Questions tagged [mixtures]

Questions related to the physical combination of two or more substances on which the identities are retained and are mixed in the form of solutions, suspensions, and colloids.

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Dry water using graphite

Dry water or "powdered water" is essentially a bunch of extremely small water droplets surrounded by $\ce{SiO2}$. Some time ago, I was messing around and mixed some powdered graphite with water. (The ...
sadljkfhalskdjfh's user avatar
6 votes
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405 views

Density of non-ideal vapor mixtures

I'm looking for a reasonably accurate density of a mixture of two gases that act quite unlike ideal gases (generally steam and water-miscible solvents). We can get a first order estimate by taking a ...
ericksonla's user avatar
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Raoult's law: is the molar fraction the molar fraction in the entire system?

I have two physical chemistry textbooks, one by Atkins and one by Levine, which seem to differ in their notation used when describing Raoult's law. Atkins talks about the molar fraction term in ...
DLV's user avatar
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Gibbs free energy of mixing in a control volume

I'm trying to model the amount of energy lost due to mixing of a $\mathrm{HCl}$ solution using the Gibbs free energy of mixing. However, I really like a second opinion on the model and the results, ...
Jelle Westra's user avatar
3 votes
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307 views

What does it mean to "shear" an emulsion?

The following instructions are given for a preparation and I am wondering what it means to "shear an emulsion"? The water phase components and the oil phase components are each mixed in ...
Shaka Boom's user avatar
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3 votes
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Molecular diffusivity of a three-component mixture

I usually used a following expression by Fuller & Schettler & Giddings to predict molecular diffusivities of binary mixtures: \begin{equation} D_i = \dfrac{1\cdot 10^{-4}\left(0.00143\cdot T^{...
Josh E.'s user avatar
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3 votes
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Why do certain mixtures foam and others don't? How to predict if a mixture will yield a foam?

I recently acquainted myself with the skill of whipping a mixture of sugar, fresh brewed/ hydrated instant coffee into a pale, fluffy, stiff and stable foam. This, as some might know, is known as Café ...
ditsuke's user avatar
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Calculating total volume mixing NaCl and water

I'm (as a non chemist) trying to calculate the the volume of a NaCl solution. The problem is that I know the volume of water prior to mixing in NaCl, but I want to know the volume of the solution ...
rhkarls's user avatar
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How could I find the solubility of hydrocarbons such as iso- and n-Butane in liquid Methane?

I am trying to figure out the dissolution capacity of iso and normal butane in methane at very low temperatures (110K). This would allow me to make compositions that prevent freeze out of these ...
Joey's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
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Why does the equation for chemical potential apply to liquids and aqueous solutes?

The equation for chemical potential of a gas can be derived as such: At constant temperature, $$\mathrm dG = V\,\mathrm dP \label{eqn:1}\tag{1}$$ Substituting with the ideal gas law $PV = nRT$, $$\...
Heat's user avatar
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1 answer
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Question about chemical potential of a multicomponent ideal gas

Consider a pure ideal gas, i.e. only having one component. The chemical potential and free energy of this gas are as follows: $$\mu_1=\mu^\circ(T)+RT\ln\left(P\right)$$ $$G_1=n\mu_1$$ Where n is the ...
bloodybutunbowed0's user avatar
2 votes
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Creation of a Solution of Liquid Latex + Sodium Caseinate with Polyvinyl Alcohol

I am going to be experimenting with creating different types of liquid latex formulations, primarily for the purposes of increasing shear strength and tear resistance, as well as just general ...
Varstraypl's user avatar
2 votes
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69 views

How does the Szilard-Einstein refrigerator design evaporate its refrigerant?

In their 1927 patent, Leo Szilard and Albert Einstein use butane as a refrigerant in their non-compressive refrigerator design. In the patent the authors begin the description of the principle of ...
cms's user avatar
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Chemical potential vs derivative of free energy

Let $x$ be the concentrations of species in a chemical system, and let $G(x)$ be the Gibbs free energy. My understanding is that the chemical potentials should be given by $$ \mu_k = \frac{\partial G}{...
N. Virgo's user avatar
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137 views

DIY lipid nanoparticles

I, and a number of friends, take a bunch of supplements that are polyphenols and often flavin-oids, -ols or -es; also numerous carotenoids. Examples include quercetin, luteolin, fisetin, curcumin, ...
andrewH's user avatar
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What kind of chemical reaction happens when combining Tahini and Date syrup?

