Questions tagged [pharmacology]

The study of drugs/medicines on living organisms. The study of drug action.

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12
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2answers
2k views

Effect of enatiomers in pharmaceuticals [closed]

Often (or always?) one enantiomer of a certain drug will be effective and the other ineffective or harmful. The famous example is thalidomide, where one enantiomer caused mutilation of the unborn ...
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Racemic mixture vs enantiomers in drugs [duplicate]

a racemic mixture has 50-50% of the 2 different enantiomers. There are racemate drugs out there in the world. The misunderstanding I have is that usually 1 out of the 2 enantiomers molecules have a ...
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28 views

Cyanogenic and Fluorine Compounds in Pharmaceutical Science

I was wonder what it was specifically that make things such as Lexapro safe when it came to its Fluoride and nitrile bonds. Why doesn't Lexapro break down into cyanide? Is it just minimal because the ...
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675 views

Does Amoxicillin (as trihydrate) degrade in stomach acid? [closed]

I crushed my antibiotics (amoxicillin + potassium Clavulanate). Does it deform in the stomach acid and therefore become useless? Or does the acid have no effect and the amoxicillin goes directly into ...
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Chemical interaction between Pterostilbene and Nicotinamide Riboside

Some supplement companies are putting a combinations of nicotinamide riboside and pterostilbene into the same capsule. Considering the stomach acid, water, body temperature, etc. I am wondering if ...
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How to determine if ChEMBL compound is an `agonist` or `antagonist` in assay?

In the ChEMBL database, there is an assays table that contains a standard_type column. In our case, we care only about ...
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1answer
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Which poison was used in the failed attempt to assassinate Khaled Mashal of Hamas?

This question is both historical and chemistry-related, but I'm posting it here because I am more interested in the chemical part: In 1997, Israel tried to assassinate Khaled Mashal, a high-rank ...
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1answer
44 views

What is the maximum amount of medicine that could accumulate in the body if the compound has a half-life of 24 hours? [closed]

If a patient is prescribed 25mg per day of a compound that has a half-life of roughly 24 hours, what is the maximum accumulated amount of the medicine that would build in the patients body?
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Is there a structured data source containing information on the World Health Organisation's Stability Testing Policies?

Hoping to automate some product testing guidance software, I've been attempting to find a (hopefully live, up-to-date) Database, Web-service, or other structured data source containing the ...
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34 views

Unknown possibly handmade glassware- description in information below

Okay, Another random item from the cupboard (unknown users or discipline of life sciences unknown) could be anything up to 40 years old.... This appears to be a 2 neck quickfit adapter (B19 and B14) ...
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1answer
32 views

Could there be a class of drugs beyond, similar to barbiturates and benzodiazepines? [closed]

I'm talking about group of drugs similar to them but different though.Is there anything beyond benzodiazepines?
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1answer
59 views

Does an airborne chemical stimulant exist?

I recently read the creepypasta entitled "The Russian Sleep Experiment". In this story they lock five test subjects in a room with the intention of keeping them awake for 30 days by releasing a ...
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2answers
85 views

Are ethyl iodophenylundecylate and Ethyl-10-(Iodophenylundecanoate) the same compound?

I have no understanding of chemistry, so these to chemical formulas mean nothing to me. What I am trying to ascertain is are these compounds the same? If not, what differences are there especially if ...
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2answers
459 views

How does sugammadex (a modified cyclodextrin) draw rocuronium into its lipophilic cavity?

Sugammadex is a modified cyclodextrin: 8 member sugar ring with carboxyl thioether extensions. Rocuronium is an aminosteroid, 4 steroid rings and one protonated amine group. Sugammadex binds ...
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2answers
3k views

Why do most drugs (eg: oxycodone) have seemingly arbitrary names?

How do some medicines derive their names? For instance, is the name oxycodone somewhat arbitrary? I am not well-versed in Chemistry (1st semester student) but does the prefix oxy- imply some ...
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1answer
40 views

Trichloroacetyl carbamate cleavage to unsubstituted carbamate

I studied that when alcohol is treated with isocyanate and then undergone hydrolysis (or methanolosis), carbamate is formed. But when we use carbamate as trichloroacetyl isocyanate, why hydrolysis ...
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2answers
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Why formulate drugs as HCl salts when HCl is in stomach acid?

I know there are issues of formulation and industrial processing that make it advantageous to produce many amine containing drugs as their salts rather than as freebases. And if giving the drug ...
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1answer
187 views

Why does clearance increase after phenytoin overdose?

I am finding it hard to envision how an overdose of phenytoin ultimately leads to an increase of the clearance of phenytoin after the enzymes that metabolize phenytoin stop getting saturated. I know ...
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1answer
3k views

What is the industrial yield of paracetamol?

Anyone know how I can find out the typical yield of paracetamol (acetaminophen) from the acetylation of 4-aminophenol? Please provide the source if you happen to know!
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1answer
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Why does the sulfone ring in tazobactam open when the lactam is hydrolyzed?

One of the drugs I work with is a beta-lactam (4-membered ring with an amide bond) fused to a sulfone ring, tazobactam. It's relatively stable in water; the lactam is not significantly hydrolyzed ...
6
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1answer
203 views

Could muscarine be an antidote to atropine poisoning?

According to Wikipedia, "Muscarine poisoning is characterized by miosis, blurred vision, increased salivation, excessive sweating, lacrimation, bronchial secretions, bronchoconstriction, ...
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1answer
867 views

Regarding the mechanism for biological activity of tyramine, amphetamine and ephedrine

Graham Patrick explains the mechanism for the activity of tyramine, amphetamine and ephedrine in his book Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry as follows: Some amines such as tyramine , amphetamine ...
6
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1answer
278 views

How does Rosuvastatin 5 S-lactone form in human body?

