Questions tagged [ions]

For questions about ions - atomic or molecular particles having a net electric charge. Do NOT use this tag just because your question involves ions but is not about the ions themselves (as in electrochemistry, etc.).

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67 votes
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Why doesn't H₄O²⁺ exist?

I know this question has been asked previously but I cannot find a satisfactory explanation as to why is it so difficult for $\ce{H4O^2+}$ to exist. There are explanations that it is so because of $+2$...
Sanom Dane's user avatar
42 votes
1 answer
83k views

Why is the vanadium(3+) ion paramagnetic?

I know that the electron configuration of vanadium is $[\ce{Ar}]\mathrm{4s^2 3d^3}$. None of the electrons in the 3d subshell are paired. Once it loses these three electrons, shouldn't the remainder ...
Zolani13's user avatar
  • 1,105
28 votes
7 answers
21k views

Why is silver chloride less soluble than silver nitrate?

Related: Reaction between silver nitrate and aluminum chloride Experimentally, $\ce{AgCl}$ is insoluble in water, but $\ce{AgNO3}$ is soluble. They're pretty common in a lab (well, $\ce{AgCl}$ is a ...
ManishEarth's user avatar
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26 votes
5 answers
44k views

Bonding in the phosphate ion

I'm looking for an explanation of the bonding in the phosphate (PO43−) ion: (Image courtesy of Wikipedia) Phosphorus (15P) - being the fifteenth element - has fifteen electrons, five valence ...
Au101's user avatar
  • 901
26 votes
1 answer
22k views

Can metals have a net negative charge

Normal metals like sodium or Calcium have a positive charge as $\ce{Na}^+$ or $\ce{Ca}^{2+}$. Transition metals have a loot of variable oxidation states. Yesterday I read about Iridium in Wikipedia ...
NeilRoy's user avatar
  • 1,673
25 votes
4 answers
6k views

Will gaseous ionic compounds be free moving ions?

I knew while learning about electrolysis that if the ionic compound is molten it becomes free moving ions. If that is the case, what will happen if I continued heating till it reaches the boiling ...
Abdelrahman Esmat's user avatar
24 votes
4 answers
5k views

How does NaCl maintain its crystalline structure?

My understanding is that $\mathrm{NaCl}$ is an ionic compound, in which $\mathrm{Cl}$ becomes (effectively) $\mathrm{Cl^-}$ and $\mathrm{Na}$ becomes $\mathrm{Na^+}$. So I understand why I would get a ...
soandos's user avatar
  • 563
24 votes
3 answers
727 views

What is the origin of the bactericidal properties of silver in water?

I often hear that water gets purified by being in a silver vessel, which sounds plausible because of bactericidal feature of silver. What doesn't sound plausible, though, is the way it's explained: ...
Evgeni's user avatar
  • 667
23 votes
4 answers
24k views

Why does salt dissolved in water taste like salt? If it's just Na+ and Cl- ions

When $\ce{NaCl}$ is dissolved into water it breaks down into $\ce{Na+}$ and $\ce{Cl-}$. It stays in this form until the water evaporates and then the ions go back to normal $\ce{NaCl}$. So why does ...
Pi_Co's user avatar
  • 559
22 votes
8 answers
14k views

Do ligands with a positive charge exist?

Are there positively charged ligands which can bind to a central metal atom to form coordination compounds? My thoughts: I know that ligands are Lewis bases which donate a pair of electrons, and the ...
Rajath Radhakrishnan's user avatar
22 votes
3 answers
3k views

How was it concluded that the H3O+ rather than H+ is the "acid" ion?

I suspect that initially, scientists believed that the acid ion was $\ce{H^+}$ since $\ce{H2}$ is released through electrolysis, right? But what experiment was done to change the standpoint to assume ...
skyking's user avatar
  • 369
22 votes
1 answer
5k views

Why are hydrogen ions always associated with another molecule?

I was reading N.C.E.R.T. class XI part 2 book and chapter Hydrogen,when I came across this statement: Loss of the electron from hydrogen atom results in nucleus ($\ce{H+}$) of ~1.510–3 pm size. ...
Kartik Watwani's user avatar
21 votes
5 answers
12k views

Why is the magnesium(II) ion preferred over other ions in chlorophyll?

