Questions tagged [mixtures]

Questions related to the physical combination of two or more substances on which the identities are retained and are mixed in the form of solutions, suspensions, and colloids.

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52 views

How high is the variance of the shore D hardness for a synthetical resin?

I realize that the variance of hardness depends on the homogenity of the polymer throughtout a specific sample, the polymer itself and on the measurement, but maybe there are typical values. To be a ...
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How could I find the solubility of hydrocarbons such as iso- and n-Butane in liquid Methane?

I am trying to figure out the dissolution capacity of iso and normal butane in methane at very low temperatures (110K). This would allow me to make compositions that prevent freeze out of these ...
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530 views

Fractional Distillation

Why does the long length of the fractionating column in fractional distillation enable more effective separation of two liquids in a mixture? (basically what's the purpose of the fractionating ...
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3k views

Why does tea dissolve better when put in water rather than milk?

I sometimes drink tea with or without milk. What I have noticed is that when I dip the bag in water the tea spreads out evenly and I have a cup of tea in like 5 minutes. But when I do the same with ...
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What does all chromatography have in common?

We're learning about chromatography in class, and I'm confused about all the different types (e.g. those that separate liquid-liquid solutions vs. those that separate liquid-solid solutions vs. those ...
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Internal treatments of gas cylinders for toxic gas mixture

The values of toxic components like $\ce{H2S}$, $\ce{NO}$, $\ce{SO2}$, etc. [in ppm level] get decreased after a while due to adsorption phenomenon. Manufacturers design some internal treatments in ...
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1answer
36 views

How to refer to this method of mixing solids?

The steps of this process are: Fill a container with water (or other solvent) Add mixants (is that the right word?) the container Stir until all mixants are dissolved/suspended Boil off the water (or ...
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1k views

Total pressure in a chamber calculation

I have a chamber containing two different gases and a liquid which needs to be heated at a certain temperature to bring it to vapor state. I have worked out that we can calculate the total pressure ...
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424 views

What does my textbook mean by saying this about petroleum?

It reads: Petroleum consists of crude oil and natural gas and contains a mixture of up to 300 hydrocarbons, including sulfur and nitrogen compounds. It is formed over thousands of years from the ...
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1answer
548 views

How to predict the effusion/diffusion for a mixture of gases?

Suppose a a container contains a gaseous mixture of methane and hydrogen. The mixture effuses out through a hole in the container. Now hydrogen is lighter gas so it must effuse faster and all of ...
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311 views

Reading enthalpy of mixing graph

I'm struggling to interpret enthalpy of mixing data. Given this plot, from this paper, say I want to calculate the heat released from mixing 0.29 mol of 7.7% ethanol with 0.71 mol of 28.7% ethanol to ...
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Miscibility of Molten Metals

While reading about the size of atoms and ions of the Group 1 elements in the textbook "Concise Inorganic Chemistry" by JD Lee, I came across this line: The Li+ is much smaller than the other ions. ...
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316 views

Freeze distillation: Does efficiency depend on solubility?

I was surprised to learn that freeze distillation has the same inefficiencies as vapor distillation: Namely, that it is impossible to get two miscible fluids to fully separate in one "pass" of ...
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296 views

Density of non-ideal vapor mixtures

I'm looking for a reasonably accurate density of a mixture of two gases that act quite unlike ideal gases (generally steam and water-miscible solvents). We can get a first order estimate by taking a ...
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1answer
455 views

Get the molar mass of a polymer in a mixture given its osmotic pressure

Have a dissolution with $12$g of an unknown polymer for each liter of solution at $25^\text{o}$C has an osmotic pressure of $12.1$ torr. What is the molar mass of the polymer? Apparently the formula ...
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1answer
792 views

Find number grams of the solute in a dissolution given its density and Molarity

Have a dissolution of $\ce{HNO_3}$ in water. The density is $1.42\ce{g/mL}$ with a concentration of $\ce{16M}$. What is the concentration in % mass/mass? Alright. So the % mass/mass is expressed ...
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30k views

Heat capacity of mixtures

After reading this recent question I was interested in how to calculate the specific heat capacity of a mixture based on the specific heat capacities of its components. According to this website the ...
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606 views

Mixing two containers of each water and ethanol to varying degrees of purity

In the following question, the water/wine mixing problem was recast in chemical terms. However, partial molar volumes can make this a much more challenging problem than it appears on the surface. ...
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23k views

Are all homogeneous mixtures just solutions?

Or can there be a homogeneous mixture that is not a solution?
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Reactions between enantiomers in a racemic mixture

As a follow up to this question I started thinking about another question. During racemization, enantiomers are mixed in a equal ratios to form an optically inactive mixture. What type of reactions ...
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798 views

homogeneous mixture - Are they truly uniform in composition and proportion?

If 5ml alcohol is dissolved in 1 L of water ( the purpose is to highlight the low quantity of one of the liquids) , how is it possible for 5 ml to evenly dissolve in 1 L of water ? There is not enough ...
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Mixing solvents and other compounds - safety issues

I would like to know if it is safe to mix organic solvents together or organic solvents with some compounds listed below. In a mixture with random ratios (greater than zero - all chemicals present) ...
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1answer
782 views

What is the CO2 content in the air in a compartment of air and water, as a function of temperature?

Update 31.12.2015: In a closed system of water and air, how does the concentration of CO2 change as a function of temperature, in the gas phase? What is the graph of carbon dioxide ($\ce{CO2}$) ...
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Raoult's law: is the molar fraction the molar fraction in the entire system?

I have two physical chemistry textbooks, one by Atkins and one by Levine, which seem to differ in their notation used when describing Raoult's law. Atkins talks about the molar fraction term in ...
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1answer
243 views

Separation of metal particles from fluid in ferrofluid

I purchased commercial Ferrofluid, and when suspended, the water and/or alcohol turns into a brown sludge. In 95% alcohol, all the metal particles separated from the "tar" Why, and how can I prevent ...
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1answer
145 views

How to quantify amount of pigments in plant leaves?

