Questions tagged [oxidation-state]

Oxidation state is a concept, which assigns hypothetical charges to atoms in compounds. This tag should be applied to questions which relate to that concept or to oxidation states in atoms of compounds.

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Colour change on exposure to singlet oxygen?

Is there a dye that is particularly well suited to radical colour change on interaction with singlet oxygen, preferably non-toxic? Based on this answer: https://chemistry.stackexchange.com/a/27633/...
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How do partially protonated sulfate ligands affect a metal's charge?

I'm currently reviewing the Periana-Catalytica system and I have a question about one of the intermediates, namely $\ce{[(bpym)Pt(OSO3H)2]^+}$, which is found in the following tutorial review. How do ...
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449 views

How does heat and/or boiling remove vitamin C?

The www is full of crackpot claims about how various food treatments alter their nutrition content and it makes finding actual science very difficult. I am specifically interested in the vitamin C ...
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270 views

Oxidation state of chlorine in ClO

Today, I had a friendly debate with my friend on what should be the oxidation state of $\ce {Cl}$ in the chlorine monoxide radical. I took the view that it should be $\ce {+2}$ while he took the view ...
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115 views

Structure and oxidation state of bridging complexes

I am confused about the structure of bridging complexes with the bridging ligands as $\ce{OH-}$ or $\ce{NH2-}.$ Aren't they both monodentate ligands? And if they form a simple coordinate bond, then ...
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45 views

Reactivity of Ni Vs. Pd - available oxidation states

I'm hoping someone can help me tighten up my understanding of the origins of the differences between Ni and Pd catalysis. I understand that Ni has higher charge density and this is the reason for it'...
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1answer
789 views

Why do disproportionation reactions take place?

I want to know what are the conditions when disproportionation reaction is feasible. Is it just because of stability factors or it has other dimensions to it. As an example: $$\ce{3HNO2 -> HNO3 + ...
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50 views

What would an ecosystem based on reducing atmospheres be like?

I was wondering, what would it be like if instead of an oxidizing atmosphere like earth has, if an ecosystem had a reducing atmosphere instead? My professor told us that a system like that could be ...
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136 views

Identifying an unknown white oxidizing powder

I am working with a unknown white oxidizing powder that melts at around 500 degrees Fahrenheit. It turns my finger green when it comes into contact with my finger for a short while. It leaves a very ...
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understanding redox reaction

I am a total noob in chemistry, so sorry in advance if this is a very stupid question... I am trying to solve this redox reaction: $$\ce{KClO3 + FeSO4 + H2SO4 -> Fe2(SO4)3 + KCl}$$ $$\ce{K^{+1}Cl^{...
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How to calculate n factor for salts in this reaction?

My source says : For salts which react such that no atom undergoes change in oxidation state , n-factor for such salt is the total moles of cationic /anionic species replaced in 1 mole of the salt . ...
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89 views

Why can Bi not achieve its 4+ oxidation state?

Bi can reach its 3+ and 5+ oxidation state. Why not 4+? Can you use the inert pair effect here to explain this?
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956 views

Why and how do we get NH4NO3 when reacting very dilute HNO3 with Zn?

From Russian Wikipedia's article on nitric acid: It's clear that as we decrease the concentration of nitric acid, we get more and more reduced nitrogen: in $\ce{NO2}$, the oxidation state of N is ($\...
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2k views

Why does ozone reduce to oxygen?

The O's in ozone and in dioxygen all have oxidation states of 0. If this is the case, why is ozone considered to be reduced to form dioxygen (since there's no change in oxidation state)? Would the ...
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72 views

Possible ionization and fragmentation of chemicals

Is there any generic method where I can know/calculate/generate the possible ionization and fragmentation of a specific chemical, for example, hydrogen chloride and water? This question is actually ...
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Black substances covering Aluminum Electrode

I have use two aluminum pieces as electrodes to electrolys salt (NaCl) water. After the experiment, I found that wherever electricity flows, the electrode will be covered in some blackish substances. ...
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21 views

Is fluorinated steel corrosion resistant from normal oxidation?

