Questions tagged [organic-chemistry]

Use this tag for questions relating to organic molecules and their properties (structure of organic molecules, spectroscopic properties, reaction mechanisms, stereochemistry etc). DO NOT use this tag as the only tag in your question, as this tag by itself cannot appropriately classify your question. Always use this tag in addition to other more specific tags.

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11 views

In which order should you prepare a microemulsion?

So I have isoooctane (oil phase) ,CTAB (surfactant) ,1-butanol (cosurfactant) , and an aqueous solution of metal nitrates as the water phase. In which order should i add these components? Or any ...
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41 views

How much ethylacetate is produced?

1 mol of acetic acid and 1 mol of ethanol was mixed to react at a constant pressure to reach the equilibrium, and 0.75 mol of water was found in the product. A. Calculate the equilibrium ...
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32 views

How can I seperate chloropyll from acetone

I have extracted atropine, scopolamine and hyoscyamine from a plant called Angel trumpet by drying its leaves and submerging them in acetone. But acetone also dissolves chlorophyll. How may I ...
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Why is there only little difference between molecular dipole moments in CHX3 compounds (X = Cl, Br, I)?

Why is there only little difference between molecular dipole moments in $\ce{CHX3}$ compounds ($\ce{X}$ = $\ce{Cl}$, $\ce{Br}$, $\ce{I}$)? As we can see there is a huge difference in dipole moment of ...
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21 views

Why adenine is an aromatic molecule? [duplicate]

Why is this molecule aromatic? If we include the two π-electrons of the nitrogen on the top $(\ce{NH2})$ the number of π-electrons would be 12, thus it can’t be aromatic.
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91 views

Chemical Reaction Alternative to O2 Respiration in H2/N2 Atmosphere [on hold]

Note: If this question does not belong on this Stack Exchange, please direct me to a more appropriate Stack Exchange. This is a "creative chemistry" question as much or more-so than a "give me the ...
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1answer
57 views

What happens when Hinsberg derivative is added to acidic solution?

The Hinsberg test of $\ce{C5H14N2}$ compound produces a solid that is insoluble in 10% aq. $\ce{NaOH}.$ This solid derivative dissolves in 10% aq. $\ce{H2SO4}.$ Which of the following would best fit ...
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955 views

How do you name this compound using IUPAC system (including steps)?

And including stereochemistry (cis trans or R S ) I know you start numbering from the double bond because there are no functional groups like -OH, you take the longest carbon chain which is six ...
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1answer
84 views

How to calculate molecular emission spectra?

Is there free software which can calculate the fluorescence emission spectra of organic molecules? Let's say for example: rubrene There is a bunch of quantum free quantum chemistry software: https://...
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2answers
111 views

Does energy come from fuel or oxygen? (surprise?)

Question: Is it oxygen or fuel that releases energy during burning? The answer from this article: Why Combustions Are Always Exothermic, Yielding About 418 kJ per Mole of O2 (Journal of Chemical ...
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1answer
45 views

Usage of TFA in Pfitzner-Moffat oxidation and Collins vs Jones oxidation

Is the addition of TFA in Pfitzner-Moffat oxidation to protonate the DCC to form a positive carbocation for the alcohol to attack? Or is there more to it? Why is TFA used and not other acids? Are ...
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32 views

Last steps of mechanism of Swern Oxidation

My question is regarding Swern oxidation. Why is the methyl group of the DMSO deprotonated and not directly the red hydrogen atom of the R2-CH-O bond deprotonated? Shouldn't it be that oxygen more ...
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34 views

Synthesis of thiolated azo-derivatives

I am looking for a method to synthesis thiolated azo derivatives. I would like to start from methyl red and change carboxylic group to thiolated azo derivatives. How could I do that?
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1answer
33 views

Radical monobromination of cycloalkane

I'm trying to figure out the isomeric products of the radical monobromination of bicyclo[2.2.1] heptane. I'm not sure at which site the bromination would happen and what makes one site better than the ...
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1answer
54 views

Theoretical p-Phenylenediamine synthesis

I am thinking on an alternative synthesis of pPDA, in which I need counsel. I was thinking about these easy reactions, and I want to ask if it can be done, or maybe you can hint me some reference. I ...
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1answer
53 views

Trans vs. cis, or Z vs. E

I am new to organic chemistry and am confused regarding the following question: Does the geometrical isomerism of 3-methyl-2-heptene fall into the category of trans vs. cis, or the category of Z vs. ...
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27 views

What is prefix L for amino acids?