While both Tahini and Date syrup are quite thin, when mixed together they form a paste-like substance that is very delicious, and quite thick. But what kind of chemical reaction leads to such sudden ...
Ali Parsai's user avatar
2 votes
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601 views

Ethanol Water mixture viscosity

It is found that increasing composition of $Ethanol$ in $Ethanol$-$water$ mixture increases the viscosity of the mixture upto certain composition, but after that the viscosity begins to decrease again....
Piyush Raut's user avatar
2 votes
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184 views

Why does only a single azeotropic composition exist for a mixture of two given substances?

In the image below, which represents a generic composition vs. temperature plot for a mixture, there is a single intersection point between the vapor and liquid curves. This is due to the fact that ...
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2 votes
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135 views

Heat capacity of mixtures is higher than their pure contituents?

I'm currently studying the effects of how changing mixed-refrigerant compositions effects their heat capacity. Surprisingly, my data suggests that some combinations of mixed-refrigerants have heat ...
Joey's user avatar
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Chemical theory, formula(s) that predict final *volume* of a solution?

I asked this question a couple years back regarding the volume of a mixture being less than the volume of the original solute and solvent, but this question asks if there is theory and/or formulation ...
docscience's user avatar
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Composition of carbon rods in alkaline batteries

The carbon rods in batteries look somewhat similar to graphite, but they do not leave a significant mark on paper. What form of carbon are they? Are they simply just graphite with a large amount of ...
sadljkfhalskdjfh's user avatar
1 vote
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30 views

Estimation methods for temperature evolution of a high $\Delta H_{mix}$ dilution ($\ce{KOH}$ in water)

Question up front: Can temperature evolution in solutions be short-hand-estimated by simple state based calculations - with reasonable expectations of precision? (+/- 10° C) I am trying to calculate ...
Stian's user avatar
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1 vote
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History of Azeotrope (azeotropic mixtures)

I'm currently researching the history of azeotropic mixtures for an essay, and I've come across some interesting information. The term "azeotrope" was coined in 1911 by English chemists John ...
Max89's user avatar
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1 answer
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Determination of the composition of the mixture based on acid-base titration

The solution can contain $\ce{HCl}$, $\ce{H3PO4}$ or $\ce{NaH2PO4}$ individually or in all possible combinations. An aliquot of $25.00\,\text{mL}$ of this solution consumes $14.56\,\text{mL}$ of $0....
crvenikupus's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
66 views

What is the necessary and sufficient condition for a mixture to be ideal?

I am trying to understand some concepts from solution thermodynamics related to ideal mixtures and fugacity. My main question is what is the necessary and sufficient condition for a mixture to be an ...
C. Taylor's user avatar
1 vote
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101 views

Methods of mix thick liquids (3D printer Resin), stir, shake or acoustic?

Most of the 3D printing community mixes resins by hand by simply shaking them. This is not 100% effective (I believe) and also creates a lot of bubbles that get in the prints. What method would you ...
Will Valentino's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
382 views

What is the explanation of negative temperature coefficient in ignition delay of a fuel?

When studying the ignition delay of a fuel, some fuel have a negative temperature coefficient area (NTC) where an increase of initial temperature of the mixture air/fuel produces an increase of the ...
Jonses's user avatar
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Is it easier to mix a solution that is in the liquid or in the vapor phase?

In the article on dilution, Wikipedia has the following statement: The same direct relationship applies to gases and vapors diluted in air for example. Although, thorough mixing of gases and vapors ...
Karsten's user avatar
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748 views

Calculating concentration of a powder in a liquid

I'm trying to determine how to calculate proper measurements for a 5% concentration of a vitamin C ester powder (ascorbyl palmitate) mixed in a 50/50 carrier oil mixture (jojoba oil/squalane oil) with ...
eComEvo's user avatar
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Carbon Capture Absorption with Henry's Law

Assume the Henry’s coefficient for water at $\pu{20 °C}$ is $\pu{1.6E8 Pa}.$ What is the mole fraction of $\ce{CO2}$ that will be dissolved in water assuming that it is at equilibrium with a flue gas ...
albell26's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
76 views

Gelifying hydrogen peroxide

What substances could be used to gelify 60% hydrogen peroxide? I imagine anything organic like agar would be broken down by the radicals. I tried looking up what dentists use and the only thing that ...
Francis L.'s user avatar
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1 vote
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114 views

Mixing ink with alcohol, MEG and water

First of all, I'm not a chemist and my knowledge in chemistry is not that extensive. However, I would like ask the following question: are there any chemical reasons that would explain that mixing a ...
Maximilian1988's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
49 views

How do blue shifts in Raman spectra indicate a co-crystalline compound?