I've recently learned of a compound named Chlorine trifluoride a powerful fluorinating agent. The common way to store it seems to be in regular steel drums where it flash oxidizes the inside of the ...
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565 views

Finding the n-factor of C₂O₄²⁻

In the reaction $\ce{C2O4^2- → CO2}$ the $n$-factor of $\ce{C2O4^2-}$ is: So I think the answer to this question is $2$ because in $\ce{C2O4^2-}$ the oxidation number of carbon is $+3$ and in $\ce{...
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What are the oxidation states of galium and arsenic in GaAs semiconductor?

According to the book I'm referring to ("S.M. Sze Semiconductor Devices"), gallium has an oxidation state of +1 and arsenic has that of -1. This should not be possible as each of these elements forms ...
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43 views

Why is this redox reaction possible?

I have the redox reaction $\ce{N_2H_4 {(g)} + N_2O_4 {(g)} -> N_2 {(g)} + H_2O {(g)}}$. In $\ce{N_2O_4 {(g)}}$, the oxidation state of nitrogen is $+4$. In $\ce{N_2 {(g)}}$, the oxidation state of ...
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1k views

How do I balance the reaction equation of zinc and nitric acid?

How would you balance the following reaction using the oxidation number method? $$\ce{Zn + HNO3 -> Zn(NO3)2 + NH4NO3 + H2O}$$ My approach: Half reactions: \begin{align} \ce{Zn &-> Zn(NO3)2}...
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198 views

Ionizing radiation and oxidation without oxidizing agents

My knowledge on this subject is a bit rusty, so excuse me if I'm asking the wrong question here. I was taking a look at my high school chemistry books from many years ago, and I noticed that reduction ...
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812 views

What defines the oxidizing/reducing power of a coordination compound?

For example, I came across a problem in which I was asked to determine whether the complex $\ce{[Cr(H2O)6]Cl2}$ is an oxidizing or reducing agent. How should I proceed? My teacher told me its the ...
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63 views

Why are oxidation states such a fundamental quantity for elements?

Why is it that there are fixed oxidation states for most elements out there, with no to very rare exceptions? I was taught that oxidation state is a totally artificial concept we have invented for ...
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133 views

Periodic trends on half cell potentials

In a practice examination that I'm using to study for my upcoming midterm, one of the questions asks to choose three elements from a row of the periodic table and to give the order of the increasing ...
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3k views

Why in molybdenum disulfide the oxidation state of Mo is IV?

On one hand, stoichiometrically, it makes sense that in $\ce{MoS2}$ the $\ce{Mo}$ would have +4 and each sulfur would have -2. (source) However, in reality, every $\ce{Mo}$ atom is bonded to 6 ...
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Saline removing rust from counter?

Background (pointform for readability): I prepack oral medication for a hospital. Our work area consists of a long stainless steel countertop. We use plastic bins to transport the medication around ...
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419 views

Why do osmium and iridium have the most oxidation states of all the elements?

Both osmium and iridium have 12 oxidation states. Indeed, iridium has the highest oxidation state of all elements at +9. see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_oxidation_states_of_the_elements I'...
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257 views

Galvanic cell of copper and zinc

When we dip zinc metal in zinc sulfate solution, does zinc sulfate ionize into Zn and sulfate ions? Zinc ions come into the solution as Zn$^{+2}$ so why is the metal not completely dissociated? Why ...
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118 views

What factors influence the resultant oxidation state of Fe in 3Ca(OH)2+2FeCL3?

$\ce{3Ca(OH)2 + 2FeCl3 -> 2Fe(OH)3 + 3CaCl2}$ What factors influence the resulting oxidation state in the iron hydroxide molecule in this reaction? Since iron's oxidation state ranges from +2 to +...
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986 views

Difference in the change in oxidation states of transition elements and p-block elements

In transition elements the oxidation states differ by one (+2 to +7 in Mn). However, in the p-block elements, the oxidation states differ by two (-1,+1,+3,+5 in the halogen group). Why is this so?
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1k views

How do we know if a compound can be oxidized?

