Questions tagged [kinetic-theory-of-gases]

Questions about the assumptions, equations, and properties of gases derived from kinetic theory. For questions pertaining to rates of reactions, please use the kinetics tag instead.

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Ideal gas equation derivation proportionality [duplicate]

While deriving the Ideal gas Equation using Boyle's, Charles', and Avogadro Laws, how are each of the laws, which have different proportionality constants and different quantities as constant combined?...
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66 views

What gas law is involved when your ears “pop” when you are on a plane high in the air? [closed]

When you are up in the air, the air pressure decreases and the altitude increases. What gas law is involved in the situation wherein your ears "pop" because of the difference in pressure.
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Adiabatic expansion of gas

If a real gas is adiabatically expanded against constant pressure, then which of the following will definitely increase? Compressibility factor (Z) or Entropy (S) Correct answer: Entropy My answer: ...
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Estimating amount of Hydrogen Sulfide released into the air? and how fast does gas expand when it is produced?

I unknowingly exposed myself to hydrogen sulfide gas and am trying to figure out how much Hydrogen Sulfide gas i may have been exposed to. I mixed .5 grams of Sodium Sulfide Nonahydrate into a ...
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Maxwell's distribution function for mixture of ideal gases

I came across a question demanding relations between the individual distribution functions $f_n$ for the $n$th gas, and the overall $f$ for the entire mixture. I believe there is no simple way to ...
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55 views

Rigorous reason behind internal energy change being zero while mixing

A container is divided in two parts: one part contains oxygen gas $(n_1$ moles, at temperature $T_1)$ and the other part contains helium gas $(n_2$ moles, at temperature $T_2).$ The partition ...
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2answers
29 views

Crossing at critical temperature of a gas

This is written in the book 'Treatise on Thermodynamics' by Max Plank- the crossing of the critical temperature at any pressure other than the critical pressure differs in no way from the crossing of ...
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The interactions of the high energy gas particles

When we are talking about the idealization of the gas, why for high temperatures its particles interact less? I would say you have a bigger probability of the collisions among particles. Quantum ...
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68 views

Calculating force and pressure of an ideal gas on a wall [duplicate]

The text below is from a discussion on ideal gases and the kinetic theory of gases: After the collision the molecule must travel a distance $l$ to the opposite wall, and then back across this same ...
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Relative humidity at constant temperatures [closed]

It’s known that Relative humidity = (water pressure in a certain volume/ saturated water pressure in the same volume)* 100% “at the same temperature” So my question is why does the amount of water ...
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Energy and impurities balance for adsorption with a fixed bed (with description)?

Do you have any suggestion where to look for a source of information about energy and impurities (component) balance for adsorption of mixture CO2/H2O in fixed bed? I have looked into many articles /...
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Vapor Pressure and Boiling Point [duplicate]

I heard that the boiling point of a solution is the temperature where its vapor pressure at that temperature equals the atmospheric pressure at that temperature. Thus at higher altitudes, as the ...
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32 views

If the gaseous molecules didn't have any kinetic energy would the surface of a filled balloon still be firm? [closed]

The most of the ideal gas law equation is based on the fact that the gaseous molecules are moving around and cause collisions and thus have some pressure. If these molecules were to not have any ...
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62 views

What is the relative rate of diffusion of ammonia to hydrogen chloride, both in gaseous states? [closed]

I encountered this problem during an assignment: I answered it as C, but the assignment grader marked it as wrong and indicated that A is correct. I asked another instructor about it and gave me a ...
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The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1g of helium at NTP from T1 K to T2 K is?

The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1g of helium at NTP from $T_1 \pu{K}$ to $T_2 \pu{K}$ is? My confusion is, that as the gas is at NTP, therefore, it is an isochoric ...
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Will NH3 gas decompose into N2 and H2 at 250 degrees celcius? [duplicate]

If I heat ammonia gas to 250 degrees celsius, will it decompose into its basic components - N2 and H2? What temperature is required for the reaction to occur?
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50 views

Is it possible to determine the composition of a gas mixture from the effusion of a gas through a pinhole?

