Questions tagged [materials]

Material is a general term for a chemical substance or a mixture of substances with certain, well defined physical properties.

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0answers
11 views

Is rubber considered to be a gel material?

I am wondering if rubber is technically considered to be a gel material.
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2answers
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What is meant by a 'hydrophilic' sphere?

So, I know that a hydrophilic material is defined as those with a special affinity for water, opposite to hydrophobic, those that naturally repel water. I am investigating the impact of spheres with ...
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1answer
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Are there any molecular modeling programs that can build materials made up of three or more elements into a cylindrical shape?

I would like to build a material similar to what is in the image below. I have tried programs such as Material Studio, Quantum ATK, and VNL, but most of them can only do materials with 2 elements.
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Does the surface of solid lose atom to the air on its own? [duplicate]

For example, a piece of wood, plastic, metal or something solid, in which they are put in the normal air, does their atoms near the surface lose to the air? How fast would it be and what factors would ...
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1answer
39 views

Is it appropriate to call this material a hybrid composite? [closed]

The material I've synthesised is made up of two primary parts at a 1:1 ratio: Part 1: agar, glycerol, water. Part 2: polyurethane resin. The agar mixture on its own was too soft, so I added the ...
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1answer
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Are there plastic materials that turn into ceramics? [closed]

Are there other materials that like clay, are plastic (as in they can be shaped by hand) but set to form a hard ceramic, especially ones harder than the fired clay?
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1answer
691 views

What is the @ symbol used for in material science?

I came across the phrase "Silicone Rubber/Paraffin@Silicon Dioxide" also written as $\ce{SR/pa@SiO2}$, utilising the @ symbol. How can I understand what this means?...
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Formic acid and carbon monoxide outgassing from latex mattress

Formic acid is used as a coagulant to turn rubber tree sap into latex, formic acid also decomposes to carbon monoxide. Does this mean things like latex mattresses have the potential to off-gas carbon ...
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Looking for color changing reaction to track snow layer depth

I'm trying to find a chemical to mark the position of a snow layer with for detection in future seasons. The substance has to be: 1. Colorless 2. Not water soluble/solid 3. Stable for multiple years ...
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Why upon melting of PEO between crossed polars colours appear?

Crystalline PEO when under crossed polars shows distinct Maltese cross pattern. Being birefringent, when polymer crystal align with the polarizer or analyser it shows extinction regions (effect known ...
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1answer
84 views

Why n-alkanes can be found in organic solvent extract of rubber?

Sorry for the confusing title, I didn't know how to describe this better. So, if we douse rubber, say, a bicycle tire or a certain type of rubber glove, with organic solvent (n-heptane), we can find n-...
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How to get rid needle clogging on electrospinning of PLA/PCL/PMMA/Collagen?

For my thesis research, I dissolved PLA and PCL in chloroform: methanol (3:1), PMMA (350.000 MW, 13 wt%) in acetone, and collagen in acetate acid--and then, I mixed them together. The problem is when ...
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125 views

Is “density per unit volume” something?

I was reading articles on the preparation of shellac-based composites when I encountered the following statement (in ref. 1): Wood flour and fibres are interesting because of their low cost, good ...
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Gelifying hydrogen peroxide

What substances could be used to gelify 60% hydrogen peroxide? I imagine anything organic like agar would be broken down by the radicals. I tried looking up what dentists use and the only thing that ...
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1answer
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Making Lyophilized Cake Lookalike using household ingredients

I'm working on a machine learning model to identify flaws in vaccines in lyophilized cake form. To train the model, I need a number of samples that look something like this: I have vials, but I'm ...
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1answer
363 views

what is the structure of bamboo kun?

There are claims that the bamboo fiber has inherent antibacterial properties due to "bamboo kun". However I could not find anywhere what is the chemical composition of this "bamboo kun" and also no ...
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2answers
106 views

What is the origin of the Quadratic factor in calculation of XRD peaks?

