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Questions tagged [oxidation-state]

Oxidation state is a concept, which assigns hypothetical charges to atoms in compounds. This tag should be applied to questions which relate to that concept or to oxidation states in atoms of compounds.

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Determining the direction of chemical reactions based on the activity series

Based on the activity series (table of standard reduction potentials), indicate whether or not the following reactions would occur in the direction written. Don't worry about what the activity series ...
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Why is the +3 oxidation state of Cerium more stable than +4?

For the 4f inner transition metals, +3 is the most common oxidation state (OS). Why is the +3 OS of cerium considered more stable than +4, at which it attains noble gas configuration?
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What is the oxidation number of the oxygen in BaO2

According to the book for a binary compound, first we assign the element with greater electronegativity its oxidation number (oxygen always -2 except in peroxides). So, we have -2 x2 =-2. So, each ...
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Terminology of redox reactions: which species are the oxidizing and reducing agents?

I've got a question regarding 'notation' for redox reactions. Suppose you are asked to identify the oxidizing and reducing agents for a simple reaction like this one: $$\ce{Cl2(aq)}+\ce{2KI(aq)} \...
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How to determine peroxy oxygen?

Which of the following compound doesn't contain peroxy oxygen? $\ce{CrO5}$ $\ce{Cr2O3}$ $\ce{Na2O2}$ $\ce{BaO2}$ I think peroxy oxygen is peroxide, am I right?. I have read in this ...
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What is the oxidation state of all the atoms in this compound, W(CH3CN)3(CO)3?

$\ce{W(CH3CN)3(CO)3}$ I'm thinking: $\ce{CO}$ is neutral so $\ce{O}$ is -2 and $\ce{C}$ +2 $\ce{CN}$ is negative one so $\ce{C}$ is +2 and $\ce{N}$ -3 $\ce{CH3}$ is positive one so $\ce{H}$ is +1 ...
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Oxidation State of Oxygen in Na2O2?

I am asked to determine what is the O.S. of Oxygen in $\ce{Na2O2}$ I was under the impression that oxygen had a charge of -2 and I multiplied that charge by 2 giving me an Oxidation # of -4. ...
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Standard electrode potential for electrolytic vs galvanic cells

Whys is the standard electrode potential (-) for electrolytic cells but positive for (+) galvanic cells. If E°cell > 0, then the process is spontaneous (galvanic cell) If E°cell < 0, then ...
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11k views

Why does a chemical have more than one oxidation number?

Like for group I metals, it is understood that all the elements in the group would have an oxidation number of +1. As far as I know, oxidation number is how much electron the element loses/gains. ...
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Is there any way to determine if the compound is oxide or peroxide or superoxide?

I know that in an oxide oxygen's oxidation number is $-2$, in a peroxide oxygen's oxidation number is $-1$ and in a superoxide oxygen's oxidation number is $-\frac12$. So, how will I be able to detect ...
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Fuel Cell Chart - Anode, Cathode, Electrolyte

Can someone please check my table to make sure I have the correct information. I am especially unsure of the parts highlighted in yellow:
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What should be the oxidation state of oxygen in HOF (hypofluorous acid)?

What should be the oxidation state of oxygen in $\ce{HOF}$ (hypofluorous acid)? Sources on the internet have confused me. Most state its oxidation state to be 0, while the others state that it is -2 (...
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551 views

Why do negative oxidation states not extend to -8?

There are oxidation states from -4 to +8 Why do the negative oxidation states not go all the way down to -8? I mean if an atom is hypervalent meaning that it can have more than an octet than that ...
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How to find out oxidation state when compound has multiple electronegativities

How do I solve for oxidation state in something like CH3-O-F? The fluorine is more electronegative than the oxygen which is more electronegative than the carbon which is more electronegative than the ...
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In a mixture of ammonia and hydrogen hypochlorite, how do I determine the oxidising and reducing agent?

$$\ce{NH_3 + HOCl <=> NH_2Cl + H_2O}$$ How do I figure out what the oxidizing agent is and reducing agent? I know that the oxidizing state of $N$ in $\ce{NH_3}$ is $-3$, but I'm not sure how to ...
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the oxidation number of N in this equation?

