Questions tagged [molecules]

An electrically neutral entity consisting of more than one atom (n > 1). Rigorously, a molecule, in which n > 1 must correspond to a depression on the potential energy surface that is deep enough to confine at least one vibrational state. This tag should be applied to question about certain molecules or a class of them.

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59 views

What exactly is giant covalent molecule?

What exactly is the definition of "giant covalent molecule"? All sources online don't give a definition but instead, allude to properties of examples of giant covalent molecules (such as ...
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Which ion has a greater paramagnetic property?

I just recently began studying the Molecular Orbital Theory in Chemistry and I just learnt about the paramagnetic and diamagnetic nature of molecules based on their unfilled and filled orbitals. Now ...
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Why is maximum number of covalent bonds 3? [duplicate]

In my textbook it is mentioned that maximum 3 covalent bonds can be formed within 2 atoms, which makes sense as 1 p orbital from each can be used for sigma bond and the remaining 2 can form pi bonds. ...
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50 views

Stereochemical relationship between the given compounds

Are the given compounds enantiomers or diastereomers? Or are they identical? The compound is trans-1,2-dimethylcyclobutane: My reasoning is that they are identical. They are not mirror images, and on ...
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Does C8H2N4 (in pentagon shape) exist and what is it called?

My primary school released a folder which contains some sketches. As you can see, they included two molecules. One of them is isopropanol. What's the name of the other molecule (bottom)? Does it exist?...
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1answer
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How to add custom shading to a PDB file or viewer [closed]

I have a PDB file and viewing it through molstar, I have a numpy array of confidence intervals. Essentially an output from DeepMinds alphafold. Does anyone know how I can add a custom shade so that I ...
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1answer
62 views

Dextrose equivalent values (DE) of the most common sugars

What are the dextrose equivalent values (DE) of lactose, and other common sugars? Some data like the values for sucrose (0), maltodextrin (x<20), maltose (52), and glucose (100) can be found at ...
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2answers
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what does the prefix tetrahydro actually means?

After encountering a few compounds which their name includes the prefix "TETRA HYDRO" I'm wondering what that prefix actually means? For example THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) and also THF folic ...
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Eigenenergies and states of Jahn–Teller molecule

I'm generally interested in numerical chemistry. In our lecture, we have discussed the $E \otimes e$ Jahn–Teller molecule with the following Hamiltonian \begin{align} H = \epsilon n_d + \omega ( a^{\...
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1answer
134 views

Can resonance structures account for NMR spectroscopy chemical shifts?

I am unable to understand why the alpha carbon to the carbonyl group is of lower chemical shift compared to the beta carbon based on the effects of electronegativity and hybridisation. Since if ...
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Reactions of P2O5 and P4O10 with sulfuric acid [closed]

I have seen two reactions of $\ce{H2SO4}$, in one it reacts with $\ce{P2O5}$ and in the other $\ce{P4O10}$. The Reactions are as follows: $$\ce{H2SO4 + P2O5 -> SO3 + 2HPO3}$$ $$\ce{6H2SO4 + P4O10 -...
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Why does adding excess NaOH prove amphoteric nature?

When 3+ hexaaqua ions react with hydroxide ions, the following set of reactions occurs: When we get to stage 3, a neutral ion has formed, and a white precipitate is created. Now, we know that for ...
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How is the molar weight of C-12 equal to 12 gram ? Why is "g" not considered while calculating molar weight? [closed]

So, I was just pretty confused about how we simply multiply the "mass" of total nucleons in Carbon by the Avogadro Constant, to get the molar "weight" as 12 grams, shouldn't it be ...
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what does it mean to say oxygen in a given context?