Typically all the problems which I've seen regarding rate of diffusion involve relating the rate of one gas to the other and from there finding either speed of effusion or diffusion or getting the ...
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230 views

Compressibility factor (Z) of a real gas [closed]

I was wondering whether the compressibility factor of a real gas (given by $Z = V_{\mathrm{real}}/V_{\mathrm{ideal}}$) is supposed to be measured while keeping pressure constant? I was attempting to ...
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Effect of pressure on viscosity of liquids and gases [closed]

My textbook says the following on viscosity and pressure: increase in pressure decreases the viscosity of water but for other liquids it increases. Viscosity of gases does not change much No ...
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551 views

According to KMT, is the velocity of an ideal gas always sqrt(3RT/M)?

It is a common textbook question to treat the root mean square velocities of an ideal gas as given by the following equation: $$v_\text{rms}=\sqrt{\frac{3RT}{M}}$$ I was wondering about the validity ...
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146 views

Why does water vapour deviate much more from ideal gas behaviour as it is cooled compared to nitrogen gas?

My guess is that it is something to do with the difference in boiling point between the two aforementioned molecules. But I can seem to come up with a logical explanation to why this is the case.
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Comparing rates of effusion between species

I'm struggling with (i) and (ii). I understand how to do (iii) and (iv) as it is just an application of Graham's Law of Effusion twice and n times (solve for n) respectively. I am starting with rate ...
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Is kinetic energy proportional to temperature for non-gases?

If the molecules in a sample of ice at $\pu{-15 °C}$ and $\pu{1 bar}$ all have their kinetic energy doubled, then what is the final phase? The answer is gas, but I am not sure how to get this answer. ...
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How does the temperature affect the frequency factor?

I am a high school student and have been trying to learn how the temperature affects the frequency factor. I did not even understand the equation below, which is from this site. Can anyone please ...
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Determining heat capacity of gasses

I need a little help on answering a question which popped into my head while I was reading about gas laws: Suppose that I have three canisters, each holding a different gas of unknown identity [...
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Validity of Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution for solids [duplicate]

Suppose there is a solid made of avogadro number of, say, aluminium atoms. This solid is kept at 273 K. According to Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, all the particles or atoms will not have the same ...
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Is it possible to use the laws of termodynamics for non-ideal systems?

For the reaction $$\ce{2CO(g) + O2(g) -> 2CO2(g)}\quad\Delta H = \pu{−560 kJ}$$ it is given that the reaction occurs at constant volume of $\pu{1L}$ and the initial and final pressures are $\pu{...
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Kinetic Diameter: How to calculate it? Pressure influence?

Wikipedia states: Kinetic diameter is a measure applied to atoms and molecules that expresses the likelihood that a molecule in a gas will collide with another molecule. It is an indication of the ...
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What gas would be suited best to form a density gradient in a long tube? [closed]

I want to set up an aero-optics experiment using a sealed ~5 m length of pipe with a gas inside. The gas must form a density gradient, and must be transparent enough to view a target at the other end ...
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Is oxygen above the critical point always supercritical fluid? Would it still appear to roughly follow the ideal gas law?

In this answer I've asserted (without a "Chemist's license") that as long as oxygen is above it's critical point in both temperature (154.5 K) and pressure (50.4 bar) it's going to be a supercritical ...
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Can someone walk me through this gas mixture question?

Argon $(\ce{Ar})$ and helium $(\ce{He})$ are initially in separate compartments of a container at $\pu{25 °C}.$ The $\ce{Ar}$ in compartment A which has a volume $V_\ce{A}$ of $\pu{9.00 L}$ and a ...
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What happens when a super-critical fluid is compressed?

Suppose that I have some substance with a critical temperature of 20°C. That means above that temperature, the substance exists neither as a gas nor a liquid, but instead as a super-critical fluid. ...
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Why is the rate inversely proportional to the square root of temperature in Grahams Law of Diffusion?

In my book it is given that: The general form of the Grahams Law of Diffusion can be stated as follows when one or all of the parameters are varied: $$\text{rate} \propto \frac{PA}{\sqrt{TM}},$$ ...
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How to find the temperature relationship between the isotherms in a compressibility factor (Z) vs pressure graph?

