Questions tagged [nuclear-chemistry]

This tag should be applied to questions about processes where elemental compositions are changed due to nuclear reactions.

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32 views

electron - nuclei recombination within stars

Nuclear fusion within stars combine atom nuclei, so the atoms are ionized and electrons run for free. My question is, when or how these electrons recombine with the nuclei to form neutral atoms? ...
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Why is atomic number is more or less the same as number of neutrons for light elements?

In periodic table, the atomic weight is more or less twice the proton number. Do neutrons naturally tend to be in similar quantity as protons? I know atomic weight weighted average of isotopes but why ...
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596 views

Kinetics of a simultaneous parallel radioactive decay

Question: A radioactive isotope, A undergoes simultaneous decay to different nuclei as: \begin{array}{cc} \ce{A->P}&\,(t_{1/2}=9\ \mathrm h)\\ \ce{A->Q}&\,(t_{1/2}=4.5\ \mathrm h) \end{...
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2answers
215 views

Decay scheme of sodium-24

Sodium-24 decays into an excited nucleus of magnesium-24. Magnesium reaches nuclear ground level via two consecutive gamma emissions. What are the half-lives (time scales) for these two processes? I ...
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1answer
81 views

In the gold foil experiment why didn't thallium form? [closed]

When alpha particles hit the gold nucleus shouldn't they form thallium. More over shouldn't it also ionize the gold or any atom it hits how does it remain unchanged unionized?
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What happens to chemical bonds if the nucleus changes? [duplicate]

Lets say I have some $\ce{PuF6}$ (with the Plutonium being $\ce{^{240}Pu}$). I take this $\ce{PuF6}$ and bombard it with neutrons. The $\ce{^{240}Pu}$ nuclei capture the neutrons, forming $\ce{^{241}...
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Why isn't protium nucleus considered most stable nucleus?

My chemistry teacher told me that $\ce{^{56}Fe}$ is the most stable nucleus because of the highest binding energy per nucleon. But if we consider a protium nucleus, it has only 1 proton so there is no ...
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2answers
58 views

If D₂O (Deuterium Oxide) in large quantities, is exposed to explosive amounts of Neutrons or Protons, can it possibly go Nuclear? [closed]

If you exposed large amounts of Protons or Neutrons to Deuterium Oxide, could it possibly explode or implode. Im basing this off a Chemical Simulation, in which simulated Protons are exposed to ...
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3answers
137 views

Why does radioactive matter decay in series of half-lives?

I was studying types of nuclear decay, and I came across the concept of "half-life". And I started wondering why does nuclear matter decay in half-lives? In other words, why does the rate of nuclear ...
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Electron cloud and nuclear reactions

I have read that when bombarding a non-stable atom with a given particle, it takes a a large amount of energy for the particle to penetrate through the electron cloud. What I am unsure of, and cannot ...
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0answers
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X-ray bombardment of CaCl2 and its resultant chemical changes

If one were to take $\pu{1 mol}$ of pure liquid Calcium Chloride (at $\pu{600 ^\circ C}$) and bombard it with $\pu{7.65 \times 10^{14} Ci}$ ($\pu{2.83 \times 10^25 particles}$) of x-rays ($\pu{75 keV}$...
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1answer
91 views

Gamma spectrometry

I want to calculate minimum detectable activity (MDA) at 200 and 300 keV energy of a gamma spectrometry by HPGe detector. 662 keV Photopeak is present for 137Cs. Assume 2 scenarios: There is a 'peak'...
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1answer
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What caused the flashes in the video footage of Chernobyl?