My textbook "chemistry by Julia" says the following When it comes to expressing the molar mass of elements such as oxygen and hydrogen, we have to be careful to specify what form of the ...
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Linear equations for constructing molecules with covalent bonds

(By training I am a math-guy and my knowledge of chemistry is restricted to school level) I have read a little bit about the electron spheres and sub-spheres, the Aufbau principle and covalent bonds ...
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Stereoisomers of 1,3,4,6-tetramethylcyclohex-1,4-diene

How many stereoisomers are possible for following compound (1,3,4,6-tetramethylcyclohex-1,4-diene)? My Approach the 1,4 methyl groups lie in the plane, whereas 3,6 are possible chiral centers. ...
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1answer
136 views

Converting a CIF file to a .com or .gjf file

I would like to perform DFT calculations and extract atom coordinates for calculations in Gaussian. I am using Mercury and have been able to isolate the atoms that I am interested in simulating. ...
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3answers
225 views

Comparing the rates of hydrolysis of different haloalkanes

The title may not completely explain my exact doubt so I'll explain it here: My teacher gave me the following problem during a lecture about SN1 reactions and I had to determine the order of the rate ...
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1answer
603 views

SARS-CoV - relative size of the spike protein

I am taking an online course in image analysis and have been asked to use the attached image to determine the size of the SARS-S protein of the SARS-CoV relative to the total of its proteins. However, ...
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2answers
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How are intermolecular forces between non-metallic substances affected when the substance is heated to its melting point?

I have 3 main questions that I am unsure of: Are intermolecular forces acting simultaneously causing attraction between particles in a sample of a substance? Example: Hydrogen bonding and dipole-...
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Is there a relation between polarity of molecules and their electric susceptibility?

So it is written in our text that electric susceptibility ($χe$) (the response of say water molecules in the presence of an external electric field) is related to the molecular behaviour of various ...
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Enantiomers or identical structures?

What is the relationship between the following pair of molecules? Is the underlined answer correct? Explain. I'm getting mixed answers. Some say these are identical molecules. Other say these are ...
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What is the maximum number of water molecules that has been recorded till date to present as water of crystallization in a compound?

Context: I was casually looking through some old questions when I found this question. The OP wanted a compound that has all the hydrates ranging from monohydrate to decahydrate. I found chromium(III) ...
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1answer
67 views

What is the activation energy of creating molecular hydrogen from atomic hydrogen?

If molecular hydrogen is dissociated, or two hydrogen atoms in space collide, how much energy (in $\pu{eV}$, or perhaps $\pu{kJ/mol}$) does it take for an $\ce{H_2}$ molecule to form?
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What are the limits of size differences in a host–guest complex?

We learn in my chemistry course that there must be a snug fit for a host-guest complex to form. So, something like benzene (0.6 nm in diameter) can form a host-guest complex with a β-cyclodextrin host ...
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What is the heaviest possible water using oxygen and hydrogen isotopes, and what might it's physical properties be? [closed]

After a cursory internet search, it appears to me that Hydrogen-3 (a part of Tritiated Water) is the heaviest stable* hydrogen isotope. Oxygen-21 is the heaviest isotope of Oxygen with a half-life of ...
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Can sugars dissolve in liquid ammonia?

Can monosaccharides and disaccharides dissolve in liquid ammonia due to hydrogen bond formation? My rationale is that these sugars may be able to form hydrogen bond with ammonia ($\ce{NH3}$).
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What is the direction of the net electric dipole moment in hydronium H3O+?

Assuming electric dipole moment points towards the negative charge, what would its direction be in hydronium? Although the bonding electron density is distorted towards the more electronegative oxygen,...
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What difference between pi bond and bent bond? Is it possible to replace sigma-pi bond model and use only bent bond instead?

Between sigma-pi bond and 2 bent bonds, is it actually equiavalence? Or there is specific molecule that require to be bent bonds and cannot exist as pi bond and vice versa? I felt like we actually don'...
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Atoms vs molecule when talking about the avogadro's number? [duplicate]

By far, my understanding is that a molecule is made up of atoms bonded together. For example, a molecule of water ($\ce{H2O}$) has 2 hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. However, when it comes to ...
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Does formal charge affect bond polarity?

Bond polarity, as far as I understand, is a measure of the degree to which shared electron density is distorted, and thus solely depends on the electronegativity difference. Up until now, I had ...
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3answers
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Planes of symmetry of a molecule

Are we limited to use only xy, yz and zx planes to check for planes of symmetry of a molecule? Because I see a plane of symmetry in the following molecule through the two shown H atoms or OH groups. ...
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Are all amphoteric substances weak acids and weak bases?

