Sn)

I am a Copper Cookware Tinner & have a problem in reusing much of the tin that I end up sweeping off the floor etc. Prob about 5kg over the year & it would be great to save this? Now, my ...
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5k views

Role of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide in isolation of citric acid from lemon juice

I'm trying to extract citric acid from squeezed lemons. After studying the subject, I found a lab manual [1, p. 68]: ISOLATION OF CITRIC ACID Reagents: Lemon juice (ca. $\pu{100 mL}$ – 3 lemons) $\...
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51 views

Purification of Buchwald-Hartwig amination

I am conducting a synthesis involving Buchwald-Hartwig amination. I use $\ce{Pd2(dba)3}$, $\ce{P(o-tol)3}$, and $\ce{Et3N}$ as base. In many proposed mechanisms, they often omit the precatalyst. I ...
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159 views

The most convenient process to purify Oxalic Acid up to a high level of purity

I am set out to purify a batch of commercial oxalic acid with the aim in mind to end up with a highly pure product (starting from $\pu{4,000 ppm}$ total impurities and doing so with basic lab ...
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784 views

Purification of polar NHS esters

What are the options that I might be missing for the purification of a molecule with the following characteristic: Contains an activated ester that reacts with water (NHS) Reacts readily with ...
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167 views

How can I purify ethanol from formic / boric / salicylic acid?

I need some ethanol pure and strong enough for technical purposes (fuel, solvent, cleaning agent, dissolving rosin for soldering flux, etc.). Food quality is not required though, denaturated one is ...
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260 views

Purification of Red Phosphorus

The Boring Stuff I'm well acquainted with various fields of science & engineering, but my foray into the world of chemistry is relatively recent. I'm in a location (probably most of us are to some ...
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0answers
4k views

Removal of calcium from calcium-ammonium nitrate?

I am interested in model rocketry, and need to produce small quantities of pottasium nitrate. For this process I need ammonium nitrate, but I only have calcium ammonium nitrate. Is there a simple ...
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793 views

Cell voltage required for refining copper

If you put Zinc or Iron solids into aqueous copper (II) sulphate solutions, copper solids form spontaneously due to the fact, that Zinc/Iron oxides into ions more willingly than Copper does. And if ...
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2k views

How to prepare glacial acetic acid from sodium acetate?

What would be the most practical process to prepare glacial acetic acid from sodium acetate? I'm thinking to react the sodium acetate with an acid to convert the solution to acetic acid and sodium ...
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177 views

Make pure phthalocyanines from phthalocyanine dyes

We need a pure copper phthalocyanine for our experiments. Of course, we can buy it from Sigma Aldrich, but this means we'll have to wait a while. In local area we can buy only dyes which are about 98% ...
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1answer
249 views

Ester as a side product in the synthesis of bromoalkane from alcohol. Is it correct?

About 5 months ago, I answered a very interesting question albeit a very simple one. Why do we need sulfuric acid in creating alkyl bromide and not in creating alkyl iodide from alcohol and ...
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39 views

Leakage during Celite filtration

I'm conducting a synthesis involving crown ether and Pd catalyst. In many papers, prior to column chromatography, they filter crude mixture through a Celite pad. I tried to, but leakage of Celite ...
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24 views

Extraction Techniques for Organic Compounds from Aqueous Media

I am looking to attempt an extraction of an organic compound that had just been prepared using a Friedel-Crafts acylation. The compound was prepared in MDC (~20 mL in total). After the reaction, the ...
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29 views

How to convert pepsin into powder form?

I have pepsin powder which is now hydrated due to humidity. I want to convert it back to the powder form. How to do it? I don't have access to a freeze-dryer . I prefer any cheap procedure other than ...
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21 views

Choice of buffer pH to avoid aggregation

I want to purify IgG which has a theoretical pI of 6.4-9.0 with an anion exchange column. I also want to keep the pH of my buffers as low as possible and "outside" the range of the pI to prevent ...
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31 views

Change buffer in dialysis?

