Questions tagged [oxidation-state]

Oxidation state is a concept, which assigns hypothetical charges to atoms in compounds. This tag should be applied to questions which relate to that concept or to oxidation states in atoms of compounds.

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29 votes
9 answers
9k views

What are oxidation states used for?

When I took high school chemistry many years ago, considerable effort was spent on teaching us to compute oxidation states of atoms in various compounds, following a set of rules that looked somewhat ...
10 votes
3 answers
6k views

Why do single elements in a molecule have an oxidation state of zero?

For example, take $\ce{O2}$. The oxidation state of oxygen is -2, yet once its in a molecule its oxidation state becomes zero? How is this so?
0 votes
1 answer
91 views

Balancing a chemical reaction with oxidation numbers

We have been teached how to balance chemical reactions with oxidation numbers in school, but somehow I can't understand it. This is the equation to balance $$\ce{Cu(s) + NO3−(aq) + H+(aq) -> Cu^2+(...
1 vote
1 answer
141 views

What are oxidation numbers of each element in CuH?

My chemistry teacher said hydrogen when bonded with metals has oxidation number (O.N.) of −1 except CuH: in CuH the hydrogen has O.N. +1 and the copper has O.N. −1. But on the internet it is ...
5 votes
1 answer
178 views

Is Chromium(VI) fluoride able to be synthesized properly?

Chromium(VI) fluoride, also known as chromium hexafluoride is a possible chemical compound with a chromium atom attached to 6 fluorine atoms. It has been unsuccessfully synthesized a number of times ...
0 votes
1 answer
123 views

What is the oxidation state of oxygen in hydrogen peroxide?

In Hydrogen peroxide, the oxidation number of oxygen is "-1" instead of "-2". But it seems to me that, the oxygen atoms have '-2' as their oxidation number as each oxygen atom ...
1 vote
3 answers
205 views

How is 1 mole hypochlorite ion equivalent to 1 mole chlorine gas?

According to my book, 1 mole ClO- is equivalent to 1 mole Cl2. How is that even possible? 1 mole ClO- contains 1 mole Cl atoms. On the contrary, 1 mole Cl2 gas contains 2 mole Cl atoms. So, how are ...
11 votes
0 answers
12k views

Why is the +3 oxidation state of Cerium more stable than +4?

For the 4f inner transition metals, +3 is the most common oxidation state (OS). Why is the +3 OS of cerium considered more stable than +4, at which it attains noble gas configuration?
6 votes
2 answers
8k views

What is the n factor of H2O2 undergoing disproportionation reaction liberating oxygen [closed]

There is a lot of confusion about the n-factor of hydrogen peroxide in its disproportionation into water and oxygen. $$\ce{2H2O2 -> 2H2O + O2}$$ Some sources(1,2) say n-factor of $\ce{H2O2}$ is 2 ...
3 votes
3 answers
267 views

Why chlorate(V) is one of the primary products of disproportionation reaction between chlorine gas and hot concentrated NaOH?

Cold diluted $\ce{NaOH}$ reacts with $\ce{Cl2}$ producing hypochlorite: $$\ce{2 NaOH(aq, dil, cold) + Cl2(g) -> NaClO(aq) + NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)},\tag{R1}$$ whereas hot concentrated $\ce{NaOH}$ yields ...
3 votes
1 answer
697 views

How can I prove ascorbic acid degradation with Uv-vis spectroscopy?

I have to prove scientifically why a sodium ascorbate solution in water turns yellowish - reddish over time. I know ascorbic acid is supposed to oxidize into dehydroascorbic acid, and the latter then ...
2 votes
1 answer
3k views

Finding the n-factor of C₂O₄²⁻

In the reaction $\ce{C2O4^2- → CO2}$ the $n$-factor of $\ce{C2O4^2-}$ is: So I think the answer to this question is $2$ because in $\ce{C2O4^2-}$ the oxidation number of carbon is $+3$ and in $\ce{...
4 votes
0 answers
46 views

Is haloform reaction considered to be disproportionation? [duplicate]

A question in an exam listed a number of compounds and the task was to find the number of compounds which will undergo disproportionation in conc. $\ce{NaOH}$. One of the compounds was $\ce{CCl3CHO}$, ...
17 votes
2 answers
10k views

Electronegativity Considerations in Assigning Oxidation States

I have never seen anything other than a set of rules like these when textbooks present how to assign oxidation numbers. Such as these: However, if we keep in mind that oxidation numbers are simply ...
-4 votes
1 answer
109 views

Why sodium metabisulphite is not an oxidising agent? [closed]

We know that the maximum possible oxidation state of sulphur is $+6$. Whereas the oxidation states of sulphur in sodium metabisulphite are $+3$ and $+5$. Can't these oxidation states reduces to a ...
-5 votes
1 answer
69 views

Can halogens show -3 or -5 or -7 oxidation state. Why? [closed]

I mean can we think it like if the electrons get excited into the d orbitals and because there are now more than one unpaired electron, why does it only loose them and why don't they accept more than ...
1 vote
1 answer
106 views

Does hypochlorous acid oxidize hydrogen peroxide?

