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Questions tagged [oxidation-state]

Oxidation state is a concept, which assigns hypothetical charges to atoms in compounds. This tag should be applied to questions which relate to that concept or to oxidation states in atoms of compounds.

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7
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1answer
278 views

Is it possible for halogens to show oxidation states less than -1?

Halogens like $\ce{Cl,Br,I}$ generally show oxidation states between $-1$ and $+7$. However, is it possible that they can show an oxidation state beyond $-1$ (e.g. $-3$)? I was thinking of some ...
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1answer
1k views

Oxidation number in Coordination Compounds

How to determine the oxidation number of the central metal atom in case both cation and anion is a complex? For example: [$\ce{Pt(NH3)4}$][$\ce{PtCl6}$]
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1answer
420 views

Determine oxidation in organic chemistry through oxidation numbers?

I want to determine the carbons that are oxidatized in an organic reaction. Is it an acceptable way to first figure out the oxidation number of every carbon in reactants and products and then compare ...
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1answer
709 views

How to write half equations based on oxidizing/reducing agents pairs?

In most videos, people use oxidation numbers to find the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent, It's a great way to use, but our teacher never used it before he would give us a reaction and ask us ...
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3answers
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Oxidation state of fluorine in HOF

What should be the oxidation state of $\ce{F}$ in $\ce{HOF}$. As fluorine is the most electronegative element in the periodic table, it should be $-1$. But when I googled it, I found that many ...
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1answer
67 views

How to know the ionization power of an unknown metal? - difficult

Imagine having the 4 following beakers: where P, Q, R and S are metallic plates. In beaker 1 and beaker 2 nothing happens. However in beaker 3 and 4 the metalic pieces become thinner. How would you ...
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1answer
59 views

How to calculate whether a redox reaction is spontanuous?

I have some difficulties to apply the basic concepts of calculating whether a reaction is spontanuous or not. given: $$\ce{H_2SO_3(aq) + 2Mn(s) +4H^+(aq) -> S(s) + 2Mn^{2+}(aq) +3H_2 O(l)}$$ and ...
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0answers
86 views

understanding redox reaction

I am a total noob in chemistry, so sorry in advance if this is a very stupid question... I am trying to solve this redox reaction: $$\ce{KClO3 + FeSO4 + H2SO4 -> Fe2(SO4)3 + KCl}$$ $$\ce{K^{+1}Cl^{...
4
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1answer
1k views

Why are fluorides of transition metals unstable in low oxidation states? [duplicate]

Why are fluorides of transition metals unstable in low oxidation states? I would think that since fluorine and oxygen are highly electronegative, it's obvious that they be stable at high oxidation ...
7
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3answers
9k views

Oxidation number of phosphorus in phosphine

Electronegativity of $\ce{H}$ is greater than $\ce{P}$, but according to my book in $\ce{PH3}$, $\ce{P}$ has oxidation number of -3. How is it possible? Is any of the data wrong?
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1answer
561 views

In what compounds does oxygen exhibit +½ oxidation state?

Theoretically it is said that the compound can show oxidation states in the interval $[n,n-8]$ where $n$ is the number of valence electrons. Is there any compound in which oxygen shows +1/2 oxidation ...
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1answer
636 views

Oxidizing and reducing agent

What i know about the above question is that a compound acts as an oxidising as well as reducing agent when the oxidation of central metal is somewhere between it's maximum and minimum oxidation state ...
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1answer
993 views

Why is SnCl2 produced when tin reacts with hydrochloric acid?

$$\ce{Sn + 2HCl -> SnCl2 + H2}$$ Our teacher told us that it's because $\ce{Sn^2+}$ is more stable, but I can't find that in any textbook. Why is $\ce{Sn^2+}$ in the chloride product over any ...
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4answers
6k views

Why is MnO2 not a peroxide?

As I know, $\ce{MnO2}$ is called manganese(IV) oxide. Why can't we name it manganese peroxide since manganese(II) exists too? In other words, how do we know that the oxidation number of manganese in ...
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1answer
319 views

Why don't we see these lanthanide species?

For most lanthanide metals$^{[1]}$, the stable oxidation state is III. The general electronic structure$^{[2]}$ is $$\ce{[Xe] 4f^{0}^{-14} 5s^2 5p^6 5d^{0}^{-1} 6s^2}.$$ Elements that have the d-...
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0answers
265 views

Predominance of III oxidation state for lanthanides [closed]

For most lanthanide metals, the stable oxidation state is III [*]. The general electronic structure is $$\ce{[Xe] 4f^{0}^{-14} 5s^2 5p^6 5d^{0}^{-1} 6s^2}\ \ [**].$$ Elements that have the d-electron ...
6
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1answer
429 views

Oxidation states of iron in Roussin's salts

For preservation of meat, sodium nitrite is usually added and as a result $\ce{NO}$ is then formed. Consequently, $\ce{NO}$ reacts with the sulfur and iron atoms from decomposition of proteins, ...
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3answers
3k views

Is it possible for one specific atom in a molecule to have a non-integer oxidation state?