I saw as an example that water is amphoteric (to be more precise amphiprotic), and I came up with the following questions: Is there any substance that acts as a weak acid and a strong bases at the ...
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is there a stead fast rule to predict hybridization or is it just an ad hoc concept

Before I start of this question, Ι want to make it clear that I know that hybridization, like pretty much all of chemical bonding, are just made up to qualitatively rationalize observations. I know ...
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3answers
530 views

What does heterogeneous mean?

We say that a homogeneous sample consists of the chemically same type of molecules whereas heterogeneous ones vary chemically, i.e. the molecules throughout are not same and also not uniform. Why do ...
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Chemical compound scaffolds name

in RDKit, there is this nice function to decompose a chemical compound into its scaffolds. Is there a way to automatically name the scaffolds? I usually search names in PubChem but this may not be ...
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1answer
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Is Molarity constant? [closed]

My friend and I were debating about if Molarity is constant in a disolution if this one changes volume due to evaporation. There was this problem that stated that 125 [mL] of sodyum chloride 0.122 [M] ...
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Why doesn’t AlCl3 form the dative bond within the same molecule? [duplicate]

AlCl3 is said to be an electron deficient molecule as Al only has 6 electrons in its valence shell. Why doesn’t it just form a dative bond with one of the chlorine’s? I know this gives the more ...
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Porous materials: Is the expression of a mean free path $\overline{\ell}$ of the gas molecule valid for a binary mixtures?

Suppose that I have a binary gas mixture at low pressure. Can I calculate the mean free path $\overline{\ell}$ of the gas molecule in a pores of solid material by substituting a molecular weight of a ...
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2answers
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How is this possible in mole concept? [closed]

L = $6.022*10^{23}$ If I have one atom of oxygen , it has exactly L value. Now 2 atoms of a oxygen have 2L value.(Note that I mean 2O and not $O_2$here) Well , if we take a molecule made up of 2atoms ...
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1answer
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Can molecule have just h-bonds between its parts

I'm just starting to study chemistry so sorry for the probably obvious question to you, guys. According to the definition of molecule in Wikipedia: A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two ...
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Is this diagram correct for difference between 2N and N2

There is 1 $\ce{N2}$ molecule formed with 2 atoms of nitrogen. 2N is 2 separate nitrogen atoms which have not formed any bond.Reasons could be that they didn’t get enough energy to form bond so they ...
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2answers
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What is intermolecular distance in water? [closed]

I am wondering what is an average intermolecular distance in liquid water (say under normal pressure and room temperature). I need just order of magnitude. A reference would be helpful.
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1answer
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Why does matter have spaces between them? [closed]

If you mix sugar Crystal in a glass of water and mix it well, the level of water will not rise.The reason they say is that matter have spaces between them.If matter have spaces between them , How ...
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"Isotopes" in a molecule?

I just learned that atoms of the same element can have different mass because of they are isotopes. If there are two isotopes in which each reacts to form the same thing. Would the mass differ in each ...
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Point group specific definition

Does the term only refer to molecules that have the same symmetry elements or exactly the same symmetry operations. Online I see that its the same symmetry operation however my professor's slides show ...
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how to obtain potential curves from database?

I'm sorry if this is a really super basic question. I am looking at the potential curves of a diatomic molecule in a book , and to plot them. I google the molecule and got to the NIST website, there I ...
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1answer
213 views

When is the activity coefficient greater than 1? [closed]

I am quoting a sentence from Non ideal solutions: if the interactions (between solute and solvent) repel each other, the activity coefficient is greater than 1. How can interactions between ...
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1answer
372 views

How many covalent bonds are there in carbon suboxide?

Calculate the number of covalent bonds in $\ce{C3O2}$. Structure: I am confused. I can count covalent bonds as 8 by counting single-single bonds, but also I can say that there are 4 "double ...

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