Questions tagged [ions]

For questions about ions - atomic or molecular particles having a net electric charge. Do NOT use this tag just because your question involves ions but is not about the ions themselves (as in electrochemistry, etc.).

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Why isn't the ionic radius of Mg2+ bigger than F-? [closed]

They will both have the same number of valence electrons, but $\ce{F-}$ is more electronegative. Why is it not the case that $\ce{Mg^2+}$ has a bigger radius than $\ce{F-}$?
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Filtration methods at removing ions present in water

I'm doing a lab where I have to first find out what ions are present in the water (easy part). The next part is to filter out those ions from the water. Here are some methods that are stated on the ...
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Calculating the pH of a mixture of Na2HPO4 and Na3PO4?

I know there are more questions about this on the forum, but I was just wondering: when we mix both solutions, would we have to consider the equilibria corresponding to $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a2}$ and $\...
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Distance between ions

I am doing a homework where I am supposed to calculate estimate od distance between two ions in cytoplasm. I have only been given the concentration of an ion. Any help how I should start looking this ...
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1answer
2k views

In the carbonate anion, which atoms gain the two electrons?

In the carbonate ion ($\ce{CO3^2-}$), is it the oxygen or the carbon that has gained the two additional electrons?
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1answer
2k views

Free radical vs radical cation

What is the difference between a free radical and a radical cation? Are they different thing or do they mean same?
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1answer
252 views

Advantages of Travelling wave IMS and Drift tube IMS

I am learning Ion Mobility spectrometry. I am sorry for a very fundamental question. After reading different articles, I really did not understand what is the advantage of Travelling wave IMS over ...
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1answer
379 views

Can a first degree carbocation form if a methyl shift is possible?

I was going through a reference book when I stumbled upon this question Is that even possible?
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1answer
941 views

Lewis structure for SO4 (2+)

This was a question on a review sheet for Lewis structures. Now I could draw $\ce{SO4^2-}$ with no issues, but I can't make sense out of $\ce{SO4^2+}$ because I can't even make bonds to all $\ce{O}$ ...
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1answer
243 views

Is it Cu²⁺ or Cu⁺²? [duplicate]

Is $\ce{Cu^{2+}}$ or $\ce{Cu^{+2}}$ correct? In my book the author uses both but at different places.
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1answer
468 views

Why does chlorine become stable?

We have an equation in our book $$\ce{2Cl- (aq) + 2H2O -> 2OH-(aq) + H2(g) + Cl2(g)}$$ Why does chlorine become stable if it is electronegative? Chlorine has excess of electrons, but later loses ...
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Strongest negative inductive effect group between trimethylammonium, ammonium and dimethylsulfonium groups

Which of the following group exerts the strongest -I effect? $\ce{-N(CH3)3+}$ $\ce{-NH3+}$ $\ce{-S(CH3)2+}$ $\ce{-F}$ My idea is that positive species exerts more -I effect than ...
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250 views

possibility of metallic ammonium

In chemistry class, we discussed how metallic bonding occurs when metals lose electrons and become cations while the lose electrons become delocalized electrons and bind the metal cations. These ...
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0answers
100 views

Diffused Layer ion in Electrix Double Layer

When KI is added to AgNO3 soln, so AgNO3 is in excess, collidal particle is AgI:Ag+ with diffused layer of I-, Why is the diffused layer not of NO3- when the anion in excess is NO3-? If we had KI in ...
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1answer
191 views

Anion-cation balance in particle phase

I'm now analysising the water-soluble ions in atmopsheric aerosol. With ultrasonic concussion and filtering impurity, the anion and cation from the particle sample are examined in Ion Chromatography ...
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1answer
4k views

Why is the radius of the caesium cation smaller than that of the chloride anion?

I am currently studying the structures of ionic compounds and how we can use radius ratios to predict the possible arrangement of ions in the lattice. My book mentions that the cation to anion radius ...
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2answers
136 views

How do lone electrons impact the charge of an ion?

This is a quite elementary question, but I still can't wrap my head around it. I know how to calculate the formal charges of an ion or a molecule, but I don't understand what happens when oxygen (...
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Mechanism Permitting Proton Sponge Effect

The proton sponge effect is utilized as a drug delivery method to release contents packaged in micelles (usually coated in PEG or another protective polymer) into the cytoplasm of a cell after being ...
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2answers
570 views

Why are these ions classified as isoelectronic?