I am wondering if fractional oxidation states of an atom are possible. I'm not referring to cases such as $\ce{Fe3O4}$ or $\ce{Mn3O4}$ where the average oxidation state is fractional, since these ...
2
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1answer
6k views

Why doesn't iron (III) iodide exist?

$\ce{Fe2O3 + 6HI -> 2FeI2 + I2 + 3H2O}$ Why don't we get $\ce{FeI3}$? After all, iron's oxidation state is $+3$ in the reagent. Should one just memorize that up to Bromine, it's $\ce{FeX3}$, and ...
4
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1answer
2k views

What is the oxidation state of copper and iron in chalcopyrite?

What is the oxidation state of Cu and Fe in chalcopyrite ($\ce{CuFeS2}$)? Some websites tell that it is $\ce{Cu(I)Fe(III)S2}$, and others tell that it is $\ce{Cu(II)Fe(II)S2}$. Which is right?
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2answers
5k views

What is the most common oxidation state of gold?

I had a test this morning which had the following question: What is the most common oxidation state for gold? (a) +1 (b) -1 (c) +2 (d) +3 Since the electronic configuration of $\ce{Au}$ is $\...
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1answer
619 views

Different between molecular and ionic equations

I want to know if ALL equations have to be balanced? Say for example if Hydrogen gas (H2) burns in air (O2) to form water (H2O) I get the following: H2 + O2 --> H2O. Means that balanced would be ...
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0answers
1k views

How to calculate n factor for salts in this reaction?

My source says : For salts which react such that no atom undergoes change in oxidation state , n-factor for such salt is the total moles of cationic /anionic species replaced in 1 mole of the salt . ...
2
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1answer
181 views

Setting up half-reactions

I am completing a worksheet on Balancing Oxidation-Reduction reactions but am stumped on how to set up the half reactions when the oxidation and reduction agents are molecules on both the reactant and ...
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3answers
4k views

How can chlorine have an oxidation number of 3 in chlorite?

I am studying redox reactions right now and I'm a bit confused about something: $\ce{ClO2^-}$ is a compound ion and in a compound ion the sum of oxidation state of participating ions has to be equal ...
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1answer
6k views

Why isn't thallium triiodide stable?

We know that stability of higher oxidation state (+3) decreases and stability of lower oxidation state (+1) increases, so thallium is most stable in its +1 oxidation state due to the inert pair effect ...
4
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1answer
7k views

How do I determine the average carbon oxidation numbers in ethanol and ethanal?

I have an assignment (I quote it word by word): Determine the oxidation number of carbon in (A) ethanol and (B) ethanal. Answers are (A) -2 and (B) -1. I reviewed similar question at SE: ...
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2answers
6k views

Best oxidizing and reducing agents: Na, Zn^2+, Ba, Ba^2+, and Ag?

Which is the best oxidizing agent and the best reducing agent from the species listed below? $\ce{Na,~Zn^2+,~Ba,~Ba^2+,~Ag}$ I determined that oxidizing agent as $\ce{Zn^2+}$ because it appears on ...
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0answers
88 views

Why can Bi not achieve its 4+ oxidation state?

Bi can reach its 3+ and 5+ oxidation state. Why not 4+? Can you use the inert pair effect here to explain this?
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1answer
5k views

Why does bromine react with iron(II) but not iodine?

My question comes from the answer (C) to this question: Firstly, (correct me if I'm wrong please) I thought that the answer could either be C or D since the other answers are negative ions which can'...
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1answer
2k views

Difference between oxidation and formal charge

What is the difference between oxidation number and formal charge? I am confused about the two.
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1answer
3k views

How to assign oxidation number of sulfur in thiocyanate anion?

Recently I was trying to balance a redox chemical equation: $$\ce{CuSCN + KIO3 + HCl <=> CuSO4 + KCl + HCN + ICl + H2O}$$ The equation is in principle simple to solve; one element ($\ce{I}$) ...
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0answers
993 views

Why is the oxidation state of carbon in carbon monoxide +2? Why does its dipole moment point from oxygen to carbon? [duplicate]

Shouldn't it be +3 since 3 of its electrons are being pulled away by the electronegative oxygen? Also, shouldn't the dipole moment point from the carbon to the oxygen since most of the electron ...
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0answers
248 views

Galvanic cell of copper and zinc

When we dip zinc metal in zinc sulfate solution, does zinc sulfate ionize into Zn and sulfate ions? Zinc ions come into the solution as Zn$^{+2}$ so why is the metal not completely dissociated? Why ...
5
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1answer
3k views

Oxidation state of nitrogen in triazirine (HN3)

The book asks me to find the oxidation state of nitrogen in the below compound: To find the oxidation state using Lewis structure, I have to compare the electronegativity of the bonded atoms and ...
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3answers
18k views

What is the oxidation state of nitrogen in N2O5?