I know the "L" at the beginning of amino acids pointed out to show the substance is digestive. The thing I don't know is that what is the "L" stands for and how it works.
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2answers
52 views

Low or high enthalpy of combustion in relation to stability

I know that this is a very basic question, but I am new to chemistry and I cannot figure it out on my own: A combustion is always exothermic, so ΔH is negative. It says in my textbook that more ...
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13 views

Why does the hydride ion in LAH act as a nucleophile rather than a base in the reduction of carbonyl compounds? [duplicate]

Why does the $\ce{H-}$ ion in $\ce{LiAlH4}$ act as a nucleophile rather than a base in the reduction of carbonyl compounds ?? Because $\ce{H-}$ being a small ion would act as a better base than a ...
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1answer
31 views

Organic Chemistry - Reaction scheme and structures of molecules

Compound P and compound Q are straight-chain constitutional (structural) isomers with the molecular formula C5H12O. Compound P can form optical isomers, whereas compound Q cannot. When reacted with ...
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2answers
73 views

Why do chiral biological molecules only exist as one enantiomer? Does it have any advantage?

Why is it that chiral biological molecules are enantiomerically pure? The other enantiomer would have the same reactivity, and the only difference is their angle of rotation of plane polarized light. ...
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23 views

What's the mechanism behind mineral oil loosening cyanoacrylate bonds?

Per industry literature I found that mineral oil is used to loosen out "super glue" and aid in removal from skin. I am exploring the chemistry of this loosening and I am intrigued. Please help me find ...
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43 views

Heating of cyclic dicarboxylic acid [closed]

How do we predict the products formed when we heat cyclic dicarboxylic acids? I know that in case of aliphatic dicarboxylic acids we apply Blanc's rule and predict the product formed based on the ...
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0answers
24 views

The effect of lactose monohydrate on acid-base extraction of tolterodine tartrate

I am doing an organic chemistry project for school in the form of an acid-base extraction of tolterodine tartrate (Detrol) in ammonium hydroxide (or sodium hydroxide, haven't decided yet) and ...
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2answers
223 views

Number of optically active compounds among the products of ozonolysis

The number of optically active compound(s) obtained upon complete ozonolysis of the following optically active compound is In the question, I broke all the double bonds and added a $\ce{-CHO}$...
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0answers
37 views

Nucleophilicity of amines [closed]

I think the bridge head nitrogens won't react.The answer is B C A. Can someone help me, please
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51 views

Synthetic approach for precursor 1,1'-(bromomethylene)bis(1H-pyrazole) in ligand synthesis

Relevance During my Bachelor's project I focused on the synthesis of iron(II) complexes comprising a tetrapodal pentadentate ligand from the ligand family $\text{PY5R}_2\ (\text{R = H, Me, OH, OMe})$....
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1answer
36 views

Methocel Hydration [closed]

Need help understanding impact of temperature and content of water/glycol on strength (crush, attrition) of methocel (methyl cellulose) extrudates. In a given process, methocel is mixed at 150oF at ...
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1answer
63 views

Mechanism of 5‐(iodomethyl)oxolan‐2‐one synthesis from 4‐pentenoic acid and iodine in acetonitrile [closed]

There is a question in my organic chemistry textbook with an answer. What it doesn't explain (and neither does my theory textbook, I checked) is the mechanism involved in the reaction. The reaction is ...
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1answer
83 views

Is scopolamine same as scopolamine hydrobromide?

Is scopolamine extracted with methanol or acetone from Datura or Brugmansia scopolamine free base or scopolamine hydrobromide? If you take a look at the Wikipedia page for hyoscine, the Synonyms part ...
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2answers
207 views

How to make 1,1-diphenyl-1-butene from benzophenone and 1-bromopropane?

I would like to know the method of syntheses of making 1,1-diphenyl-1-butene $(\ce{C16H16})$ from benzophenone $(\ce{(C6H5)2CO},$ generally abbreviated $\ce{Ph2CO})$ and 1-bromopropane $(\ce{...
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1answer
115 views

Why won't this reaction work?

I'm trying to do a reaction with phenyl piperazine, triphosgene, and 4-bromophenol. However, every time I do this reaction I seem to get the carbonyl di-4-phenylpiperazine as a major product (based on ...
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0answers
36 views

Why doesn't Grignard reagent attack alkyl halides [duplicate]

When we add magnesium to alkyl halide, Grignard reagent is formed. $$\ce{R-X + Mg -> RMgX } $$ It is highly nucleophilic in nature. Now at this time the electrophilic alkyl halide is also present ...
3
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1answer
63 views

Producing soap from sodium carbonate and oil

Can we get soap by mixing $\ce{Na2CO3}$ from seaweeds with oil? I am not good at chemistry and saw this in an anime Dr. Stone, so I just wanted to know if it is true or not.
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1answer
42 views