the equation : $\ce{NH4Cl + AgNO3 -> NH4NO3 + AgCl}$ I know that oxidation number of $\ce{N}$ in $\ce{NH4Cl}$ is -3 and in $\ce{AgNO3}$ is +5 but what I am confused about is the oxidation ...
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Finding the Oxidation number

I have got the homework to balance the following redox reaction. $\ce{Cr(OH)3- + HO2- -> Cr2O7^{-2} + OH- }$(Basic medium) To balance this reaction first thing we need to do is to find the ...
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888 views

Oxidation numbers of phosphorus pentachloride

I read detailed explanations of what oxidation numbers/ states represent and it boils down simply to this: If it's positive, it shows how many electrons the element lost, and in the case of a negative ...
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Can two positive ions be next to each other in a formula?

Lets say I want to find the oxidation numbers of a formula. For example: $\ce{H3AsO3}$ Oxygen has a 2- charge. They're 3 of them, so its 6- Hydrogen has a 1+ charge. They're 3 of them, so its 3+. ...
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How is the oxidation number related to the group number?

If an element $\ce{X}$ forms the highest oxide of the formula $\ce{XO3}$, then it belongs to group: A) 14 B) 15 C) 16 D) 17 How is an oxidation number of an element related to its group? I ...
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What are the oxidation states in Borohydride (BH4-)

The CRC Elecrochemical Series and the solution to our exercise suggest that the oxidation states of borohydride are -V for Boron and +I for Hydrogen. Since H (2.2) is more electronegativ than B (2.0),...
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What allows sulfur and phosphorus to expand their octet?

There are many compounds in which the stability of a molecule is not governed by the presence of octet configuration in central atom. In most of the cases the central atom is generally sulfur or ...
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Binary Molecular Compounds of Nonmetals

How does one determine the formula for two non metal elements? Such as Nitrogen and Oxygen. I look at the charges with Nitrogen having -3 and Oxygen having -2. How would I get to zero? How do you ...
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Can lead(II) oxidize tin metal in aqueous solution?

According to my textbook, element $\ce{X}$ can oxidize element $\ce{Y}$ if $\ce{X}$ was lower in the activity series. Lead is lower than Tin in the activity series table in the textbook, but the ...
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When will peroxide form?

A very typical example of a compound of peroxide is $\ce{H2O2}$. When like the title says, will such compounds form, despite usually oxygen will have a oxidation number of 2-?
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333 views

In a redox reaction, why does more than one oxidation state of an element form?

Consider the reaction 100ml 10M $\ce{NaOH_{(aq)}} +$ 100ml 10M $\ce{NaHSO3_{(aq)} +}$ 100mL 0.01M $\ce{KMnO4_{(aq)}}$ In the picture posted here, the left columns give information on the Molarity of ...
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Why can Cu have an oxidation number of +2?

The electronic configuration for $\ce{Cu}$, adjusted for Hund's rule, is: $[\ce{Ar}] 3d^{10} 4s^1$ So, shouldn't $\ce{Cu}$ have an oxidation number of $+1$? whereby it gives off its outermost 4s ...
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Electronegativity Considerations in Assigning Oxidation States

I have never seen anything other than a set of rules like these when textbooks present how to assign oxidation numbers. Such as these: However, if we keep in mind that oxidation numbers are simply ...
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Oxidation numbers for esters?

How do I find the oxidation numbers for ester? My main issue is about finding the numbers for ester groups. /O\ - || R -- O -- C -- R' - I ...
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246 views

the perfect campfire

As far as chemistry goes, there are laws or observations that can be useful to determine the perfect shape and disposition of the wood in a campfire ? For example what chemistry says about the 2 most ...
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Why does Pb normally have an oxidation number of +2?

