Questions tagged [ions]

For questions about ions - atomic or molecular particles having a net electric charge. Do NOT use this tag just because your question involves ions but is not about the ions themselves (as in electrochemistry, etc.).

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56
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3answers
12k views

Why doesn't H₄O²⁺ exist?

I know this question has been asked previously but I cannot find a satisfactory explanation as to why is it so difficult for $\ce{H4O^2+}$ to exist. There are explanations that it is so because of $+2$...
39
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1answer
66k views

Why is the vanadium(3+) ion paramagnetic?

I know that the electron configuration of vanadium is $[\ce{Ar}]\mathrm{4s^2 3d^3}$. None of the electrons in the 3d subshell are paired. Once it loses these three electrons, shouldn't the remainder ...
27
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7answers
16k views

Why is silver chloride less soluble than silver nitrate?

Related: Reaction between silver nitrate and aluminum chloride Experimentally, $\ce{AgCl}$ is insoluble in water, but $\ce{AgNO3}$ is soluble. They're pretty common in a lab (well, $\ce{AgCl}$ is a ...
24
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3answers
666 views

What is the origin of the bactericidal properties of silver in water?

I often hear that water gets purified by being in a silver vessel, which sounds plausible because of bactericidal feature of silver. What doesn't sound plausible, though, is the way it's explained: ...
23
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5answers
33k views

Bonding in the phosphate ion

I'm looking for an explanation of the bonding in the phosphate (PO43−) ion: (Image courtesy of Wikipedia) Phosphorus (15P) - being the fifteenth element - has fifteen electrons, five valence ...
23
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1answer
17k views

Can metals have a net negative charge

Normal metals like sodium or Calcium have a positive charge as $\ce{Na}^+$ or $\ce{Ca}^{2+}$. Transition metals have a loot of variable oxidation states. Yesterday I read about Iridium in Wikipedia ...
22
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4answers
4k views

How does NaCl maintain its crystalline structure?

My understanding is that $\mathrm{NaCl}$ is an ionic compound, in which $\mathrm{Cl}$ becomes (effectively) $\mathrm{Cl^-}$ and $\mathrm{Na}$ becomes $\mathrm{Na^+}$. So I understand why I would get a ...
22
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3answers
2k views

How was it concluded that the H3O+ rather than H+ is the “acid” ion?

I suspect that initially, scientists believed that the acid ion was $\ce{H^+}$ since $\ce{H2}$ is released through electrolysis, right? But what experiment was done to change the standpoint to assume ...
21
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4answers
19k views

Why does salt dissolved in water taste like salt? If it's just Na+ and Cl- ions

When $\ce{NaCl}$ is dissolved into water it breaks down into $\ce{Na+}$ and $\ce{Cl-}$. It stays in this form until the water evaporates and then the ions go back to normal $\ce{NaCl}$. So why does ...
21
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1answer
4k views

Why are hydrogen ions always associated with another molecule?

I was reading N.C.E.R.T. class XI part 2 book and chapter Hydrogen,when I came across this statement: Loss of the electron from hydrogen atom results in nucleus ($\ce{H+}$) of ~1.510–3 pm size. ...
20
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6answers
9k views

Do ligands with a positive charge exist?

Are there positively charged ligands which can bind to a central metal atom to form coordination compounds? My thoughts: I know that ligands are Lewis bases which donate a pair of electrons, and the ...
20
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4answers
4k views

Will gaseous ionic compounds be free moving ions?

I knew while learning about electrolysis that if the ionic compound is molten it becomes free moving ions. If that is the case, what will happen if I continued heating till it reaches the boiling ...
19
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6answers
6k views

Do atoms form either a positive or a negative charge, but not both?

I do not mean at the same time, of course, but I mean it appears from an overview of the common charges formed from ionizing various elements that each element forms one or more of either positive or ...
19
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2answers
758 views

Stability of H⁺ ion

I know that $\ce{H+}$ is not possible in water and it is present as $\ce{H3O+}$. But later on I come to know that even $\ce{H3O+}$ is not possible and that it is present as $\ce{H9O4+}$. Why does this ...
18
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1answer
5k views

Why is an ionic bond a chemical and not a physical bond?

Ionic bonds seem to be intermolecular but are classified as chemical bonds. "Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bond that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions.&...
17
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2answers
2k views

Does the term 'Cation' always refer to a positively charged particle?

From what I was taught in middle school, cations are those ions that move towards the cathode, likewise anions are those ions which move towards the anode. I didn't have issues with this back then, ...
17
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5answers
7k views

Why is the magnesium(II) ion preferred over other ions in chlorophyll?