According to Chemistry the Central Science 13 Edition, these ions are isoelectronic: $\ce{Ca^2+}$ (18 electrons); $\ce{Cs+}$ (54 electrons); $\ce{Y^3+}$ (36 electrons) Furthermore, the textbook ...
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1answer
744 views

How to measure concentrations using emission spectrum?

Imagine I am using emission spectroscopy to identify the presence of ions in a solution. Would it be possible to use the intensity of the spectrum to find the concentration of each ion in the ...
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0answers
41 views

Ionic emission spectrum contamination

Imagine that I am trying to identify the presence of ions from among the metals $\ce {Li,Na,K,Ca,Sr, Ba}$ in some solution through their emission spectrum. By mistake the wire used to introduce ...
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1answer
91 views

Any differences in metal ion emission spectra?

If I measure the emission spectra of potassium using the following solutions 1) $0.1~\mathrm{M}$ of $\ce{KNO3}$ 2) $0.1~\mathrm{M}$ of $\ce{K2SO4}$ will I see any significant differences? I think ...
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1answer
87 views

Travelling wave ion mobility spectrometry: determination of size?

I performed an ESI / travelling wave ion mobility spectrometry / MS experiment and observe $\ce{M + H+}$ at $m/z ~701$ and $\ce{M + K+}$ ions with $m/z ~740$. The drift times are 6.75 ms for $\ce{M + ...
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0answers
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Knowing the charge of polyatomic anions [duplicate]

I have an exercise and I have to find the formula of those ions: Arsenate ion Perbromate ion Selenite ion Hydrogen Tellurate ion The solution tells: $\ce{BrO4-,\space SeO3^{2-}, AsO4^{3-}, HTeO4^{-}}...
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3answers
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Why do cations have higher ionization energies than neutral atoms?

I know that metals have low ionization energies and non-metals have high ionization energies, but once a metal/non-metal becomes a cation, why does the cation itself have a ionization energy higher ...
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1answer
65 views

Air ionization, positive ions

Sharp air cleaners has a technology called PlasmaCluster. They say that it produces negative ions $\ce{O-}$ and positive ions $\ce{H+}$ (the difference with classical ionization is that ionization ...
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1answer
1k views

Trend in atomic radius for noble gases

In an exam, we were given the following graph and asked to explain why the slope of the change in r vs. Z changes dramatically at a point along the curve. I understand that the d block causes the ...
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2answers
3k views

Why do amino acids hydrogen bond rather than ionic bond when they are forming secondary structures in proteins?

When peptide bonds are formed between amino acids, electron delocalisation causes the N to be more positive and the O to be more negative. As a result, why does 'hydrogen bonding' occur to form ...
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1answer
467 views

Trichloride ion (c.f. triiodide ion)

While triiodide ion is commonly known, why is that trichloride ion (and its salts) almost unheard of? While it does exist according to literature, why is the stability of trichloride ion in aqueous ...
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0answers
98 views

Why adding salt to kneading make it wetter?

Last week I tried a new recipe of pizza dough: 65mL of Water; 140g of Wheat Flour (typo 3); 7g of Yeast; 1 big spoon of Olive Oil; 25g of cooked potatoes; 1g of common salt; I think the recipe uses ...
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1answer
666 views

As we go down a fluoride-alkali metal series, why doesn't the boiling point decrease?

As you can see from the graph below, as we go down the blue fluoride-alkali metal series (alkali metal ion is varied from Lithium to Rubidium, which is represented by an increase in ionic mass on the ...
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3answers
110 views

Can other molecules than H+ cause a kind of acid reaction?

In our body there are plenty of other positive ions like $\ce{Na+, K+}$ and $\ce{Ca^2+}$. Can they have a similar acid reaction as $\ce{H+}$ ions can do? If not why is just $\ce{H+}$ considered as ...
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1answer
796 views

Polyatomic Cations

While learning about poly-atomic ions, our instructor stated that ammonium is one of the few poly-atomic cations. Are there other poly-atomic cations? And why are positively-charged poly-atomic ions "...
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1answer
71 views

How will metallic lithium react with atomic oxygen?