Why does $\ce{Pb}$ have an oxidation number of $2^{+}$ while carbon and other elements in the same group have an oxidation number of $4^{+}$? Furthermore, why doesn't carbon also have a $2^{+}$ ...
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How easy it is for MoS2 to become oxidized

I made I high pressurized $\ce{MoS2}$ pellet, using a 6 ton pressurizer. I used very thin powder to create the pellet. I am using this pellet on beam, with some nuclear techniques. In my spectra I ...
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aldehydes are easily oxidised but ketones are not

Aldehydes are easily oxidized to carboxylic acid but ketones are difficult to oxidise. Most books say that the hydrogen directly bonded to the $\ce{C=O}$ in the aldehyde is what aids the oxidation ...
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Variable oxidation state of transition metal ions

Transition metals can form stable ions with different oxidation states. But I am confused why doesn't only the most stable state exist. Let me clarify my question more: $$\ce{Ti^{2+} -> Ti^{3+} + ...
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Why can some ions have different valence?

Like $\ce{Fe}$, it can be $\ce{Fe^{2+}}$ or $\ce{Fe^{3+}}$, same with $\ce{Ni}$ and $\ce{Co}$, what determines whether the ionic compound will be $\ce{Fe^{2+}}$ or $\ce{Fe^{3+}}$?
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Explaining the oxidation states of palladium

Palladium follows an exception to normal electron filling-up rules and so has the electron configuration of $\ce{[Kr] 4d^{10} 5s^0}$ The oxidation states of palladium are $\ce{+II}$ and $\ce{+IV}$. ...
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Plutonium having more oxidation states than samarium?

Why does plutonium have more oxidation states than samarium? Electron configuration of Pu: $\ce{[Rn] 5f^6 7s^2}$ Electron configuration of Sm: $\ce{[Xe] 4f^6 6s^2}$ I thought that only the valence ...
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What oxidation state does Aluminium have in NaAlO₂?

I guess that sodium loses an electron so has an oxidation state of +1 and that oxygen has an oxidation state of −2. But what oxidation state does the aluminium atom have in sodium aluminate ($\ce{...
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How to determine an oxidation number of an atom in the compound, that has at least two elements, which are not hydrogen or oxygen?

Wiki says: [Oxidation state] is defined as the charge an atom might be imagined to have when electrons are counted according to an agreed-upon set of rules: The oxidation state of a free ...
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What are the oxidation states of sulfur in the tetrathionate ion?

What are the oxidation states of the sulfur in the tetrathionate ion $\ce{S4O6^{2-}}$?
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Are fractional oxidation states possible?

To get the oxidation state of carbon (denoted $x$) in octane, $\ce{C8H18}$, I used the fact that hydrogen has an oxidation state of $+1$: $$8x + 18\cdot 1 = 0 \qquad \Longrightarrow \qquad x = -\frac{...
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Oxidation State in Tetraaquadichlorochromium(III) chloride

$\ce{[Cr(H2O)4Cl2]Cl}$, Tetraaquadichlorochromium(III) chloride According to a book, the (III) indicates the oxidation state of chromium, but it doesn't explain why. Cr has 6 valence electrons. How ...
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is Perchloride the same as Perchlorate?

I read about Perchloride in a talk and after trying to search for its chemical equation, the search results imply that Perchloride is actually named Perchlorate. is this correct?
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Why do single elements in a molecule have an oxidation state of zero?

For example, take $\ce{O2}$. The oxidation state of oxygen is -2, yet once its in a molecule its oxidation state becomes zero? How is this so?
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What is the oxidation state of Calcium in teeth?

What is the oxidation state of Calcium found in human teeth?
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Which element is being reduced in this reaction?

Which element is reduced in this reaction: $$\ce{2KMnO_4 +3NaSO_3 +H_2O ->2MnO_2 +3NaSO_4 +2KOH}$$ I am trying to figure out which elements lose their electrons, but how am I supposed to know ...
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Oxidation number for nitrogen in ammonium sulfate [duplicate]

I'm trying to find the oxidation number of $ \ce N$ in $ \ce{(NH4)2SO4}$. The answer is supposed to be $-3$ but I can't figure out the logic behind this.
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Is iron in the brown ring compound in a +1 oxidation state?

In the standard brown ring test for the nitrate ion, the brown ring complex is: $$\ce{[Fe(H2O)5(NO)]^{2+}}$$ In this compound, the nitrosyl ligand is positively charged, and iron is in a $+1$ ...