Synthesis of phenethyl alcohol from benzene

How can I make phenethyl alcohol $(\ce{C6H5CH2CH2OH})$ from benzene? I have got information that phenethyl alcohol is made from benzene by Friedel-Crafts reaction between benzene and ethylene oxide ...
2
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1answer
37 views

Inductive effect of alkyl ammonium groups

Why $\ce{-NR3+}$ has more -I effect than $\ce{-NH3+}?$ And what about order of $\ce{-NHR2+}$ and $\ce{-NH2R+}?$ My attempts I got idea about electronegativity of carbon atom in $\ce{R}$ is more ...
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1answer
56 views

Test for unsaturation

Ethene and ethyne can be distinguished by employing the test a. $\ce{Br2}$ in organic solvent b. Baeyer's test c. Phenyl hydrazine d. Tollen's reagant According to me it ...
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25 views

How can vinyl chloride arise from treating 1,2-dichloroethane with a solution of potassium hydroxide in ethanol?

Liebig apparently created it that way (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vinyl_chloride#Production). However, googling I can not find chemical equation for such reaction, I only see ethene as result of ...
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2answers
68 views

Can someone please explain to me where the flaw is in my proposed synthesis mechanism?

For this I have to convert benzene into the product in the box using the reagents listed. The order of reagents that makes sense to me is IDGBEH. However, this is not the correct answer. Somewhere I ...
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0answers
17 views

Does double ended fatty acid exist? [duplicate]

A fatty acid consists of a carbon chain, with a carboxylic acid on one end, and just a hydrogen on the other. Does a substance with two carboxylic acid ends and no hydrogen end exist?
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Investigating the effect of solvents on the alkaline hydrolysis of ethyl acetate

In the following reaction, I believe a polar aprotic solvent like propanone will be more favorable since the partial negative charge on the oxygen atom in propanone will attract the sodium ion from ...
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29 views

Why do the induction effects of fluorobenzene decrease electrophilic addition reactivity, conjugation effects increase selectivity?

Fluorobenzene shows signs of both the electron withdrawing and electron donating groups on benzene. Electrophilic substitution to the ring is less reactive because the fluorine is very electronegative ...
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26 views

Does 2,2-dimethylpropan-1-ol give a positive Lucas test?

I learnt that the Lucas test involves the formation of a carbocation and it gives a positive test based on the stability of the carbocation formed, and hence primary alcohols do not show turbidity (...
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48 views

Which of the following groups show +M and -I effect?

Which of the following group show +M and -I effect? (A) $\ce{-\underset{\underset{\huge O}{||}}{C}-F}$ (B) $\ce{-\underset{\underset{\huge O}{||}}{C}-OR}$ (C) $\ce{-O^-}$ (D) $\ce{-OH}$ ...
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1answer
55 views

How many products does this reaction yield?

How many products can we get from the monochlorination of 2,4-dimethylpentane including stereoisomerism? I have seen someone say that it yields 3 structural isomers one of which has two enantiomers ...
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62 views

How to know if a nucleophile will attack from front-side or back-side in a sn2 reaction? [closed]

How to know if a nucleophile will attack from front-side(retention of configuration) or back-side(inversion of configuration) in sn2 reaction? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L01vv1Mj64I In this ...
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2answers
67 views

What reagents can be used to distinguish pentose and hexose sugars?

I have been asked how I can differentiate D-glucose and D-xylose using the following reagents / reactions: Orcinol Benedict's test Ammoniacal silver nitrate $\ce{FeCl3}$ $\ce{C6H5SO2Cl}$,...
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2answers
99 views

Predict the number of peaks in H-1 NMR of sesamolin

Would all of the Hs in an NMR of sesamolin (5-{(1⁠S,3a⁠R,4⁠R,6a⁠R)-4-[(2⁠H-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)oxy]tetrahydro-1⁠H,3⁠H-furo[3,4-c]furan-1-yl}-2⁠H-1,3-benzodioxole; shown above) be non-equivalent to ...
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1answer
48 views

Adding cyanide vs nitrite for nucleophilic substitution and why does it change when we use silver salts for it

On adding $\ce{NaCN}$ to $\ce{RX}$, we get $$\ce{NaCN + RX -> RCN + NaX}$$ And not $\ce{RNC}$. Clayden gives the explanation as follows: Although linear cyanide (which is isoelectronic with $\...
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23 views

Oxidation of alcohol buy halogen for iodoform test [duplicate]

Any organic compound, of the form $\ce{CH3-CH(OH)-R}$ shows iodoform test. What I was taught is that in mechanism the halogen causes oxidation of the hydroxyl group into a ketone. $$\ce{CH3-CH(OH)-R + ...