I have a protein that I purified in PBS buffer, pH 7. I will do dialysis to remove salt and will then further purify the protein with ion exchange chromatography. I will need to use another buffer (...
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36 views

What zeolite types are typically used to absorb CO and CO2 gases at maximum zeolite absorption temperature?

Me and my friends are doing a project involving carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide as products to be filtered, we are using zeolites and would like to know the zeolite type typically used to filter $\...
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50 views

Removing chloride ions from humic acid purification

I used HF and HCl in humic acid purification, and now I need to remove the Cl ions from solution. What should I do to remove the Cl ions? Do I just wash it with distilled water, or is there another ...
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325 views

Multi-solvent recrystallization to extract solute from glycerol?

I have compound A contaminated with impurity B. Recrystallization in water would not yield pure compound A since impurity B is less soluble in it. The only solvent in which substances A and B have ...
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62 views

What needs to happen to this: Ca5(PO4)3Cl to get this: CaCl2?

$\ce{Ca5(PO4)3Cl}$ is a mineral called Chlorapatite So lets say I have some chlorapatite in my garage, what do I need to do to it so that I am left with Calcium Chloride $\ce{CaCl2}$?
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835 views

How to get anhydrous triflic acid from triflic anhydride?

I require a small amount of triflic acid, and while other research groups do not have any, I did locate some trflic anhydride. Does anyone have a published protocol for obtaining the anhydrous acid ...
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643 views

How to clean copper(II) sulfate crystals from sulfuric acid?

I am going to prepare copper(II) sulfate by electrolysis with sulfuric acid for crystal growing. How would I separate the copper(II) sulfate from the sulfuric acid left over from the electrolysis ...
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101 views

Removing harmful gases from automobile exhaust using electrostatic precipitation

If I attach an electrostatic precipitator to a car's exhaust - and also make the smoke pass through an area containing $\ce{NaOH}$ in order to absorb sulfur dioxide - does that mean that the smoke ...
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853 views

How to crystallize out reaction mixture from DMF?

Reaction was carried out in DMF, and TLC shows that the reaction has completed. But how to separate reaction mixture i.e. product from DMF? Edit Steglich Esterification was carried out and the ...
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1answer
47 views

Is it possible to functionalize silica gel as Activated Carbon can be? How?

Activated carbon and Silica gel both have a high surface area. If I understand correctly it is possible to trap stuff inside activated charcoal pores to give it specific retention properties (by ...
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1answer
54 views

steam distillation vs fractional distillation

I am a high school student and I am a little confused in the techniques used to purify organic compounds, for e.g we study in steam distillation we reduce the external pressure on the compound to be ...
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36 views

Related to liquid-liquid extraction

I was reading about purification of organic compounds and I came across this. I quote below, a line from the excerpt that caused my confusion. The organic solvent is later removed by distillation or ...
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129 views

How do you purify gases formed in electrolysis with a potassium hydroxide electrolyte?

I am interested in the $\ce{KOH}$ vapor that is released with my gasses during electrolysis. I have two questions. What would be the best place to start research on the $\ce{KOH}$ vapor produced in ...
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64 views

Drying sodium tetraborate for use as a standard

I am currently attempting to purify technical grade sodium tetraborate decahydrate by recrystallization for use as a titration standard. I don't have a requirement for a specific grade or purity. I'm ...
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399 views

Remove ethanol from gasoline by mixing it with water?

I have read on forums that ethanol can be removed from commercial gasoline by mixing it with water, then draining water from the bottom to remove the water-ethanol solution (for example, with a ...
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166 views

How to purify volatile haloalkanes prepared by Darzens halogenation?

We know that the Darzens method of substitution works on $S_n i$ and is considered the best method in terms of yield of product. Also the side products are $\ce{SO_2}$ and $\ce{HCl}$ so the ...
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30 views

Inorganic Exclusion Rate to Expect During Recrystalization?

In the following context, what approximate exclusion rate can I expect towards all combined inorganic ions (metals, ...) per recrystalization cycle? Can I expect it to radically evolve along the ...