According to the formula it should be +5 but according to its structure shouldn't it be +4? How is it +5 then?
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0answers
865 views

Why and how do we get NH4NO3 when reacting very dilute HNO3 with Zn?

From Russian Wikipedia's article on nitric acid: It's clear that as we decrease the concentration of nitric acid, we get more and more reduced nitrogen: in $\ce{NO2}$, the oxidation state of N is ($\...
3
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0answers
56 views

How do partially protonated sulfate ligands affect a metal's charge?

I'm currently reviewing the Periana-Catalytica system and I have a question about one of the intermediates, namely $\ce{[(bpym)Pt(OSO3H)2]^+}$, which is found in the following tutorial review. How do ...
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2answers
6k views

Determine the oxidation number of sulfur in SF6

I've just started learning about redox chemistry and oxidation numbers. I can work out most of the oxidation number questions, but I don't know how to determine the oxidation number of sulfur in $\ce{...
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0answers
107 views

What factors influence the resultant oxidation state of Fe in 3Ca(OH)2+2FeCL3?

$\ce{3Ca(OH)2 + 2FeCl3 -> 2Fe(OH)3 + 3CaCl2}$ What factors influence the resulting oxidation state in the iron hydroxide molecule in this reaction? Since iron's oxidation state ranges from +2 to +...
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2answers
2k views

What is the oxidation state of carbon atoms in Ethanoic acid?

The oxidation states of $sp^2$ and $sp^3$ carbon in ethanoic acid are $-3$ if we do not consider the electronegativity difference of these two carbons due to their different hybridisation but this ...
1
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0answers
880 views

Difference in the change in oxidation states of transition elements and p-block elements

In transition elements the oxidation states differ by one (+2 to +7 in Mn). However, in the p-block elements, the oxidation states differ by two (-1,+1,+3,+5 in the halogen group). Why is this so?
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1answer
5k views

Oxidation state of sulfur in H2S2O5

How can I find the oxidation state of sulfur in $\ce{H2S2O5}$ using its structure? This is the structure of $\ce{H2S2O5}$:
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2answers
3k views

What is the oxidation state of C in this lewis structure?

What is the oxidation state of $\ce{C}$ in this lewis structure? I know how to find it: based on the number of electrons leaving/coming to the most/least electronegative element. But it s the $\ce{OH}...
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1answer
2k views

Why is Mo(VI) more stable than Cr (VI)?

Acids of $\ce{Mo}^\mathrm{VI}$ are more stable than those of $\ce{Cr}^\mathrm{VI}$ in terms of redox reactivity. In p-block elements, as we go down the groups, the stability of lower oxidation state ...
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1answer
92 views

How to differentiate the notation of a compounds charge and an anions oxidations state?

I have had the case a few times. Being given something of this form: $$\ce{Cr2O7^2-}$$ How do I know whether the $2-$ is referring to the oxidation of the oxygen anion or the charge of the whole ...
23
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1answer
932 views

What is the meaning of the “-osic” suffix on a metal (e.g., cobaltosic oxide)?

I just came across the term cobaltosic for the first time in the abstract of Ind Eng Chem Res 52(18): 6076, 2013 (emphasis added): A nanocomposite of cobaltosic oxide and nitrogen-doped graphene ($\...
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2answers
416 views

Why is it lead(II) chromate and not lead(II) chromate(VI) tetraoxide?

I am just beginning in chemistry and learning how to name the different molecules. I have this molecule: $\ce{PbCrO4}$. I would give it the following name: lead(II) chromate(VI) tetraoxide. Lead and ...
21
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1answer
1k views

Why does tin form tin (II) compounds?

The stability of the +II oxidation state in lead has been widely attributed to the so-called “inert pair effect”: the 6s subshell is stabilized through relativistic contraction due to the near-c speed ...
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2answers
12k views

How to calculate the oxidation number of sulfur in H2SO5?

I am in class 11th and I am having trouble solving the question. Calculate the oxidation number of sulphur in $\ce{H2SO5}$? (The answer is given as as $+6$.) $\ce{H2SO5}$ exists it is named as "...