Chlorophyll has a $\ce{Mg^2+}$ ion. Why is it preferred over other ions? For example, what happens if there is $\ce{Zn^2+}$ or $\ce{Ca^2+}$ or any other (divalent) cation instead of $\ce{Mg^2+}$?
adianadiadi's user avatar
20 votes
2 answers
1k views

Hydration of H⁺ ion

I know that $\ce{H+}$ is not possible in water and it is present as $\ce{H3O+}$. But later on I come to know that even $\ce{H3O+}$ is not possible and that it is present as $\ce{H9O4+}$. Why does this ...
Ashu's user avatar
  • 1,453
20 votes
1 answer
6k views

Why is an ionic bond a chemical and not a physical bond?

Ionic bonds seem to be intermolecular but are classified as chemical bonds. "Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bond that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions.&...
Dylan Spano's user avatar
19 votes
6 answers
7k views

Do atoms form either a positive or a negative charge, but not both?

I do not mean at the same time, of course, but I mean it appears from an overview of the common charges formed from ionizing various elements that each element forms one or more of either positive or ...
HyperLuminal's user avatar
  • 2,227
18 votes
2 answers
1k views

Do non-classical carbanions exist?

There are some non-classical carbocations, such as the 2-norbornyl cation, in which the positive charge is heavily delocalised. Have non-classical carbanions also been discovered? I have not seen any ...
Saheb Garain great chemist's user avatar
18 votes
2 answers
11k views

How should the hydrated proton be represented in chemical equations?

I learned the equation $$\ce{H2O + H+ -> H3O+}$$ And I know $\ce{H+}$ and $\ce{H3O+}$ really mean the same thing. But I am confused as to when I should use $\ce{H+}$ and when I should use $\ce{...
Simon-Nail-It's user avatar
18 votes
3 answers
3k views

Why does mercury form polycations?

For example, mercury (I) is $\ce{Hg2^2+}$ and not $\ce{Hg+}$. What causes the stability in covalently bonded $\ce{Hg}$ ions?
carbenoid's user avatar
  • 2,032
17 votes
2 answers
3k views

Does the term 'Cation' always refer to a positively charged particle?

From what I was taught in middle school, cations are those ions that move towards the cathode, likewise anions are those ions which move towards the anode. I didn't have issues with this back then, ...
paracetamol's user avatar
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17 votes
3 answers
3k views

Can you in reality give neon a charge of +8?

First off, I am currently confused about why neon can even be ionized at all. But since it can be ionized, this is the energy required to give a mole of neon a charge of +8: ...
HyperLuminal's user avatar
  • 2,227
17 votes
1 answer
471 views

How does conductivity work for non-redoxed ions?

Related (very similar, but here I want a mechanism) https://physics.stackexchange.com/q/21827/7433 By the Kohlrausch law, all ions contribute to the conductivity of an electrolyte. Now, as I ...
ManishEarth's user avatar
  • 15.2k
16 votes
1 answer
425 views

Is there a preferred way of naming the resonance hybrid in keto-enol tautomerism?

While answering a question about keto-enol tautomerism the question arose, how can I refer to the resonance hybrid instead of on of the resonance forms. In the case of the deprotonated butane-2-one, I ...
Martin - マーチン's user avatar
15 votes
2 answers
22k views

Can I test for lead with household chemicals?

I picked up a metal fence loop cap today and took it home just because I liked the shape. (^ not mine) I cleaned it, but some of the paint is chipping off. I'm only vaguely thinking about lead, and I'...
Maddy Byahoo's user avatar
15 votes
2 answers
9k views

Flame test: Is the metal atom or the metal ion responsible for the flame colour?

A sample of $\ce{CaCl2}$ is placed in the flame of a Bunsen burner. The component of the substance which is responsible for the production of the flame colour is: $\ce{Ca^2+}$ $\ce{Ca}$ $\ce{Cl-}$ $\...
confused's user avatar
  • 751
15 votes
3 answers
22k views

Why the salts in a salt bridge?