The following reaction is from https://ncert.nic.in/textbook/pdf/kech202.pdf, p. 11: $$\ce{H2O2 + HOCl -> H3O+ + Cl- + O2}$$ I have to find if $\ce{H2O2}$ is acting like a reducing agent or an ...
2 votes
0 answers
47 views

Computing the overall charge of a compound with non-integer coefficients

I have a question about computing the overall charge of inorganic chemicals, where the composition is expressed using non-integer stoichiometric coefficients. Let's say we have $\ce{Hg_{0.7}Cd_{0.3}Te}...
39 votes
4 answers
120k views

Why does carbon monoxide have a greater affinity for hemoglobin than oxygen?

Hemoglobin is an iron-containing oxygen transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of most mammals. Simply put, it's a carrier protein. Interestingly it doesn't carry carbon dioxide in the same ...
2 votes
0 answers
138 views

Why doesn't XeF6 displace oxygen from water?

Consider the following reactions (unbalanced): $$ \begin{align} \ce{XeF2 + H2O &→ Xe + HF + O2} \tag{a} \\ \ce{XeF4 + H2O &→ XeO3 + Xe + O2 + HF} \tag{b} \\ \ce{XeF6 + H2O &→ XeO3 + HF} \...
2 votes
0 answers
21 views

In Lanthanides, Why is electron removed from 4f before 5p? [duplicate]

I've been taught that electrons are removed first from valence shell electrons with highest energy. But In Lanthanides, for example taking configuration- [Xe]4f⁴6s², If we go to +3 Oxidation State, ...
1 vote
2 answers
72 views

In the complete combustion of methane, is it methane or carbon that is oxidised?

I realise this is a rather pedantic question, but I'm wondering which application of terminology is more correct here. I know that, in the complete combustion of methane, methane is the reducing agent....
4 votes
2 answers
131 views

Does lead carry the negative charge in plumbane?

It says in Wikipedia that lead tetrahydride or hydrogen plumbide or plumbane ($\ce{PbH4}$) is supposed to have lead in its -4 state and the hydrogen is in its +1 state because supposedly lead has a ...
1 vote
1 answer
2k views

Oxidation number of Si in SiH4

Wikipedia has the following reaction: $\ce{Mg2Si + 4 HCl → 2 MgCl2 + SiH4}$ This seems to be a double displacement (metathesis) reaction, where $\ce{Si}$ has oxidation state $-4$. However, I ...
2 votes
3 answers
165 views

Do molecules containing enough oxygen to burn themselves exist?

Is there a molecule with enough oxygen in it (for example, something like $\ce{HCOOOH}$) such that it can undergo complete combustion without requiring any additional oxygen? For example the above ...
-3 votes
2 answers
81 views

Will strong base corrode aluminium in absence of oxygen? [closed]

From what i understand, putting iron in a vacuum chamber (airtight container) will stops further oxidation take place. However in aluminium, with only oxygen, aluminium will form thin oxide film that ...
-1 votes
2 answers
227 views

Why are group 13 compounds in the +1 oxidation state more ionic than those in the +3 oxidation state?

I know that for group 13 metals in the p block, the stability of +1 OS is generally more than the stability of +3 OS as it is energetically not favourable to attain the higher OS of +3 and such ions ...
2 votes
2 answers
102 views

Oxidation of sulfuric acid to Marshall's acid and its half cell reaction

$\ce{H2O2}$ can be prepared by successive reactions: $\ce{2NH4HSO4 -> H2 + (NH4)2S2O8}$ $\ce{(NH4)2S2O8 + 2H2O -> 2NH4HSO4 + H2O2}$ The first reaction is an electrolytic reaction and second is ...
1 vote
2 answers
251 views

Does boron exhibit +1 oxidation state?

My teacher told that boron exhibits only a $+3$ oxidation state, but he also wrote the unbalanced reaction $$\ce{B + C -> B4C}.$$ Carbon has greater electronegativity than boron leaving us with $\...
4 votes
2 answers
542 views

Unusual oxidation numbers for alkaline earth metals?

Are there compound of alkaline earth elements showing unusual oxidation numbers? For the sake of the question, every oxidation number different from +2 counts as unusual, most exciting would be ...
-1 votes
1 answer
78 views

How can one change the color of Iron Oxide by changing the composition or hydration?

How does the color of rust change depending on its makeup and state, or more to the point, how would one put the rust into that state? For example, Wikipedia shows Iron(III) Oxide as being red in the ...
13 votes
4 answers
2k views

Can osmium react with oxygen at room temperature?