There is video footage of nearby villages in Pripyat, in the first week after the Chernobyl disaster. When I watch it there are villagers leading normal lives in normal clothing. Some Russian nuclear ...
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2answers
101 views

Nuclear Fusion and Fission

When a heavy nucleus undergoes nuclear fission , it splits to two smaller, more stable nuclei and produces heat, similarly, when two light nuclei fuse, to make a heavier, more stable nucleus and ...
2
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1answer
267 views

What makes an isotope stable? [closed]

I have heard many times that when there is the “right balance” of protons and neutrons the atom will be stable, and therefore it will decay to achieve this stability. But what about this supposed ...
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1answer
315 views

Band of stability

Here’s the band of stability as it appears in my textbook: 1- My textbook states that the last stable atom is Pb-206 and every element that has an atomic number greater than 82 is radioactive. But if ...
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2answers
99 views

Fluorine isotopes and isomers [closed]

I was looking up fluorine isotopes out of curiosity. The Wikipedia entry gives info on them but adds there are also two isomers which are $\mathrm{^{18m}F}$ and $\mathrm{^{26m}F}$. What is an isomer ...
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Effect of spontaneous transmutation of atom in crystal

What happens to a compound when one of its atoms changes via spontaneous nuclear reaction to an atom with very different bonding? For example, beryllium-7 turns into lithium-7 with a half-life of 53 ...
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1answer
62 views

Nuclear chemistry home made [closed]

A boy in Memphis built 1 year ago a nuclear fusion reactor at his home . How did he achieve so high temperatures in order for the fusion to take place?The fusion that took place was 2 atoms of ...
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1answer
322 views

Nuclear equations for the decay of radon-222 to lead-206 [closed]

I have to answer this on my worksheet. I understand nuclear chemistry equations a bit, as well as the process of alpha decay and somewhat about what happens when an atom changes its number of protons ...
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1answer
49 views

Collison of two alpha particlesre

I was reading on nuclear chemistry - in particular, the bombardment of nuclei with alpha-particles - and was wondering what the effect of $\ce{^4_2He + ^4_2He -> ^8_4Be}$ would be. My instinct ...
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2answers
95 views

Why does atomic charge not balance in nuclear reactions?

In the discovery of neutron, the bombardment of beryllium with alpha particles is well known. $$\ce{^9_4Be + ^4_2He^2+ -> ^12_6C + ^0_1n}$$ I don't understand how the electrons add up. As alpha ...
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1answer
91 views

Instability due to neutrons

Why does an excess of neutrons leads to instability? For example, both $\ce{^{3}H}$ and $\ce{^{4}H}$ are unstable, with respective half-lives of $3.89\cdot 10^8$ and $1.39\cdot 10^{-22}$ seconds. By ...
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1answer
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Nuclear Fusion and the worlds water supply

First off, I'm probably missing an important part of the argument regarding nuclear fusion. What I think I know about it; Nuclear fusion (using heat instead of gravity) is taking Deuterium and ...
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1answer
30 views

Would then base react with water? [closed]

Imagine you fill a tank with undecayed neutrons and water .Now neutrons will decay into proton and electrons. Assume that the wall of the container is so thick that it doesn't allow the protons to ...
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1answer
340 views

How does protium fusion produce helium? [closed]

In stellar nucleosynthesis, how is helium produced from a protium atom that has no neutrons?
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1answer
125 views

Separating specific components of a PUREX raffinate

The PUREX extraction in nuclear fuel reprocessing leaves behind a nitric acid raffinate full of (mainly) 'fission products', which are a diverse set of elements produced by fission in a nuclear ...
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1answer
2k views

Which element has the highest binding energy per nucleon

The graph of binding energy per nucleon (Hyperphysics) seems to peak at Iron-56. However, Wikipedia says that Nickel-62 has the highest binding energy per nucleon of any known nuclide (8.7945 MeV). ...
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1answer
57 views

Regularity of electron configuration for heavier atoms [closed]

Edit: Is there structure in the nucleus that might be responsible for part of the regularity of the (ground-state) Aufbau process? The periodic addition of electrons is more than one might naively ...
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2answers
95 views

How much ionising radiation is released during an atomic blast?