The following graph denotes the variation of the compressibility factor (Z) with pressure at different temperatures for a real gas. Simply each of the curves represents an isotherm. Now, suppose we ...
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Volume of a gas

The kinetic theory assumes that, for an ideal gas, the volume taken up by the molecules themselves is entirely negligible compared with the volume of the container. For a real gas, that assumption isn'...
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What are the limitations of the Theorem of Corresponding states?

I recently came across the theorem of corresponding states, which states that all gases exhibit the same compressibility factor, under same reduced pressure and temperature (and also the critical ...
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How to derive the compressibility factor for a van der Waals gas?

So as far as I know, $$Z=\frac{p_\mathrm{r}V_\mathrm{r}}{nRT},$$ where $\mathrm{r}$ denotes the subscript for real. Solving it for a van der Waals gas gave me the following result, $$Z=1+\frac{p_\...
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Compressibility Factor Of Gases

In the general equation of the compressibility factor $Z$, we define $Z$ as $$Z=\frac{pV}{nRT}$$ Here, what is $p$? Is it $p_\text{real}$ or $p_\text{ideal}$? Also, what is $V$? $V_\text{real}$ or $V_\...
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What happens to the pressure of gas when only one molecule of it is placed in a very large container?

We say that pressure due to gas is constant throughout the container. Pressure is created by molecules present in it. When there are many molecules I agree that they can apply the same pressure all ...
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The distance that CO2 molecules travel in the air before they collide with each other

Well the title covers most. But further at 410 ppm, 1 atm and 23 °C. I believe they call it the mean free path of CO2-CO2 collisions. So not just the mean free path of CO2 in air colliding with every ...
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Why 1 mole of H2 occupied the same volume occupied by 1 mole of O2?

I'm asking a question about the volume occupied by gasses in standard temperature and pressure. My textbook said that a mole of any gas occupies $\pu{22.4 L}$ at standard temperature and pressure. But ...
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Finding Pressure of M in a Charge Exchange

Ar (RE = 15.5 eV) is the reagent gas in a charge exchange experiment. If Ar+ reacts with anisole with a rate constant of 2.26x10-10cm3 molecules-1/s-1 and 65% of the Ar ions react in 25 milliseconds, ...
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The respective speed of five molecules are 2, 1.5, 1.6, 1.6 and 1.2 km/s. The most probable speed in km/s will be?

The respective speed of five molecules are 2, 1.5, 1.6, 1.6 and 1.2 km/s. The most probable speed in km/s will be? 1. 2 2. 1.58 3. 1.6 4. 1.31 I think the answer should be 1.6 km/h but the ...
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What is the radius of the atoms? [closed]

In a recipient there is an unknown monoatomic gas that occupies a volume of $\pu{230 cm3}$, at $\pu{300 K}$ and $\pu{1 atm}$. It is known that the atoms occupy a volume of $2\times10^{-4}$. Find the ...
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Shape of the container and the number of possible energy states

A question came up when studying the formula for calculating the total number of possible energy states of a particle within a container. Why is the number of possible energy states independent of ...
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Feasibility of application of Boyle's law in the case of varying number of moles [closed]

While reading up on ideal gases and the Boyle's law, I encountered a question in my textbook wherein a balloon was being filled with helium (assumed to be ideal) till it was just about to burst. The ...
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How does degree of freedom work [closed]

I understand that the degree of freedom is the number of ways in which a molecule can acquire energy. I don't want you to explain the definition, but I want to see how it works. Please explain how is ...
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Equalization of pressure in heat exchanger

I was solving numericals on Kinetic Theory of Gases when I came across this question Two closed vessel of equal volume contain air at 105 kPa, 300 K and are connected through narrow tube. If one of ...
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539 views

Does the translational part of internal energy mean the kinetic energy of the gas?

Internal energy of an ideal gas consists of energy due to translational, rotational , vibrational etc. This line from WP says: In thermodynamics, the internal energy of a system is the energy ...
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282 views

Why do gases coexist as liquid and vapour?

I have having difficulty in understanding the liquefaction of gases.In the graph of isotherms of $\ce{CO2}$ I cannot understand how can gas coexist as liquid and vapour under area of $\mathrm{XCEBY}$....