I'm studying organic chemistry, and I have to identify compounds that can be oxidized in some exercises I am doing. For instance, an $\ce{R-CHO}$ can be oxidized further, but an $\ce{R_{3}-COH}$ ...
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21 views

Fenton's reagent application to leachate

What is the experimental procedure for applying fenton's reagent to leachate? What doses of hydrogen peroxide and ferrous sulphate required? How much contact time needs to be provided?
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Determining the direction of chemical reactions based on the activity series

Based on the activity series (table of standard reduction potentials), indicate whether or not the following reactions would occur in the direction written. Don't worry about what the activity series ...
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483 views

Fuel Cell Chart - Anode, Cathode, Electrolyte

Can someone please check my table to make sure I have the correct information. I am especially unsure of the parts highlighted in yellow:
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37 views

CuS+HCl is it a reduction or oxidation reaction

How do we identify whether a reaction is oxidation or reduction and please let me know whether the equation given above is oxidation or reduction.
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Oxidation states the elements in nitrosyl chloride

I have read that $\ce{NOCl}$ dissociates to $\ce{NO+}$ and $\ce{Cl-},$ and the various reasons stated as such seem fine. But what I don't get is this: if we follow the actual rules of assigning ...
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77 views

Oxidation number of Oxygen in peroxides: -2 or -1?

My textbook says that the oxidation number of Oxygen in peroxides is -2, but when I searched up the internet, I found it to be -1. It could probably be a misprint in my book, but I am still not sure. ...
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157 views

Oxidation number of Si in SiH4

Wikipedia has the following reaction: $\ce{Mg2Si + 4 HCl → 2 MgCl2 + SiH4}$ This seems to be a double displacement (metathesis) reaction, where $\ce{Si}$ has oxidation state $-4$. However, I ...
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Clearing my doubt over Electronegativity and oxidation state

I was doing a question in which we were required to find the oxidation state of $\ce{H3PO3}$. I knew the structure that is: Now, Phosphorus being less electronegative than oxygen get $+2,+1,+1$ ...
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71 views

Is it possible to synthesize permanganate electrochemically?

I have been researching the production of peroxy acids and other strong oxidizers. I was wondering if it's possible to produce permanganic acid if I were to cast an anode containing Manganese Dioxide ...
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64 views

Why is there visible liquid (possibly water) on matches when they're burning?

I was just burning a normal standard match and I observed visible liquid running down the wooden shaft as the fire burns and consumes it, what could explain such phenomenon ? could it be that the wood ...
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Nitrate reaction with iron minerals

I am trying to find literature or an answer to what happens to nitrate as it comes in contact with iron oxides. Does the nitrate get reduced to ammonium in all cases of iron(II/III) oxides? What is ...
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Can an element have variable oxidation states in a compound?

Take propanoic acid for example. If I assign oxidation states to the 3 carbons in it using the idea that the more electronegative element gets all the electrons in the bonds it makes, the 3 carbons ...
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59 views

Comparing the number of oxidation states of Vanadium and Arsenic

USNCO 2004 Question 45 states: Which element exhibits the greatest number of oxidation states in its compounds? (A) Ca (B) V (C) Cu (D) As I ruled out Ca, as I know it only exists as +2. I ...
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Why is lead (IV) chloride covalent while lead (II) chloride ionic?

I would like to find out more about what makes a compound ionic and what makes one covalent. However, I felt this was too general a question so I thought that asking about the chlorides of lead would ...
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50 views

Can Water Oxidize Cu(I) to Cu(II)

Is DI water (also without $\ce{O2}$ gas dissolved in it after degasification) a sufficiently strong oxidizer to oxidize $\ce{Cu(I)}$ in $\ce{Cu2O}$ to $\ce{Cu(II)}$ forming $\ce{CuO}$? Will this ...
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462 views

Oxidizing and Reducing agent in redox reaction

In the oxidation-reduction reaction $\ce{Sn^{4+} + 2 Fe^{2+} -> 2 Fe^{3+} + Sn^{2+}}$ (A) $\ce{Sn^{4+}}$ is the oxidizing agent and $\ce{Fe^{2+}}$ is the reducing agent. (B) $\ce{...
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What is the term for a compound where one element exists in two oxidation states in the same molecule?

Example nitrogen in $\ce{N2O}$ (−3 and +5). I'm pretty sure there's a term but I've forgotten what it is I thought it was disproportionation but this seems to only refer to a reaction
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Identifying if reaction is reduction or oxidation. Is there an error in this question?

I am looking at this reaction: I am trying to determine if it is reduction or oxidation. In the initial molecule I calculate the overall oxidation numbers as: ...