Using thin-layer chromatography, it is possible to see what pigments plant leaves contain. For example, I can test whether there are chlorophyll a or b, carotenoids, or anthocyanins. What kind of ...
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3k views

Chemical potential of mixtures

I feel that there are very few textbooks that treat the chemical potential of mixtures in an understandable clear way, which is why I wanted to ask here about certain things. Although I do not have a ...
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4k views

Liquid to solid when exposed to air

Is there a liquid mixture that will become a solid when exposed to air/oxygen. Preferably a spongy material that is difficult to tear.
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88 views

If something contains large amounts of cyclopentane and cyclohexane, what is it called?

If something contains large amounts of cyclopentane and cyclohexane, what is it called? I'd like to know what is the something as well. It's a chemistry olympiad question for this year. See here, ...
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1answer
27k views

How do I calculate the mass percent in the original mixture?

I have the question: "A mixture of $\ce{KClO3}$ and $\ce{KCl}$ with a mass of 0.950g was heated to produce $\ce{O2}$. After heating, the mass of residue was 0.700g. Assuming all the $\ce{KClO3}$ ...
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898 views

Cocrystals vs Eutectic mixtures

I was reading around about the different solid states of materials and I got to a point where I have reached the multi-component solids. I was not able to find a major difference between the cocrystal ...
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1answer
111 views

What is this equation for?

I have been given a formula on the topic of alloys and temperature, however am unsure specifically what this equation calculates. The equation is as follows: $xC_{1} + (1 - x) C_{2} = C_{3}$ I am ...
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1answer
5k views

What is the entropy of mixing of two ideal gases starting out with different pressures?

The entropy of mixing of ideal gas is given by this equation: $\Delta S_{mix} = -nR(x_1\ln x_1 + x_2\ln x_2)$ Does this equation works only when the initial conditions of both compartments are at ...
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21k views

Determining weight-percent methanol in water from specific gravity and temperature

The company I'm working with uses a fuel mixture of methanol and water. We use a hydrometer to measure specific gravity, in order to test the composition of fuel received from our suppliers. To ...
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17k views

Why 1-octanol is immiscible with water?

Octan-1-ol is polar due to the presence of the $\ce{-OH}$ group, but it is immiscible with water. How is it possible?
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480 views

Different techniques of distillations

I know that fractional distillation is used to separate two liquids that are miscible in one another and have close boiling points. However, I am really confused about vacuum and steam distillation - ...
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1answer
219 views

Change in pressure or volume of molten salt

I am doing a project in which I fill a cylinder with a volume of $636cm^2$ (made of stainless steel) with molten salt: 60% Sodium Nitrate ($NaNO_3$) and 40% Potassium Nitrate($KNO_3$). The container ...
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What is the carbon dioxide content of a soda can or bottle?

I sort of know how carbonated beverages are carbonated: a lot of $\ce{CO2}$ gets pushed into the liquid, and the container is sealed. There are at least two things I don't know. First, how much carbon ...
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Why does gold react with cyanide and sodium hydroxide

Why does gold react with cyanide and sodium hydroxide and what is the chemical reaction's impact on gold's atomic structure and bonding? What I think is since in the 'flotation' process, when the ...
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2k views

How to determine the vapor pressure of a glycerine and propylene glycol mixture?

I am looking to calculate the minimum heat needed to create vapor from a specific mixture. I have a mixture of 60 % $\ce{C3H8O3}$ (glycerine) and 40 % $\ce{C3H8O2} $ (propylene glycol, propane-1,2-...
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143 views

Viscosity of two different solutions

Suppose that I have 10 kg of plastic/polymer that is non solvable in water. I then divide the plastic/polymer into two equal parts. Let us name the parts A and B in order to identify them. I then ...
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How to separate KCl from NaCl and MgCl₂?

Having mixed powder of $\ce{KCl}$, $\ce{NaCl}$, and $\ce{MgCl2}$ (and, perhaps, some crap), how can the components be separated?
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277 views

Size of dispersed phase particles in colloid?

I am really confused about what the size of particles of dispersed phase in a colloid is: one of my textbook says its between $1 - 100nm$, another says its between $1-1000nm$, and Wikipedia says its ...
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473 views

Gold nanoparticles in a water/oil environment

I am currently investigating the assembly of gold nanoparticles in a mixture of water and oil. The thing is the following: If we have gold nanoparticles (35nm diameter) dispersed in water and we put ...
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How to determine a Reynolds number for mixture of 2 liquids

I'm experimenting with synthesis in microreactors and I'm using 2 reactants. I'd like to estimate the Reynolds number of the flow containing two miscible fluids. I have the values of their properties (...
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Is this relation in case of a mixture of ideal gases valid?

I came across the following relation in a book (written as a fact, with no proof), for a mixture of ideal gases both at the same pressure and temperature. The final volume of the mixture of gases ...
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2answers
940 views

What is the difference between a mixture and a composed substance?

In my textbook it says, that a composed substance is a substance made of more than 1 type of atom. And It also says, in another chapter it says that a mixture is the grouping of more than one ...
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What household substances could be distilled

I'm looking to experiment with distillation to have a basis for understanding the theory slightly better, and get a better feel for it. I'm hoping for some suggestions as to what I could try ...
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Why water can't mix with oil or cooking oil?

Why water can't mix with oil or cooking oil (both saturated and unsaturated)?
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How does oobleck work?

Oobleck is basically a mixture of cornstarch and water. It has the interesting property of going hard when pressure is applied. For example, it feels like a liquid when you swirl your fingers through ...