Whenever we are to calculate the d-spacing(for cubic system) in XRD peaks with reference to Quadratic Factors we do that with the help of the formula $$\frac{1}{d_{hkl}^2}=\frac{h^2+k^2+l^2}{a^2}.$$ ...
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Fick's second law atomic diffusion question [closed]

I have a question about diffusion and i'm not sure how to tackle it. A new processing method is being tried for a lithium battery cathode material -LiCoO2. the process leaves the ceramic oxygen ...
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25 views

Platinum-carbon calayst in autoclave

Is it safe to treat platinum-carbon catalyst in an autoclave at 200 °C for 24 h in inert (nitrogen) atmosphere? If no, can you suggest safety measures?
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Which transparent plastic to use for electrolysis of dilute sulphuric acid

I plan to do an experiment which involves the electrolysis of dilute sulfuric acid (1 M or 1 mol/L). I would like to carry it out in a long transparent plastic container (easier to handle and clean). ...
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3answers
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Why isn't 'chemically-strengthened glass' made with potassium carbonate to begin with?

Instead of making potassium-strengthened glass by creating ordinary soda-lime glass first, then replacing the sodium atoms/ions with potassium by putting the glass in a bath/solution of potassium ...
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0answers
136 views

Which material are piezoelectric buzzers made of?

Which material are these buzzers made of? Does it depend on the manufacturer or they all are made of the same material? The Wikipedia page does not say anything about the material. I found some ...
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1answer
119 views

Suitable coating material for protection of sensors

I'm building a moisture/temperature sensor for outdoor use in soil. It uses capacitive sensing for moisture and an NTC thermistor for the temperature. It's going to be used for vegetables so food ...
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Why hydrate metal precursors used in synthesis of metal-organic frameworks, MOFs?

To synthesize metal-organic frameworks materials it mostly uses the hydrate metal precursors, so why should we use this kind, and can we use the anhydrous salt?
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How can we conduct reactions for insoluble materials?

I am working on metal organic polydehra topic to synthesize new metal-organic cages or other based frameworks. I want to conduct postsynthetic modification for one cage, but the solubility is very ...
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1answer
387 views

What is wrong with storing deionized water in glass containers?

I have heard that in general storing deionized water in glass bottles is ill advised and that it is better to use plastic. Additionally this is especially important for water used in ICP. I have ...
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Where can I look for a short chain photopolymer?

I am by no means an expert in this field, so please be patient with my explanation. I am looking for a photopolymer with very specific properties. I am not sure how realistic it is to find such a ...
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1answer
74 views

How can I prevent my spin-coated silica thin film from cracking when I heat it up?

I am spin-coating a porous silica solution on a glass microscope coverslip, and then heating the resulting thin film to $\pu{350 °C}$, in an attempt to create a thin film of porous silica sol gel. I ...
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1answer
79 views

Do self-growing hydrogels grow and strengthen infinitely?

Recently, there was a publication [1] (/., YouTube) on self-growing materials using mechanoradically-generated double-network (DN) hydrogels, closely resembling self-strengthening of muscles. We ...
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1answer
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It is possible to create any metal? [duplicate]

This question just popped up in head. There are many things which we are good at. We are good at: constructions. build stuff. destroying things. repairing things. cleaning. But I want also to know, ...
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4answers
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Why can a diamond be broken using a hammer if it's the hardest natural substance known?

I've heard that diamond is the hardest natural known material but, on Google search, I found that it can easily be broken by a hammer as it's not tough. So, what is difference between hardness ...
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2answers
66 views

Materials used in cooktop heating element, and reason for black appearance

I have been interested in the structure of heating elements/coils used in cooktops. I am referring to something such as in the following picture: I have a cooktop at home with such elements, and at ...
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2answers
57 views

Directional emission from molecules

This might be a silly question (probably is). When a molecule absorbs it has a transition dipole moment, a measure of how strongly a certain transition will interact with light will depend on how ...
5
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2answers
847 views

Why is FEP transparent and PTFE not?

fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) is close relative of poly(tetra-fluoroethylene) (PTFE), both only contain fluorine and carbon atoms,both have very similiar properties yet FEP is relatively ...
2
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1answer
128 views

Does alumina become transparent at high temperatures?