Take the example of a copper and zinc galvanic cell, connected by a salt bridge of $\ce{KNO3}$. I understand how the reactions will result in positive and negative charges, and that the ions of the ...
QCD_IS_GOOD's user avatar
  • 1,118
15 votes
1 answer
10k views

Negative ions and health: pseudo science or something more?

Over the last year or so I've heard from friends, who subscribe to holistic medicine, talk about negative ions, saying that they are good for your mental/physical health. Being the only one among them ...
John Snow's user avatar
  • 4,515
15 votes
6 answers
18k views

Conducting current in electrolytes

I keep trying to figure out how current is conducted through an electrolyte but all I can find are incomplete answers. They say the ions conduct, but the specifics are poorly explained or absent. I ...
Void Star's user avatar
  • 415
14 votes
2 answers
2k views

Can glass be deionized?

Is there a chemical treatment that could remove sodium and calcium ions from the surface of soda-lime glass to turn it into quartz glass, increasing the hardness?
Francis L.'s user avatar
  • 1,480
14 votes
2 answers
168k views

What are the products of the dissociation of sodium bicarbonate in water? What is the relative pH of the solution?

I had a recent question on a test that asked what the products would be if sodium hydrogen carbonate were dissolved in water. I had a few candidate answers $\displaystyle\ce{NaHCO3 -> Na+ + HCO3-}$...
scrblnrd3's user avatar
  • 371
13 votes
3 answers
9k views

Strongest negative inductive effect group between trimethylammonium, ammonium and dimethylsulfonium groups

Which of the following group exerts the strongest -I effect? $\ce{-N(CH3)3+}$ $\ce{-NH3+}$ $\ce{-S(CH3)2+}$ $\ce{-F}$ My idea is that positive species exerts more -I effect than ...
Pink's user avatar
  • 2,143
13 votes
1 answer
11k views

Can H4O 2+ form?

Like $\ce{NH4+}$ ,Is there any possibility of formation of $\ce{H4O^{2+}}$ (of tetrahedral structure)? My theory is: it can be formed by osmosis setup where heavy acids like $\ce{H3PO4}$ or $\ce{...
Swastik's user avatar
  • 1,272
13 votes
1 answer
9k views

Is an ionic bond more like a covalent bond or an intermolecular force?

I have asked a question loosely asking this, where I confused terms and did not specify what I wanted to know here, so I formed a new question. What are the differences and similarities between ionic ...
Dylan Spano's user avatar
13 votes
2 answers
8k views

Why does the ionic product of water remain constant after addition of non-neutral solute?

In my textbook, it is given that the ionic product of water $K_\mathrm{w}$ remains constant even when a non-neutral solute such as an acid is added to it. $$K_\mathrm{w} = \ce{[H3O+][OH-]}$$ When a ...
Gaurav's user avatar
  • 295
13 votes
2 answers
3k views

Why is 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMI-BF4) often considered a prototypical room temperature ionic liquid?

It seems from a brief search of the literature that 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMI-BF4) is a prototypical room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) that has been studied extensively. ...
Andrew's user avatar
  • 1,043
12 votes
3 answers
38k views

Differentiation between zinc, aluminium, and magnesium ions in solution

If I have three aqueous ionic solutions in which I know that the cation is $\ce{Al^3+}$, $\ce{Mg^2+}$, or $\ce{Zn^2+}$, how do I find out which is which? I was thinking to add $\ce{OH-}$ in the form ...
dma1324's user avatar
  • 223
12 votes
3 answers
1k views

Why does water weaken ion ion attractions?

My lecturer has told me that water, having a high dielectric value, will "shield" ions and reduce ion-ion attractions. I really don't see why. Having water molecules surround these two ions ...
John Hon's user avatar
  • 1,556
12 votes
2 answers
2k views

Why are there drastic changes sometimes in radius of isoelectronic ions?