I’m an avid collector of elements (I love shiny rocks - don’t judge). I’m looking to buy some osmium, as it’s one of the heaviest and hardest metals out there. However, people online told me to avoid ...
2 votes
1 answer
407 views

What are the safest non-toxic elements I can own? [closed]

As in a recent question, I mentioned I collect elements. My collection already has quite a few elements and a rare alloy (I have silicon, molybdenum, tungsten, gold, platinum, silver, copper, ...
1 vote
2 answers
126 views

The oxidation number of N and Cl in NOClO4 ​

My doubt is not about the solution itself, actually I was able to find the solution myself. We could split NOClO4 as (NO+) + (ClO4-) and then proceed, but here I "knew" this split. Is there ...
5 votes
1 answer
307 views

Oxidation number of methylene blue

I came across methylene blue's structure when it reacts with oxygen. The left is the reduced state, and the right is the oxidized state. However, when I looked at them carefully, the oxidation number ...
4 votes
1 answer
176 views

In a battery, what happens to LiCoO2 when the lithium leaves? It becomes CoO2?

What chemical compound exists at the cathode of a lithium-ion battery when the lithium is not there? The cathode is usually described as $\ce{LiCoO2}$, so does it become $\ce{CoO2}$? $\ce{CoO2}$ ...
-2 votes
2 answers
107 views

Is Co(2+) easily oxidised to Co(3+)? [closed]

I think this question lacks some required informations but that's exactly what was given on my question paper. I thought of explaining this in descriptions of crystal field theory but I couldn't solve ...
-5 votes
1 answer
86 views

What exactly is oxidation number with regards to [Fe(CN)6]-4 [closed]

I read that $\ce{Fe}$ has an oxidation state of $+2$ in $\ce{[Fe(CN)6]^{4-}}$. Does that mean $\ce{Fe}$ gives away $2$ electrons? Doesn't $\ce{(CN)6}$ form coordination bonds with $\ce{Fe}$ meaning $\...
-1 votes
1 answer
144 views

What are compounds where oxygen has oxidation state -1/3 called?

I have heard of oxides, peroxides and superoxides where oxygen oxidation number is $-2, -1, -\frac{1}{2}$ respectively. But I came across a molecule with the formula $\ce{KO_3}$, oxygen has $-\frac{1}{...
-1 votes
1 answer
163 views

How do I balance a hydrogen peroxide redox equation? [closed]

I have this equation: $$\ce{H2O2 + MnO4- + H+ -> O2 + Mn^2+ + H2O}.$$ How do I balance it, since O has two different oxidation states on one side?
1 vote
1 answer
391 views

Why does mercury(II) nitrate form only when using concentrated nitric acid?

In the reaction between mercury and nitric acid, mercury(II) nitrate only forms when concentrated nitric acid is heated up and added to it, if the acid is dilute, mercury(I) nitrate forms. I ...
7 votes
3 answers
9k views

Why doesn't iron(III) iodide exist?

$$\ce{Fe2O3 + 6HI -> 2FeI2 + I2 + 3H2O}$$ Why don't we get $\ce{FeI3}$? After all, iron's oxidation state is $+3$ in the reagent. Should one just memorize that up to bromine, it's $\ce{FeX3}$, ...
0 votes
2 answers
96 views

Apparent inversion of oxidation state of sulfate ion using minimal basis set

It is well known that the sulfate ion has essentially no 3d-2p bonding; hence I used the minimal basis set(STO-3G) for the NBO calculation I did via Gaussian, just to check it. However, I got a ...
1 vote
1 answer
174 views

Balancing disproportionation reaction of hypoiodous acid

In aqueous solution, the acid $\ce{HIO}$ disproportionates according to the following equation where m, n, p and q are simple whole numbers in their lowest ratios. $$\ce{mHIO → nI2 + pHIO3 + qH2O}$$ ...
9 votes
1 answer
885 views

Can fluorine ever have a positive oxidation state?

I know fluorine is the most electronegative element but can we humans ever synthesize fluorine in a positive oxidation state like +1?
-1 votes
1 answer
58 views

How To Know Which Oxidation Number To Use For Nitrogen [duplicate]

When given a compound like (NH4)2MoO4 and asked to find the oxidation number of Mo, how do I know which oxidation number to sub in for Nitrogen? On the periodic table, Nitrogen has oxidation numbers ...
0 votes
0 answers
77 views

Why does CO2 have a greater affinity for hemoglobin than oxygen?

I know about CO but I am wondering if CO2 has similar mechanism? do you guys have any scientific reference These species help form interactions between amino-acid residues at the interfaces of the ...
-1 votes
2 answers
71 views

what happens if iron clamp is attached to a copper pipe to a wall? [closed]

I'm guessing its not a good idea, since iron will then corrode easily (also depending on the location and environment), Although copper do not rust it will increase the rate of it from oxidizing. plus ...
6 votes
2 answers
25k views

Reaction of white phosphorus with aqueous sodium hydroxide

What are the products obtained in the reaction of white phosphorus with aqueous sodium hydroxide? I know one will be phosphine ($\ce{PH3}$). How can we find the oxidation state of phosphorus in the ...
5 votes
1 answer
128 views

What is/was "uraneous oxide"? Was it an accepted name for a compound or mixed oxides of uranium?

In This National Technical Reports Library page for a 1965 report Method for Coating Actinide Particles in the list of keywords both Uranium compounds and Uraneous oxide are listed. But I don't find ...

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