Consider a normal opaque alumina crucible. I've heard that they become transparent at higher temperatures and therefore, are not appropriate for high precision DSC (caloric) measurements. The reason ...
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2answers
716 views

Which is the cheapest plastic that retains its structure at 85 °C or higher temperature?

In an academic project, I need to protect some electronics components from heat (around 85 °C). I am searching for both a cheap plastic film and a cheap plastic to be used in a injection molding ...
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1answer
47 views

Liquid that burns in a vacuum [duplicate]

This may seem like a silly question, but is there a flammable liquid that could oxidise itself, so it could effectively burn in a vacuum?
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4answers
5k views

Why are calorimeters often made of materials with low specific heats?

When building calorimeters, a material with a low specific heat is often used (such as Styrofoam, aluminum, etc.). However, why would a material with a low specific heat be preferred? My thought ...
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1answer
52 views

What does it mean for a higher glass transition temperature in terms of crystallinity?

The glass transition temperature is associated with amorphous regions in a polymer. If I have observed in a lab experiment that polymers with a higher glass transition temperature tend to have less ...
4
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1answer
463 views

Which invariant reactions are congruent?

I am studying the concept of incongruent melting and invariant reactions. I was wondering, would all the invariant reactions that I show below be incongruent? As I understand it, we can only have ...
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1answer
554 views

Equation to find specific gravity (or density) from a solution of sugar and water

Is there an equation or simple way to calculate the final density of a solution made from x grams of sugar and y liters of water? And would it work in reverse? if we have y liters of water at z ...
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1answer
141 views

Can I use pure zirconium as an anode in electrolysis?

I read that zirconium is not very reactive even when supplied with a current in an electrolyte. If I had a sizable piece of it, can I use it to perform electrolysis for rust removal of items? Would it ...
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1answer
68 views

Help with Carbon Fibre

I'm having trouble finding articles about carbon fibre that don't contradict other articles. I just have a few questions about the atomic structure and the intermolecular and intramolecular forces. ...
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1answer
41 views

What material most closely resembles/emulates dog's excrements? [closed]

Please get me right - this is no joke! Our engineering team has a terrible contract - we need to find a way to get height from which some dog excrements were dropped judging by what was found on ...
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1answer
143 views

How to correctly mix solutions?

Imagine you have two ingredients - 45 grams of 60% ethanol, and as much water as you wish. The only accurate tool you have is a scale, which measuring error is up to $\pm \pu{1gram}$. How would you ...
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2answers
102 views

Hazards of trivalent chromium and hexavalent chromium

I am examining a material safety data sheet that reports on trivalent and hexavalent chromium in chemical films. It covers each type where it is used in a product individually. Is there a practical ...
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1answer
44 views

Composition of Portland Cement before Hydration [closed]

I recently came across a question- Which of following chemicals is NOT found in Portland Cement? A. Di-calcium silicate B. Tri-calcium silicate C. $\ce{CaSiO3}$ D. $\ce{Ca3(PO4)...
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1answer
32 views

What is spatially and chemically heterogeneous materials?

Follow this paper, Structural analysis of humins formed in the Brønsted acid catalyzed dehydration of fructose They explained "humins are spatially and chemically heterogeneous materials." I found ...
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111 views

Long-term durability of linen vs polyamide vs polyester?

What is the comparative long-term durability of linen vs polyamide vs polyester when exposed to oxygen, but not sunlight? I assume that linen, polyamides (Nylon) and polyesters will all oxidize and ...
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PTFE-to-PTFE or PTFE-to-Copper pressure seal

I am currently working on an engineering project with a friend. Without giving too much away, I have two parallel strips of Zirconium-Copper alloy sandwiched between an upper and lower piece of smooth ...

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