Chlorophyll has a $\ce{Mg^2+}$ ion. Why is it preferred over other ions? For example, what happens if there is $\ce{Zn^2+}$ or $\ce{Ca^2+}$ or any other (divalent) cation instead of $\ce{Mg^2+}$?
17
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2answers
10k views

How should the hydrated proton be represented in chemical equations?

I learned the equation $$\ce{H2O + H+ -> H3O+}$$ And I know $\ce{H+}$ and $\ce{H3O+}$ really mean the same thing. But I am confused as to when I should use $\ce{H+}$ and when I should use $\ce{...
16
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2answers
849 views

Do non-classical carbanions exist?

There are some non-classical carbocations, such as the 2-norbornyl cation, in which the positive charge is heavily delocalised. Have non-classical carbanions also been discovered? I have not seen any ...
16
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1answer
341 views

Is there a preferred way of naming the resonance hybrid in keto-enol tautomerism?

While answering a question about keto-enol tautomerism the question arose, how can I refer to the resonance hybrid instead of on of the resonance forms. In the case of the deprotonated butane-2-one, I ...
16
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3answers
2k views

Why does mercury form polycations?

For example, mercury (I) is $\ce{Hg2^2+}$ and not $\ce{Hg+}$. What causes the stability in covalently bonded $\ce{Hg}$ ions?
15
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2answers
16k views

Can I test for lead with household chemicals?

I picked up a metal fence loop cap today and took it home just because I liked the shape. (^ not mine) I cleaned it, but some of the paint is chipping off. I'm only vaguely thinking about lead, and I'...
15
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2answers
3k views

Can you in reality give neon a charge of +8?

First off, I am currently confused about why neon can even be ionized at all. But since it can be ionized, this is the energy required to give a mole of neon a charge of +8: ...
15
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1answer
9k views

Negative ions and health: pseudo science or something more?

Over the last year or so I've heard from friends, who subscribe to holistic medicine, talk about negative ions, saying that they are good for your mental/physical health. Being the only one among them ...
15
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1answer
399 views

How does conductivity work for non-redoxed ions?

Related (very similar, but here I want a mechanism) https://physics.stackexchange.com/q/21827/7433 By the Kohlrausch law, all ions contribute to the conductivity of an electrolyte. Now, as I ...
13
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2answers
2k views

Can glass be deionized?

Is there a chemical treatment that could remove sodium and calcium ions from the surface of soda-lime glass to turn it into quartz glass, increasing the hardness?
13
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1answer
8k views

Can H4O 2+ form?

Like $\ce{NH4+}$ ,Is there any possibility of formation of $\ce{H4O^{2+}}$ (of tetrahedral structure)? My theory is: it can be formed by osmosis setup where heavy acids like $\ce{H3PO4}$ or $\ce{...
13
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2answers
6k views

Flame test: Is the metal atom or the metal ion responsible for the flame colour?

A sample of $\ce{CaCl2}$ is placed in the flame of a Bunsen burner. The component of the substance which is responsible for the production of the flame colour is: $\ce{Ca^2+}$ $\ce{Ca}$ $\ce{Cl-}$ $\...
13
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3answers
21k views

Why the salts in a salt bridge?

Take the example of a copper and zinc galvanic cell, connected by a salt bridge of $\ce{KNO3}$. I understand how the reactions will result in positive and negative charges, and that the ions of the ...
13
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1answer
8k views

Is an ionic bond more like a covalent bond or an intermolecular force?

I have asked a question loosely asking this, where I confused terms and did not specify what I wanted to know here, so I formed a new question. What are the differences and similarities between ionic ...
13
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2answers
3k views

Why is 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMI-BF4) often considered a prototypical room temperature ionic liquid?

It seems from a brief search of the literature that 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMI-BF4) is a prototypical room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) that has been studied extensively. ...
12
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3answers
32k views

Differentiation between zinc, aluminium, and magnesium ions in solution

If I have three aqueous ionic solutions in which I know that the cation is $\ce{Al^3+}$, $\ce{Mg^2+}$, or $\ce{Zn^2+}$, how do I find out which is which? I was thinking to add $\ce{OH-}$ in the form ...
12
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2answers
1k views

Why are there drastic changes sometimes in radius of isoelectronic ions?

$\ce{S^{2-}}$, $\ce{Cl-}$, $\ce{K+}$, and $\ce{Ca^{2+}}$ each have the same number of electrons. Their effective ionic radii are 182, 181, 138, and 100 picometers, respectively, and the number of ...
12
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2answers
16k views

Conducting current in electrolytes

I keep trying to figure out how current is conducted through an electrolyte but all I can find are BS half answers. They say the ions conduct, but the specifics are poorly explained or absent. I ...
12
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2answers
149k views

What are the products of the dissociation of sodium bicarbonate in water? What is the relative pH of the solution?

