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Questions tagged [oxidation-state]

Oxidation state is a concept, which assigns hypothetical charges to atoms in compounds. This tag should be applied to questions which relate to that concept or to oxidation states in atoms of compounds.

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3
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1answer
220 views

Stability of 3d metal fluorides and iodides in different oxidation states

I read that the fluorides of 3d metals in lower oxidation states, e.g. $\ce{VF2}$, $\ce{TiF2}$, and $\ce{CuF}$ are thermodynamically unstable. For example, $\ce{CuF}$ disproportionates to $\ce{Cu + ...
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1answer
169 views

How to predict ease of oxidation or reduction for a given oxidising or reducing agent? [closed]

I have never understood which agent will be able to oxidize or reduce which type of reactants and yield which type of products will be formed. For example I want to know about DIBAL-H and how is it ...
9
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2answers
160 views

Are such high oxidation states as reported by Vojovodic et al. possible?

I am a student in theoretical chemistry and I am confused about the paper: Trends in adsorption of electrocatalytic water splitting intermediates on cubic $\ce{ABO3}$ oxides (Montoya, J. H.; Doyle, A. ...
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0answers
132 views

What are the oxidation states of galium and arsenic in GaAs semiconductor?

According to the book I'm referring to ("S.M. Sze Semiconductor Devices"), gallium has an oxidation state of +1 and arsenic has that of -1. This should not be possible as each of these elements forms ...
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0answers
43 views

Why is this redox reaction possible?

I have the redox reaction $\ce{N_2H_4 {(g)} + N_2O_4 {(g)} -> N_2 {(g)} + H_2O {(g)}}$. In $\ce{N_2O_4 {(g)}}$, the oxidation state of nitrogen is $+4$. In $\ce{N_2 {(g)}}$, the oxidation state of ...
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2answers
64 views

Why is it a reduction from a ketone to an alcohol? [closed]

Why is it a reduction from a ketone to an alcohol (using $\ce{LiAlH4}$)? I'm not able to figure out the oxidation state of carbon.
1
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1answer
917 views

Why is the oxidation state of Co -1 in [Co(CO)4]-?

In $\ce{[Co2(CO)8]}$, most people say the charge of $\ce{Co}$ is 0. How does it become $\ce{[Co(CO)4]-}$? Most answers would say that $\ce{Co}$'s charge becomes -1. How does this work? -1 is not ...
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1answer
652 views

Why does iron lose exactly 3 electrons in oxidation?

I'm not a chemist, but I have this question. Why does iron (Fe atom) lose three electrons when exposed to oxygen for the first time? Why doesn't it lose less than or more than three electrons?
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1answer
1k views

Why is oxidation number of Ba not +2 in this case? [closed]

According to redox rules, column 2 elements (alkali earth metals) have an oxidation number of +2, but in this reaction: $\ce{Ba + Cl2 -> BaCl2}$, the oxidation number of $\ce{Ba}$ changes from $0$ ...
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1answer
32 views

How does something like elemental oxygen oxidize anything if each atom's valence shell is full? [duplicate]

Been learning in biology about $\ce{O2}$'s role as an oxidizing agent, but I don't really understand how $\ce{O2}$ can take electrons from anything if it's not reactive....
6
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1answer
125 views

Is it possible for the iodine atom in periodate ester to be octavalent?

Recently, I was reading Clayden's Organic Chemistry (2nd ed.) and I chanced upon this diagram on p. 443 (as shown below) showing an octavalent iodine in the periodate ester. I found this rather ...
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2answers
2k views

Why oxides with the element in higher oxidation state are more acidic

We see this trend of acidic-basic property of oxides in most cases: $\ce{Mn2O7}$ is acidic, $\ce{MnO}$ is basic, the intermediate oxides are progressively less acidic and more basic, as the oxidation ...
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1answer
64 views

Prevent/Slow down oxidation of organic material

I'm having the hobby to draw paintings with the tea I drink trough the day. Usually I pour a tablespoon of the hot tea away, wait until it dries and gets more concentrated, so the colour is more ...
1
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1answer
254 views

Can Cl(g) cause quick rusting? [closed]

I'm actually digging in something that comes from Syria... How does Chlorine cause metal to get rusted? It's full of pictures of rockets (allegedly filled with chlorine gas) that are all rusted. In my ...
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1answer
432 views

Is the reaction of SiC and H2O a redox reaction?

In the reaction: $$\ce{SiC + 2H2O <=> SiO2 + CH4}$$ The oxidation state of Si is +4 in both SiC and SiO2, while the oxidation state of carbon is -4 in both SiC and CH4 (confirmed by this). Here ...
1
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1answer
681 views

Why do disproportionation reactions take place?