Very high in Earth's atmosphere, there's a lot more atomic oxygen than anything else. Although I'm sure the energies involved in keeping oxygen in this state are an important variable, I'm interested (...
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0answers
257 views

What are the factors affecting Boiling Point in Ions?

I understand that for molecular substances, intermolecular forces such as van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonding are the major factors effecting the boiling point. However, I am not sure about ...
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1answer
185 views

Fundamentals of Li-ion Functionality

I would like to have an in-depth understanding of Li-ion batteries functionality, at atomic level. Can anyone help me to understand it? I have included some known background to support my questions. ...
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1answer
315 views

Bones of Strontium

Elements in the same column of the Periodic Table have similar chemical properties to one another; for example, Group 1 elements such as sodium and potassium react rather vigorously when put in ...
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2answers
2k views

Does the term 'Cation' always refer to a positively charged particle?

From what I was taught in middle school, cations are those ions that move towards the cathode, likewise anions are those ions which move towards the anode. I didn't have issues with this back then, ...
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1answer
418 views

Counterions in adsorption of ions

When an ion is adsorbed from an aqueous solution onto a solid, what happens to its counterion? Obviously, the solution does not become charged - does this mean that it too is adsorbed? (Example: $ \...
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1answer
713 views

Lewis structure of ions

In class, we learned about the Lewis structure of some elements such as carbon, but we didn't learn how to do the Lewis structure of cations and anions. Do we just draw the number of electrons in the ...
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1answer
294 views

Ions and Ionic Bonds

I've recently just started learning about Chemistry, and more specifically, Ions. In class, we learned about how Valence Electrons are electrons located in the outer-most orbitals and how every atom (...
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2answers
111 views

Energy comparison between an atom and its ion

Is it possible to compare energy(enthalpy or similar) between an atom and its ion, possibly in the same state(gas)? For example, $\ce{O}$ and $\ce{O^+}$(intentionally cation), $\ce{Na}$ and $\ce{Na^+}...
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3answers
4k views

Can we oxidize oxygen?

I have encountered this equation: $$\ce{SO4^2- -> S2O8^2-}$$ In this reaction 2 of the oxygen ions change from $-2$ to $-1$ so they are getting oxidized. It is because two oxygen ions are ...
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1answer
3k views

The mass of a carbon-12 atom is 12 amu. What percent of the mass is located in the nucleus?

The mass of a carbon-12 atom is 12 amu. What percent of the mass is located in the nucleus? and Why is the value so close to 100%?
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How do ionic solution conduct?

Do ionic compounds use ions to conduct? Or do they use electrons? Also why don't they conduct in solid form and only in liquid or gaseous forms? I mean electrons can still travel in solid forms. Do ...
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2answers
1k views

Why does calcium chloride cause a greater freezing point depression in water than magnesium chloride?

So I saw this equation for the freezing point depression, when you add a solute: $\Delta T= K_\mathrm fmi$ Where, $\Delta T =$ The freezing point depression $K_\mathrm f =$ The freezing point ...
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1answer
517 views

Difference Between Betaine & Zwitterion?

what is difference btw Betaine & Zwitterion, Both having positive and negative charge in a molecule. How to categorize Zwitterion and Betaine? or both are same.
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Why is the ionic radius of Al(3+) smaller than that of Li+?

I was examining the ionic radii of some ions from this site for a school assignment. I noticed a weird anomaly in the ionic radius of $\ce{Li+}$ as compared to that of $\ce{Al}^{3+}$. The ionic ...
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1answer
2k views

How can one determine the charge of a polyatomic ion? [closed]

I'm stuck on determining the charge on various polyatomic ions according to the rule of charge balance. I keep getting 0 for each of these, but wonder if that's not the case. $\ce{KMnO4}$ $\ce{K2C2O4}...
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2answers
2k views

Why do higher fluorine oxyanions not exist? [duplicate]

I asked this question from my teacher and he said that's because fluorine has a high electronegativity and does not form dative bond with oxygen. That's why only hypofluorite $\ce{FO-}$ exists and not ...

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