Questions tagged [materials]

Material is a general term for a chemical substance or a mixture of substances with certain, well defined physical properties.

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12 votes
1 answer
2k views

What is the fabric in heating mantles made of?

An ordinary lab heating mantle often has a white fabric coating for the flask compartment, which looks like an inorganic fiber: Image source I'm pretty sure that for some time in the past ...
3 votes
2 answers
7k views

Glass with a low melting point?

What kind of glass can I purchase that will melt in a Bunsen burner flame? Is there any way to treat glass such that the melting point is lowered? I tried adding some sodium hydroxide but the glass ...
1 vote
1 answer
70 views

Is Li2CuSb thermoelectric?

In a fantastic 2019 Nature paper on unspervised auto-encoding (word2vec) of 3million chemistry/material science papers, the authors have found that the first 325 materials closest to the word of "...
7 votes
0 answers
69 views

How does graphite content affect the conductivity of pencil lead?

My peers and I started an experiment to test whether we could use the conductivity of a piece of pencil lead to determine its grade (that is, whether it is 2H, HB, 3B etc.). The paper Observational ...
0 votes
0 answers
23 views

Are there any yellow ferrous (ideally stainless) alloys? Perhaps after heating?

I recently learned about purple gold, which is roughly 80%-20% Au - Al by weight. (It's beautiful.) I also know that Titanium will turn bright purple if heated sufficiently (probably an oxide layer). ...
0 votes
0 answers
29 views

What is the most accurate way to determine the amount of water in a material from XRF and LOD-105 results?

this might seem like a silly question but I want to be sure. I have the results from an external laboratory for the bulk chemical composition (by XRF) and moisture (by Loss on Drying to 105 degrees ...
0 votes
0 answers
25 views

NaOH etching time and temperature for Stainless Steels (SS-304) for Surface Preparation for coating

To improve adhesion of TiO2 coatings on stainless steel sample I am treating SS-304 with 1M NaOH for functionalizing the surface with metal hydroxide groups as well as increasing roughness. What would ...
1 vote
1 answer
220 views

liquid (solution or polymer) with a density of more than 1.35g/cm3 and with element atomic numbers less than 9

Search for a liquid (solution or polymer) with a density of more than $\pu{1.35 g/cm3}$ and containing only elements with an atomic number less than 9. For example, a saturated solution of sugar in ...
2 votes
0 answers
42 views

Negative absorption coefficient

What does a negative absorption coefficient mean? In detail - I participated in a Synchrotron virtual laboratory. I have to analyze the results and understand what a negative absorption coefficient ...
2 votes
1 answer
108 views

What's the formal definition of a ceramic in chemistry?

Dictionary.com defines a ceramic as: noun (used with a singular verb) the art or technology of making objects of clay and similar materials treated by firing. (used with a plural verb) articles of ...
9 votes
2 answers
4k views

Have we ever created artificial metals?

I really don't know anything about chemistry, but I was wondering about the following vague question: has any substance been created that does not contain any metallic elements, but is metallic? In ...
0 votes
0 answers
34 views

For CVD diamond in a reaction chamber why does a lower temperature lead to a greater height value/thickness

I've learned that for CVD (chemical vapor deposition ) crystals in a reaction chamber, the greater the temperature the smaller the growth rate so the crystals have a smaller height. I know at lower ...
1 vote
0 answers
19 views

Thermoplastics crystallization during nonisothermal cooling cycles

I have tested a PAEK family polymer using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) with heating-cooling-heating cycles under different cooling rates (heating rates remained unchanged). PAEK are semi-...
1 vote
1 answer
223 views

Band structure of solids in general

As my last question (Semiconductors and their electronic bands) was badly structured, I decided to elaborate my questions a bit. As I now know, every solid/liquid forms a band structure, so all ...
-1 votes
1 answer
159 views

Why are different Aluminium valencies observed from NMR and what logic can be used to normalise molar ratios of different valency atoms?

Question 1: I've observed different chemical shifts in 27Al Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectra of commercial aqueous sodium aluminate, indicating the presence of both trivalent [Al(III)] and ...
10 votes
3 answers
1k views

Research-backed articles on cast iron seasoning

I've always seasoned my cast iron pans with vegetable oil because that was what I was taught. I'd done some research before, and even came across this StackExchange post on asking the best oil for the ...
7 votes
2 answers
7k views

What is crystallographic equivalence?