I had a recent question on a test that asked what the products would be if sodium hydrogen carbonate were dissolved in water. I had a few candidate answers $\displaystyle\ce{NaHCO3 -> Na+ + HCO3-}$...
12
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2answers
483 views

Why quaternary nitrogen but not tertiary oxygen?

Why do quaternary ammonium ions with a partially positive nitrogen form fairly readily and are often stable but tertiary oxygens, apparently called oxonium ions, are more rare/less stable? The trend ...
12
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2answers
2k views

Explaining Ionization to kids

I have a quest to explain a physical, chemical theory to kids of age 8-12. The topic is "Ionization". We all understand from early experiments of Physics and Chemistry (the Millikan oil drop ...
11
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2answers
805 views

What kind of 'product' is the 'product' in 'ionic product of water'?

My language has different words for product (=the result of a process) and product (=the sum of multiplied quantities), so I need to know the right meaning to choose the right word. Which of the ...
11
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2answers
461 views

What is the IUPAC nomenclature for the cyclic mono-alkene ions formed after proton or hydride abstraction?

In this blog post, Steven Bachrach discusses the (anti-)aromaticity or lack thereof in the homologous series of anionic and cationic cyclic mono-alkenes formed respectively by deprotonation and ...
10
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2answers
5k views

How does aluminium react with bases to form aluminates?

An example of reaction: $$\ce{2Al + 2KOH + 6H2O->2 K[Al(OH)4] + 3H2 ^}$$ Aluminium is not ionic, how then does it attract the $\ce{OH-}$ groups to bond with them into the complex ion $\ce{[Al(OH)...
10
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2answers
86k views

Is there an easy way to remember charges on ions?

I have a chemistry test coming up and I might need to know the charge that goes with the different ions like $\ce{SO4}$ has $-2$, $\ce{NO2}$ is $-1$ and $\ce{PO4}$ is $-3$. Is there an easy way to ...
10
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1answer
5k views

How does the HCl-KCl Buffer work?

I have just been studying the $\ce{HCl}$-$\ce{KCl}$ 'buffer', but there are still quite a few things I am uncertain about. I would appreciate any help in clearing up some questions I have. What I ...
10
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2answers
1k views

Could the difference between absorption time of Diclofenac Sodium and Diclofenac Potassium be related to the cation?

Diclofenac is a common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) that comes in a variety of formulations. Two of the most common forms are diclofenac sodium and diclofenac potassium (the links ...
10
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1answer
246 views

Why is there a comparative lack of variety in positive counterions in drugs?

Pharmaceutical salts are important in the process of drug development. Using different chemical species to neutralise the parent drug can produce a diverse series of compounds, and this process is ...
10
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1answer
1k views

Trend in atomic radius for noble gases

In an exam, we were given the following graph and asked to explain why the slope of the change in r vs. Z changes dramatically at a point along the curve. I understand that the d block causes the ...
9
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3answers
6k views

Strongest negative inductive effect group between trimethylammonium, ammonium and dimethylsulfonium groups

Which of the following group exerts the strongest -I effect? $\ce{-N(CH3)3+}$ $\ce{-NH3+}$ $\ce{-S(CH3)2+}$ $\ce{-F}$ My idea is that positive species exerts more -I effect than ...
9
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1answer
8k views

Is the atom the smallest particle, which takes part in chemical reactions?

According to modern atomic theory, the atom is the smallest particle which can take part in a chemical reaction. But during the formation of hydronium ion, $\ce{H+}$ ion reacts with $\ce{H2O}$ to form ...
9
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1answer
463 views

Do quaternary sulfur dications exist?

We know that sulfur can form sulfides $\ce{R2S}$, with two substituents bonded to it. The simplest example of this would be hydrogen sulfide. However, sulfur can also form sulfonium ions $\ce{R3S+}$,...
9
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2answers
6k views

Why does the ionic product of water remain constant after addition of non-neutral solute?

In my textbook, it is given that the ionic product of water $K_\mathrm{w}$ remains constant even when a non-neutral solute such as an acid is added to it. $$K_\mathrm{w} = \ce{[H3O+][OH-]}$$ When a ...
8
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2answers
229 views

How to differentiate a metal from its ion? [closed]

I am working on metal and its ion. The problem is, I would like to know whether the metal has been converted to its ionic form or not. The hypothesis for the analysis is that metals are good ...

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