I've been looking for how much ionising radiation is produced during an atomic blast (as a percentage). I have seen a claim of 5% of the energy in an atomic blast is ionising energy (Wikipedia), but ...
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76 views

As an atom get's bigger (on increasing atomic no.) , electrons have to move faster and faster around the nucleus, Why?

Does speed even make sense at such small scales ? Heisenbergs Uncertainty principle ?
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Unstable or radioactive as a property?

What is better term for describing a chemical element; "radioactive" or "unstable"? I am leaning towards the "unstable", because it seems to me that it better describes nature of the element, as ...
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1answer
109 views

How does beta decay increases the stabilization of the nuclei?

How does beta emission by a nuclei increases the general stability of it? I surely am not a specialist or anything, but this just don't make sense to me, since the objective of radiation is to release ...
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2answers
95 views

how to display diffusion to a young audience?

I need to display some science topic pertaining to the atomic bombs, or atomic history in some way to children of approximately middle school level. So I've decided that something interesting to cover ...
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0answers
49 views

Is it plausible to draw an enthalpy diagram for a nuclear reaction? [closed]

For a project I am required to draw a enthalpy diagram for the conversion of thorium-232 to uranium-233 and I am unsure on how to proceed. I understand a certain amount of energy is lost through beta ...
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1answer
127 views

Why can't a reverse fission reaction be automatically classified as a nuclear fusion reaction?

$$\ce{_2^4He + _13^27Al -> _15^30P + _0^1n}$$ Will this reaction qualify as a nuclear fusion reaction? The answer to this question in the test says that it won't, yet it seems to be the reverse of ...
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2answers
2k views

Is it possible to speed up radioactive decay?

I’m aware that elements like $\ce{^14C}$ have a known half-life, which means that over a span of roughly $5730$ years, half of the $\ce{^14C}$ atoms decay into $\ce{^14N}$. Are there any substances ...
5
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1answer
496 views

Why do Alpha particles not collide with electrons during alpha decay? [duplicate]

Alpha particles are positively charged, so my question is that during alpha decay, when these are released from the nucleus, why doesn't it ever occur that they collide and grab an electron or two ...
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1k views

Can you decay to half an atom?

In school we are learning about half-life, and I was wondering if it is possible to decay to half an atom?
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360 views

Could you make a helium atom from hydrogen gas? [closed]

Hydrogen gas is $\ce{H2}$, and contains 2 electrons and 2 protons. My question is, with sufficient pressure, could you fire two neutrons at the molecule and have them form a single Helium atom?
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1answer
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Can't silver have 61 neutrons? [closed]

What happens if silver does have 61 neutrons?
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Is iron the most stable element in the periodic table?

According to the binding energy per nucleon vs mass number graph, it is observed that iron-56 has the maximum value of binding energy per nucleon ($\pu{8.75 MeV}$). It means that iron-56 is the most ...
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1answer
713 views

Container to minimise radiation exposure from U-238

Consider a sample of uranium-238 that is undergoing decay to thorium-234. During the transmutation, a gamma ray is emitted from the nucleus. However, the thorium-234 daughter particle does not decay ...
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1answer
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Why are the masses of atoms less than the sum of their subatomic particles?

The mass of carbon-12 is $\pu{12 u}$ by definition. However, one carbon-12 atom comprises 6 neutrons (each weighing $\pu{1.0087 u}$), 6 protons (each weighing $\pu{1.0072 u}$), and 6 electrons (each ...
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2answers
297 views

What is the reason behind choosing the specific elements used for the synthesis of heavier elements?

The following has been derived from the wiki page "Extended periodic table" and is one of the many examples d or f block elements being used in synthesizing new heavier elements (or at least this is ...
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4answers
612 views

Can nuclear fission or fusion occur together with bond formation in a reaction?

Is it possible for a nuclear reaction to occur simultaneously with a chemical reaction involving bond formation? Can anyone suggest an example of this, please?