I’ve learnt that in crystallography, there are many crystallographic directions that are “equivalent.” For example, in a cubic crystal system, the [011] and [110] and [101] directions are “...
4 votes
2 answers
579 views

Is there an otherwise liquid material that has angle of repose?

I wonder whether there is a material which consists from individual molecules (that is, fluid), which has its angle of repose thus exhibiting propertes of a powder?
3 votes
1 answer
120 views

How to determine uncompensated or solution resistance of a 3 electrode setup for IR correction?

To correct for ohmic losses from the potential drop across the electrolyte due to the distance between the electrodes, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is typically employed to measure ...
2 votes
0 answers
69 views

A durable rubber type material that can flex easily but return to its original shape very fast

I'm looking for a durable rubber type of material for a guitar pick holder. The material I'm looking for will need to have flexibility to pick individual notes of a guitar, but needs to return to its ...
21 votes
4 answers
4k views

If you put two blocks of an element together, why don't they bond?

Say you have two lumps or blocks of an element, like lithium for example, say in the form of two bars. Why, when you bring the two bars together so that they touch each other, do they not instantly ...
3 votes
1 answer
284 views

Is "density per unit volume" something?

I was reading articles on the preparation of shellac-based composites when I encountered the following statement (in ref. 1): Wood flour and fibres are interesting because of their low cost, good ...
4 votes
1 answer
98 views

Which reaction occurs in calcium vanadate when it comes in contact with water?

I am a physics student currently studying the electrical properties of $\ce{CaVO3}$ and I have noticed that the surface of my thin film samples, which were originally smooth and transparent, now have ...
4 votes
1 answer
81 views

What is the power density of graphite user the Wigner effect?

The energy that graphite released upon a cascade of defects by neutron radiation is 2.7 MJ/Kg, however there is no data on how quick this energy is released. I am interested in this as this not ...
5 votes
1 answer
631 views

Why I am unable to see any electrical conductivity in Permalloy nano powders?

We recently purchased some permalloy nano powders (Ni80Fe70Mo3) I checked the electrical conductivity of these powders using a multimeter which can measure resistance to the order of giga ohm's. I was ...
0 votes
0 answers
31 views

polymerized Dimethylbutadiene or "methyl rubber"

"Methyl rubber", polymerized Dimethylbutadiene, is the first synthetic rubber, but it falls behind polyisoprene having inferior shear strength & oxidizes more easily. I'm looking into ...
0 votes
0 answers
38 views

Reduction of static in lyophilized materials that have been powdered

I have recently been working with lyophilized products mostly food based items and sometimes medicinal plants (not cannabis) but I keep running into an issue when I grind the items into a powder the ...
0 votes
0 answers
13 views

Band gap voltammetry sensors

I'm new in electrochemistry and I am leading with modification of sensors and analytes. I would like to know why the analyte voltammetric signal should be between the band gap of the modifier. If I ...
3 votes
1 answer
162 views

What is a good strategy for fully quantitative X-Ray Diffraction on coal fly ashes?

I am having some trouble with fully quantitative phase identification of coal fly ashes using x-ray diffraction (XRD). Here follows some basic information about the experiment: -- ...
4 votes
2 answers
275 views

What material is used in coating these aluminum containers for the food industry?

What is the material used to coat (some might use the term 'lacquer') disposable aluminum containers in the food industry? And can it be removed in a safe way (for the environment) with 'home methods'?...
1 vote
2 answers
161 views

What is meant by a 'hydrophilic' sphere?

So, I know that a hydrophilic material is defined as those with a special affinity for water, opposite to hydrophobic, those that naturally repel water. I am investigating the impact of spheres with ...
0 votes
1 answer
95 views

Is electrode reduction potential dependent on the nature of the solution(the reagents of the solution) it's dipped in?

I'm undergrad student majoring in materials science and engineering. I faced this question while studying for a course named "surface engineering of materials". This slide is a part of my ...
6 votes
2 answers
4k views

Density of Interstitial compounds

I have read in my textbook (not very reliable) that density of interstitial compounds is lesser than parent compound. But how can this be true? We add atoms to the lattice voids, so density should ...
2 votes
1 answer
106 views

Why are certain lattices compatible with only certain point groups and not all point groups?

I will limit this discussion to 2 dimensions for ease of intuition. My understanding of the 17 crystallographic plane groups is that these 17 groups represent all the possible symmetry groups of any ...
0 votes
1 answer
106 views

How can we make seacrete / biorock grow faster?