$\ce{S^{2-}}$, $\ce{Cl-}$, $\ce{K+}$, and $\ce{Ca^{2+}}$ each have the same number of electrons. Their effective ionic radii are 182, 181, 138, and 100 picometers, respectively, and the number of ...
phi2k's user avatar
  • 1,441
12 votes
2 answers
2k views

Explaining Ionization to kids

I have a quest to explain a physical, chemical theory to kids of age 8-12. The topic is "Ionization". We all understand from early experiments of Physics and Chemistry (the Millikan oil drop ...
bonCodigo's user avatar
  • 1,934
11 votes
2 answers
793 views

Why are protons more common than hydride ion?

I'm a high school student. I noticed $\ce{H+}$ ion is commonly present in my books while I didn't find any presence of $\ce{H-}$ ions in my books. However, I found on internet that $\ce{H-}$ also ...
Oshawott's user avatar
  • 281
11 votes
2 answers
7k views

How does aluminium react with bases to form aluminates?

An example of reaction: $$\ce{2Al + 2KOH + 6H2O->2 K[Al(OH)4] + 3H2 ^}$$ Aluminium is not ionic, how then does it attract the $\ce{OH-}$ groups to bond with them into the complex ion $\ce{[Al(OH)...
CowperKettle's user avatar
  • 3,256
11 votes
2 answers
105k views

Is there an easy way to remember charges on ions?

I have a chemistry test coming up and I might need to know the charge that goes with the different ions like $\ce{SO4}$ has $-2$, $\ce{NO2}$ is $-1$ and $\ce{PO4}$ is $-3$. Is there an easy way to ...
Chef Flambe's user avatar
11 votes
2 answers
733 views

What is the IUPAC nomenclature for the cyclic mono-alkene ions formed after proton or hydride abstraction?

In this blog post, Steven Bachrach discusses the (anti-)aromaticity or lack thereof in the homologous series of anionic and cationic cyclic mono-alkenes formed respectively by deprotonation and ...
hBy2Py's user avatar
  • 17.3k
11 votes
2 answers
538 views

Why quaternary nitrogen but not tertiary oxygen?

Why do quaternary ammonium ions with a partially positive nitrogen form fairly readily and are often stable but tertiary oxygens, apparently called oxonium ions, are more rare/less stable? The trend ...
ericksonla's user avatar
  • 1,690
11 votes
2 answers
1k views

Could the difference between absorption time of Diclofenac Sodium and Diclofenac Potassium be related to the cation?

Diclofenac is a common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) that comes in a variety of formulations. Two of the most common forms are diclofenac sodium and diclofenac potassium (the links ...
Don_S's user avatar
  • 1,410
11 votes
1 answer
349 views

Why is there a comparative lack of variety in positive counterions in drugs?

Pharmaceutical salts are important in the process of drug development. Using different chemical species to neutralise the parent drug can produce a diverse series of compounds, and this process is ...
xavier_fakerat's user avatar
10 votes
1 answer
1k views

Why are bromine oxyanions uncommon?

Sodium hypochlorite is used in bleach, calcium hypochlorite is used in public swimming pools, ammonium perchlorate is used in solid rocket fuel. Sodium periodate is used in the cleaving of syn-...
ringo's user avatar
  • 24k
10 votes
2 answers
882 views

What kind of 'product' is the 'product' in 'ionic product of water'?

My language has different words for product (=the result of a process) and product (=the sum of multiplied quantities), so I need to know the right meaning to choose the right word. Which of the ...
PrettyHands's user avatar
10 votes
1 answer
541 views

Do quaternary sulfur dications exist?

We know that sulfur can form sulfides $\ce{R2S}$, with two substituents bonded to it. The simplest example of this would be hydrogen sulfide. However, sulfur can also form sulfonium ions $\ce{R3S+}$,...
user73910's user avatar
  • 1,254
10 votes
1 answer
10k views

Is the atom the smallest particle, which takes part in chemical reactions?

According to modern atomic theory, the atom is the smallest particle which can take part in a chemical reaction. But during the formation of hydronium ion, $\ce{H+}$ ion reacts with $\ce{H2O}$ to form ...
Vijay adhithiyan's user avatar

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