I want to know what are the conditions when disproportionation reaction is feasible. Is it just because of stability factors or it has other dimensions to it. As an example: $$\ce{3HNO2 -> HNO3 + ...
4
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1answer
523 views

Bond strength of pi acceptors and metals with filled d(pi) orbitals

I was reading in The Organometallic Chemistry of the Transition Metals (Robert Crabtree) that lewis acids like BF3 often accept electrons from d(pi) orbitals. Is this generally true for all pi ...
4
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2answers
672 views

In the blue bottle experiment, will it eventually be “used up” after repeated use?

The blue bottle experiment is a bottle half full of a colorless solution (dextrose, KOH, and methylene blue, in the version that I saw) and air that, when shaken, turns blue through the methylene blue ...
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1answer
93 views

Dumb Question about Oxidation

This is probably a really dumb question, but I can't find a clearly spelled out for me yes or no answer by searching through google, so hopefully I'll get a yes or no answer her. Can metals, for ...
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0answers
1k views

How do I balance the reaction equation of zinc and nitric acid?

How would you balance the following reaction using the oxidation number method? $$\ce{Zn + HNO3 -> Zn(NO3)2 + NH4NO3 + H2O}$$ My approach: Half reactions: \begin{align} \ce{Zn &-> Zn(NO3)2}...
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0answers
179 views

Ionizing radiation and oxidation without oxidizing agents

My knowledge on this subject is a bit rusty, so excuse me if I'm asking the wrong question here. I was taking a look at my high school chemistry books from many years ago, and I noticed that reduction ...
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1answer
1k views

Can nitrate and sulfate ions be oxidised during electrolysis of their molten compounds?

$$\begin{align} \ce{O2 + 4H+ + 4e- \;&<=> 2H2O}\quad\quad &&E^\circ = +1.229\ \mathrm{V}\\ \ce{S2O8^2- + 2e- \;&<=> 2SO4^2-}\quad\quad &&E^\circ = +2.01\ \mathrm{V} ...
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1answer
479 views

Decomposition of AsH3

In German problems olympiad 2014, the solution says that decomposition of arsine is not a redox reaction. Why would that be? Shouldn't H turn from -1 to 0 and As from 3+ to 0? $$\ce{2AsH3 -> 2As + ...
11
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1answer
101 views

Would cerium(III) in solution be oxidized to cerium(IV) in ESI mass spectroscopy?

During ESI (assuming positive ion mode for now), we apply a strong voltage ($1.0{-}\pu{5.0 kV}$) to induce ionization. Therefore, it is common to see oxidation of metal ions (e.g. $\ce{Cu^{+I} -> ...
2
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1answer
1k views

Identifying a Positive or Neutral Ligand Inside Coordination Sphere?

There are some coordination compounds like $\ce{Na2[Fe(CN)5NO]}$, where ligands like $\ce{NO}$ are used which exist as both $\ce{NO+}$ (nitrosonium ion) and $\ce{NO^.}$ (neutral nitrosyl). How to ...
3
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2answers
19k views

Why oxidation number of oxygen in OF2(oxygen difluoride) is +2? [duplicate]

I mean oxygen is electronegative element it should have negative oxidation number Also how it is able to make bond with fluorine which itself is electronegative? Why the oxidation number of oxygen ...
6
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1answer
961 views

Why don't ligands affect the oxidation state of the central metal ion?

If $\ce{Fe^3+}$ were complexed with 6 $\ce{H2O}$ ligands, the resulting complex ion would be $\ce{[Fe(H2O)6]^3+}$, and the central metal ion would still have the same oxidation state of +3 as it did ...
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1answer
706 views

Oxidation States of Actinides [closed]

It is observed that actinides do not exhibit +2 oxidation state, contrary to that of some of the lanthanide elements. Why?
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2answers
1k views

Can a solution of FeCl2 go bad over time?

My lab has been using solution of FeCl2 for an assay that was mixed about three years ago. Recently the assay has failed twice. I was wondering if it is possible that the iron ions in the solutions ...
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0answers
3k views

Why is lead (IV) chloride covalent while lead (II) chloride ionic?

I would like to find out more about what makes a compound ionic and what makes one covalent. However, I felt this was too general a question so I thought that asking about the chlorides of lead would ...
0
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0answers
310 views

Confusion about Sodium Nitroprusside [duplicate]

In Sodium Nitroprusside and related compounds (eg. brown ring complex) why is the oxidation state of NO +1 and not zero? It seems pretty unusual without any explanation. Could anyone please explain ...
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0answers
658 views

What defines the oxidizing/reducing power of a coordination compound?

For example, I came across a problem in which I was asked to determine whether the complex $\ce{[Cr(H2O)6]Cl2}$ is an oxidizing or reducing agent. How should I proceed? My teacher told me its the ...
15
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1answer
2k views

What is the nature of the Fe–O2 binding in oxymyoglobin and oxyhemoglobin?

Deoxymyoglobin ($\ce{Mb}$) is known to have iron in the +2 oxidation state; I believe this was deduced from its magnetic moment, which corresponds to four unpaired electrons in high-spin $\mathrm{d^6}$...
0
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1answer
132 views

Why is oxygen oxidized with lead instead of being reduced?