Seacrete is an interesting building material (precipitated limestone in seawater) but is quite slow to grow. https://naturalbuildingblog.com/seacreteseamentbiorock/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/...
1 vote
0 answers
43 views

Better Way for Crushing Coconut into 500 mesh Coal for Carbonization

I am planning to use coconut as a raw material for carbonization, but I need to crush it into 500 mesh coal. Currently, I am using a mortar and pestle to grind the coconut shell into a fine powder, ...
4 votes
1 answer
4k views

What is the chemical composition of a Rubbermaid Roughneck container and is it feasible for me to make my own molds?

I'm looking for more information on the composition of a Rubbermaid Roughneck container. The description says "Roughneck containers are made with a durable polyethylene material for a lifetime of ...
6 votes
3 answers
1k views

When styrofoam shrinks from pressure, why doesn't it go back to normal after decreasing the pressure?

In this article (https://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/16carolina/logs/sep3-2/sep3-2.html) and articles like this one, Styrofoam cups were taken to the depths of the ocean in an AUV to ...
0 votes
0 answers
104 views

At the atomic or molecular level, why are some macroscopic materials more flexible, compared to others?

Before answering this question, keep in mind that I am a 2 year Biology student, with limited experience in studying chemistry. I am going to make assumptions which I explain, feel free to correct ...
2 votes
1 answer
118 views

Which gas at 15 °C and 1 atmosphere of pressure has the highest refractive index in visible light?

For my own curiosity's sake, I am attempting to find the gas that at 15 °C and 1 atmosphere of pressure in pure form has the highest refractive index on average and overall, for visible light. Assume ...
4 votes
2 answers
329 views

How can I prevent my spin-coated silica thin film from cracking when I heat it up?

I am spin-coating a porous silica solution on a glass microscope coverslip, and then heating the resulting thin film to $\pu{350 °C}$, in an attempt to create a thin film of porous silica sol gel. I ...
0 votes
0 answers
39 views

why does the single crystal ferroelectric have a different hysteresis curve compared to polycrystalline ferroelectric?

For the ferroelectric hysteresis curve, is there a reason why single crystal ferroelectrics have a 'hard' ferroelectric hysteresis curve compared to 'soft' ferroelectric hysteresis curve for ...
-1 votes
1 answer
151 views

Is the number of atoms per unit cell for Hexagonal Close-packed (HCP) really 6?

I am questioning whether the conventional N=6 for HCP is accurate. This question is spawned from an image in ZYbooks Material Science and Engineering textbook by Callister and Rethwisch, where they ...
6 votes
3 answers
8k views

What new material is D3O?

I am a PhD student in materials engineering. What is D3O? It is not a chemical, but rather a "polyurethane energy-absorbing material" (from Wikipedia). I would wish to know and study the chemical ...
4 votes
0 answers
64 views

What does "acidic" mean in an article on hydrogen boride nanosheets?

From Rojas et al. [1] (emphasis mine): On the other hand, we found that proton exchange with HB occurs in water with the estimated $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a}$ of $3.5\pm 0.2,$ even after reactive sites ...
0 votes
1 answer
1k views

Can Diatomaceous Earth be added to plaster of Paris to harden it?

If diatomaceous earth is 85% sodium silicate, could it be added to plaster of Paris, with water, to form a hard surface, with the benefit of the diatomaceous earth to act as an anti mold agent, for ...
2 votes
1 answer
224 views

Formation of AZ91 Magnesium Alloy

I have been researching on how to form AZ91 Common Magnesium Alloy which consists of 90% Mg, 9% Al, 1% Zn, 0.3% Mn. Referring to the article at here, I have read and highlighted important text and ...
0 votes
1 answer
93 views

Is it possible to physically stretch US paper currency? [closed]

This is not a facetious question. I am curious how one can physically stretch US paper currency, which is allegedly 75% cotton and 25% linen. Unlike cotton or linen fabric, paper currency does not ...
1 vote
0 answers
84 views

Why can we use the arrhenius equation to measure the number of vacancies in a material?

In a materials science video I was watching today the prof. said we could use the arrhenius equation to estimate the number of vacancy point defects in a material. And gave the following equation: Nv =...
1 vote
0 answers
240 views

Is polycarbonate resistant to extremely cold temperatures?

I am working on a project which involves the use of polycarbonate. Polycarbonate is quite a new material to me as I haven't worked with it yet. I want to know its characteristics in detail, as it ...

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