The short conference paper The Acetylene-Butane Co-Crystal: A Potentially Abundant Molecular Mineral on Titan (mentioned in EurekaAlert's 'Bathtub rings' around Titan's lakes might be made of alien ...
uhoh's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
364 views

Over time what happens to soluble liquids with different densities

I have a case with two liquids: Water and another chemical which is miscible in water. The chemical has a density of 800 g/l so it's 20% less dense than water. Initially the chemical was mixed with ...
Hugh's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
384 views

What is the pH of a solution that results of a mixture of two others with known pH?

Solution A has a pH of 1, soultion B has a pH of 6. If I mix the same volume V of each solution into one, what will be the pH of the resulting solution? I'm guessing here as no more information has ...
pipelaa's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
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What happens if I increase the amount of water on water based epoxies?

I am using a water based epoxy coating that is composed of a resin and a hardener. There is a specific amount of proportion to use to obtain the optimum cured coating. But I am trying to introduce ...
Anissa05's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
206 views

Would combining essential oils and carrier oils be okay in terms of flash point?

With NO scientific, or chemical background, I am making my own beard oils. I found essential oil recipes online to mix with one or many carrier oils to make beard oil. I want to be original by going ...
Jerry Collins's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
76 views

Jamming Theory or DLVO Theory for Oobleck

After doing some research I came across two theories that explain the shear thickening effect of Oobleck. The DLVO theory which involves the suspension of molecules via two opposing forces [...
Aniekan Umoren's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
42 views

Can SLES get too old?

I've been using SLES to break surface tension in some water solutions. However after a year or so it seems like the ability to break surface tension seems to wear off in the solutions. So my question ...
Daniel Jørgensen's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
65 views

How high is the variance of the shore D hardness for a synthetical resin?

I realize that the variance of hardness depends on the homogenity of the polymer throughtout a specific sample, the polymer itself and on the measurement, but maybe there are typical values. To be a ...
JHK's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
46 views

Internal treatments of gas cylinders for toxic gas mixture

The values of toxic components like $\ce{H2S}$, $\ce{NO}$, $\ce{SO2}$, etc. [in ppm level] get decreased after a while due to adsorption phenomenon. Manufacturers design some internal treatments in ...
mansooreh's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
550 views

Reading enthalpy of mixing graph

I'm struggling to interpret enthalpy of mixing data. Given this plot, from this paper, say I want to calculate the heat released from mixing 0.29 mol of 7.7% ethanol with 0.71 mol of 28.7% ethanol to ...
ericksonla's user avatar
  • 1,700
1 vote
1 answer
955 views

Is matter really divided in two categories?

Page 1 of almost every Textbook start with the ordinary divison of matter in 2 categories: Substances and Mixtures. Substances, or Pure Substances sometimes, are defined as a form of matter that has ...
Gabriele Scarlatti's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
29 views

What is the most accurate way to determine the amount of water in a material from XRF and LOD-105 results?

this might seem like a silly question but I want to be sure. I have the results from an external laboratory for the bulk chemical composition (by XRF) and moisture (by Loss on Drying to 105 degrees ...
Hendrix13's user avatar
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0 votes
0 answers
339 views

How do I keep my homemade liquid fabric softener from separating?

I have a recipe for a homemade liquid fabric softener that smells good and works great, but I have to shake it every time before I use it. It gets old fast. The recipe calls for: 12 cups hot water, ...
Weesee Chrissy Keebler's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
17 views

DI water vs. Tap water in ethanol-water and salt phase change reaction

We did a very simple lab like one you would do in highschool showing that you can seperate the phases of water and ethanol using salt. As simple as it sounds, we could not get it to work no matter ...
Don D.'s user avatar
  • 1
0 votes
0 answers
30 views

Total concentration conversion

when dealing with waste water and the total values of P, N, C are given in ppm units, what molecular weight is used for converting from ppm to molar? for Example- what will be 12 ppm of P(T) in Molar ...
Efrat Brayer's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
71 views

Saponification - Oil and Alcohol?

I've been reading that a saponification reaction typically involves NaOH or KOH. I was wondering - could anything that contains an OH group cause a saponification reaction? For instance, coconut oil + ...
user267587's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
205 views

Dynamic viscosity of gas mixture (appropriate estimation)

What estimation of the dynamic viscosity $\eta = f(T)$ $([\eta] = \pu{Pa·s})$ of the gas mixture components would you recommend during adsorption at a low temperature, approx. $\pu{293 K}$ to $\pu{333 ...
Josh E.'s user avatar
  • 133
0 votes
0 answers
183 views

What would happen if equal parts of hydrochloric acid, mercury and methylene chloride were mixed?

I was going through the archive of Real Life Comics (first time reader, enjoying it so far), and in one of the comics, the main character of the comic reveals he has ordered hydrochloric acid, ...
Nzall's user avatar
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