Oxygen is more electro negative yet in the redox reaction $$\ce{2PbO(s) -> 2Pb(s) + O2(g)}$$ my text book says lead is reduced and oxygen is oxidized. How can this be? It doesn't make sense to ...
5
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2answers
4k views

Does cold bluing steel prevent rust?

I've recently purchased a Damascus knife and am patiently awaiting it's arrival in the mail. I have been researching the potential care and maintenance habits for this craftsman blade, hoping to keep ...
3
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1answer
77 views

Measuring Cu2O Thickness in Oxidized Copper Sheet

I have Cu2O fabricated using thermal oxidation of Cu sheets in air at high temperatures. The thickness of Cu2O is expected to be at least 100 microns. There is still plenty of unoxidized Cu metal ...
2
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0answers
50 views

What would an ecosystem based on reducing atmospheres be like?

I was wondering, what would it be like if instead of an oxidizing atmosphere like earth has, if an ecosystem had a reducing atmosphere instead? My professor told us that a system like that could be ...
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0answers
47 views

Can Water Oxidize Cu(I) to Cu(II)

Is DI water (also without $\ce{O2}$ gas dissolved in it after degasification) a sufficiently strong oxidizer to oxidize $\ce{Cu(I)}$ in $\ce{Cu2O}$ to $\ce{Cu(II)}$ forming $\ce{CuO}$? Will this ...
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1answer
1k views

Oxidation State of Amino Group

What is the oxidation state of nitrogen the following amino acid: I figured it must be -III: Hydrogen is always +I Both electrons of the N-C bond are near the nitrogen (higher electronegativity). ...
4
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1answer
880 views

Oxidation of tertiary alcohols

Why is it that tertiary alcohols cannot be oxidized? I was told that it's because there is no hydrogen to remove, but I don't understand why another OH could not be formed where there is a C-H bond.
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1answer
60 views

Are there alternative ways to find n or number of e- in problems like the one pictured? [closed]

I need help understanding how we are to come up with 12 e- because according to the directions, we are supposed to focus on any element, but it doesn't tell us what to look for. I see how carbon has a ...
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2answers
2k views

Cyclohexene reduction reaction with hydrogen gas and ethanol [closed]

I have a following reaction (see below). I found the section of reduction and oxidation states in my book but there is nothing about cyclohexenes. I know that the double bond will be reduced in this ...
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0answers
438 views

Oxidizing and Reducing agent in redox reaction

In the oxidation-reduction reaction $\ce{Sn^{4+} + 2 Fe^{2+} -> 2 Fe^{3+} + Sn^{2+}}$ (A) $\ce{Sn^{4+}}$ is the oxidizing agent and $\ce{Fe^{2+}}$ is the reducing agent. (B) $\ce{...
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1answer
562 views

What is the oxidation state of the element Oxygen in the molecule FONS, assuming that it does indeed exist [closed]

What is the process to determining charges regardless of the molecule? Is there some sort of rule book?
0
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1answer
257 views

What is the criteria for determining structure of a molecule?

Does the shape of the molecule depends on symmetry? Why is the shape of dinitrogen trioxide ($\ce{N2O3}$): (oxidation number of nitrogen atoms: +4, +2) Instead of my proposal, which is much more ...
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1answer
431 views

Electrochemical series - when not at standard conditions

Is there a reason why this question's answer is treating it as if it is at standard conditions? Isn't it using 0.2M aqueous solutions, so the electrochemical series won't be valid for this question? ...
5
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1answer
190 views

Galvanic cells/redox - confused regarding diagram

I'm not sure if I got this wrong because I interpreted the cell incorrectly. When they have an arrow pointing in to the tube for $\ce{O2}$, does this imply that $\ce{O2}$ is a reactant? If so then B ...
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0answers
59 views

why oxidation states of suphur atoms of Disuphur-monoxide is +2 and 0? [duplicate]

I) According to my logic, sulfur-sulfur linkage (linkage between same atoms) result in no charge separation.So, the oxidation number of the sulfur atom linked to only sulfur should be 0(zero) and ...
5
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2answers
216 views

How to compare the bond lengths of an peroxide complex before and after oxidation?

The complex $\ce{K6[(CN)5Co-O-O-Co(CN)5]}$ is oxidised by bromine into $\ce{K5[(CN)5Co-O-O-Co(CN)5]}$. In this we have to comment on the change on length of $\ce{O–O}$. But for that we have to ...
5
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1answer
75 views

Should an entire compound or just the redox-active element be written in redox pairs?

For oxidant/reductants and conjugate pairs, for example $\ce{MnO2 -> Mn^2+}$, do we write $\ce{Mn^4+}$ or $\ce{MnO2}$ as the oxidant? Websites conflicts what my text book says, because it appears ...