I've searched lots of free resources online but cannot find the answer. the top compound is Rosuvastatin. Some websites say it is metabolized by the enzyme CYP2C9, but I can't figure out how a ...
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3answers
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What is the mechanism of action of anaesthetics?

A range of very different compounds are used in medicine as anaesthetics. They don't seem to have much in common chemically but they all seem to keep people asleep while medics are doing nasty things ...
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1answer
484 views

calculate the number of shots of Captain Morgan’s rum

I am facing a challenge, and this is my first question in this stack exchange. I have worked out the following problem but the answer I got (number of shots) is ridiculous. Could any of the chemist ...
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0answers
76 views

Is there a drug that can encapsulate benzene in the liver? [closed]

I'm doing a project on the prevention of leukemia and upon researching on the metabolism of benzene in the liver (since high levels of benzene can lead to leukemia), I thought of a question that was ...
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507 views

degradation of sertraline

The picture above is a drug called Setraline. Suggest a likely mode of degradation of sertraline hydrochloride alone in aqueous solution, giving likely structures of the degradation products. From my ...
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2answers
926 views

Could the difference between absorption time of Diclofenac Sodium and Diclofenac Potassium be related to the cation?

Diclofenac is a common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) that comes in a variety of formulations. Two of the most common forms are diclofenac sodium and diclofenac potassium (the links ...
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1answer
624 views

BCS class of nifedipine

So I had an exam today in which one of the questions was in what class (I-IV) of the Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) the drug nifedipine falls in. Class I drugs are considered highly ...
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1answer
332 views

name of a pharmaceutical drug used in dentistry that has Ionic bonding? and how this bounding is made?

Hello I am looking for this information and I did not find anything, the closest thing I have found it is Fluorocarbon, but I think it is wrong, does anybody know?. Help really appreciated I am still ...
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1answer
60 views

What method is used to discover oxidation state of drug binding cysteine residue?

I was reading this article and found this sentence: KC group found that some cancer cells became resistant to Boehringer Ingelheim’s covalent TKI afatinib (Giotrif) due to the oxidation of its ...
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1answer
219 views

Why is the effect of competitive antagonist less than the effect of non-competetive antagonists?

Drugs can be provided as a competive or non-competitive form of agonists. But the effect of non-competitive antagonists is much more than the other, so what is the cause of that? And are there some ...
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1answer
153 views

Is there a difference between anti-anxiety and anti-depression drugs? [closed]

[PREFACE- I've already asked this on Health.SE, but I've drawn a blank there. The place is practically deserted. Also, this is NOT a personal medical question; I'm simply trying to understand the ...
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1answer
189 views

How is the selectivity of a drug ensured? [closed]

How is a drug created that would target a particular site? I always wonder when I take a pill for headache, how the pill knows that its my head and not my knee. Or is it that it interacts with all ...
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1answer
476 views

Is there any difference between Meprobamate and Equanil?

My textbook mentions Meprobamate and Equanil separately, under Anxiolytic drugs and even provides two (not-so) different structures to back their claim. However, Wikipedia would beg to differ: ...
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What chemical properties make LSD so psychoactive?

Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a well known hallucinogen and (usually) illegal psychoactive drug with the structure below: The drug is active is doses measured in micrograms in contrast to many ...
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195 views

Absorption of Diazepam/Valium

Why diazepam absorbs quickly when taken with metoclopramide? Does it because diazepam is absorbed from intestine like acetaminophen? If it does, why presence of food increases the absorption of ...
11
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1answer
172 views

How can I tell which parts of this example drug are necessary parts of its pharmacophore?

$\hspace{10mm}$ $\hspace{10mm}$(Click image for larger version) This picture identifies a generic drug-enzyme complex taken from an exam script. There is no name given. One part of the exam question ...
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1answer
266 views

What is the use/function of lithium chloride as an excipient in sofradex eardrops?

Certain drugs have lithium chloride as an excipient, eg. Caprilate, NeyDop N (Revitorgan-Dilutionen N Nr 97), NeyDop N (Revitorgan-Lingual Nr 97), Nisita. An excipient is not supposed to have a ...
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2answers
2k views

How do the fields of medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacy, and pharmacology differ?

I would like to know what the difference between medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacy and pharmacology. All of them seem to involve the development of drugs, so I am confusd as to ...
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1answer
2k views

Does potassium aluminum sulfate have any effect on sexual performance/sperm counts or anything relating to the functionality of the sexual organs?

I recently read about potassium aluminum sulfate that it has astringent property and has the ability to constrict body tissues and restrict blood flow. Since, for penis, the erection happens with the ...
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1answer
198 views

Does CDCl3 also Knock People Out?

I know that chloroform can be used to make people unconscious, but would that also work with deuterated chloroform, $\ce{CDCl3}$? My instinct is "yes", but I'm not sure I'm willing to try this ...
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1answer
697 views

Why does lactulose turn dark?

Why does the standard 10gm/15ml lactulose solution turn dark when exposed to heat above 30 degrees Celsius? This is probably a simple question. It is funny that the warnings/important information on ...
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1answer
471 views

How to Experimentally Quantify the Response of a Receptor to a Ligand?

In medicinal chemistry, there are multiple reasons why one would want to experimentally determine the effect of a particular molecule on a receptor e.g. measuring how 'strongly' that molecule brings ...
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1answer
119 views

Does isotretinoin affects contraception hormonal pills - Ethinylestradiolum, Drospirenonum

Does isotretinoin affects contraception hormonal pills - Ethinylestradiolum, Drospirenonum? Asking as a pharmacologist not a patient.