Questions tagged [ions]

For questions about ions - atomic or molecular particles having a net electric charge. Do NOT use this tag just because your question involves ions but is not about the ions themselves (as in electrochemistry, etc.).

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23
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5answers
31k views

Bonding in the phosphate ion

I'm looking for an explanation of the bonding in the phosphate (PO43−) ion: (Image courtesy of Wikipedia) Phosphorus (15P) - being the fifteenth element - has fifteen electrons, five valence ...
16
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2answers
10k views

How should the hydrated proton be represented in chemical equations?

I learned the equation $$\ce{H2O + H+ -> H3O+}$$ And I know $\ce{H+}$ and $\ce{H3O+}$ really mean the same thing. But I am confused as to when I should use $\ce{H+}$ and when I should use $\ce{...
20
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4answers
3k views

Will gaseous ionic compounds be free moving ions?

I knew while learning about electrolysis that if the ionic compound is molten it becomes free moving ions. If that is the case, what will happen if I continued heating till it reaches the boiling ...
21
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1answer
3k views

Why are hydrogen ions always associated with another molecule?

I was reading N.C.E.R.T. class XI part 2 book and chapter Hydrogen,when I came across this statement: Loss of the electron from hydrogen atom results in nucleus ($\ce{H+}$) of ~1.510–3 pm size. ...
55
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3answers
12k views

Why doesn't H₄O²⁺ exist?

I know this question has been asked previously but I cannot find a satisfactory explanation as to why is it so difficult for $\ce{H4O^2+}$ to exist. There are explanations that it is so because of $+2$...
13
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1answer
7k views

Is an ionic bond more like a covalent bond or an intermolecular force?

I have asked a question loosely asking this, where I confused terms and did not specify what I wanted to know here, so I formed a new question. What are the differences and similarities between ionic ...
8
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1answer
2k views

Does the hydrogen ion actually exist? [duplicate]

A chemistry test I did was an IGCSE test. One of the questions was Is Hydrogen Chloride ionic or covalent? Now, on a sheet I have been given, it states the hydrogen ion is $\ce{H+}$. So, it forms ...
19
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6answers
5k views

Do atoms form either a positive or a negative charge, but not both?

I do not mean at the same time, of course, but I mean it appears from an overview of the common charges formed from ionizing various elements that each element forms one or more of either positive or ...
27
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7answers
16k views

Why is silver chloride less soluble than silver nitrate?

Related: Reaction between silver nitrate and aluminum chloride Experimentally, $\ce{AgCl}$ is insoluble in water, but $\ce{AgNO3}$ is soluble. They're pretty common in a lab (well, $\ce{AgCl}$ is a ...
8
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3answers
5k views

Strongest negative inductive effect group between trimethylammonium, ammonium and dimethylsulfonium groups

Which of the following group exerts the strongest -I effect? $\ce{-N(CH3)3+}$ $\ce{-NH3+}$ $\ce{-S(CH3)2+}$ $\ce{-F}$ My idea is that positive species exerts more -I effect than ...
18
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1answer
4k views

Why is an ionic bond a chemical and not a physical bond?

Ionic bonds seem to be intermolecular but are classified as chemical bonds. "Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bond that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions." - ...
38
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1answer
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Why is the vanadium(3+) ion paramagnetic?

I know that the electron configuration of vanadium is $[\ce{Ar}]\mathrm{4s^2 3d^3}$. None of the electrons in the 3d subshell are paired. Once it loses these three electrons, shouldn't the remainder ...
12
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2answers
963 views

Why are there drastic changes sometimes in radius of isoelectronic ions?

$\ce{S^{2-}}$, $\ce{Cl-}$, $\ce{K+}$, and $\ce{Ca^{2+}}$ each have the same number of electrons. Their effective ionic radii are 182, 181, 138, and 100 picometers, respectively, and the number of ...
11
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2answers
145k views

What are the products of the dissociation of sodium bicarbonate in water? What is the relative pH of the solution?

I had a recent question on a test that asked what the products would be if sodium hydrogen carbonate were dissolved in water. I had a few candidate answers $\displaystyle\ce{NaHCO3 -> Na+ + HCO3-}$...
19
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2answers
686 views

Stability of H⁺ ion

I know that $\ce{H+}$ is not possible in water and it is present as $\ce{H3O+}$. But later on I come to know that even $\ce{H3O+}$ is not possible and that it is present as $\ce{H9O4+}$. Why does this ...
6
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3answers
4k views

Why Ca 2+ and not Ca +2

I have been learning chemistry for a year or two but I still can't understand this. According to maths we should place the plus or minus sign in front of a number like -2. However, In chemistry we ...
13
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3answers
21k views

Why the salts in a salt bridge?

Take the example of a copper and zinc galvanic cell, connected by a salt bridge of $\ce{KNO3}$. I understand how the reactions will result in positive and negative charges, and that the ions of the ...
13
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2answers
6k views

Flame test: Is the metal atom or the metal ion responsible for the flame colour?

A sample of $\ce{CaCl2}$ is placed in the flame of a Bunsen burner. The component of the substance which is responsible for the production of the flame colour is: $\ce{Ca^2+}$ $\ce{Ca}$ $\...
7
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1answer
2k views

Naming ionic compounds with multiple cations and anions

I have seen complex ionic compounds that have mixed anions and/or mixed cations. For Example I have seen this: $$\ce{NaKCl2}$$ Also known as Sodium Potassium Chloride. The only information I can ...
7
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1answer
1k views

Difference between sodium ion and a transition metal ion dissolving in water?

In class, I learned that when $\ce{NaCl}$ is dissolved in water, the partially negative oxygen part of the water molecules surround the $\ce{Na+}$ ion and energy is given off (hydration enthalpy) ...
16
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3answers
2k views

Why does mercury form polycations?

For example, mercury (I) is $\ce{Hg2^2+}$ and not $\ce{Hg+}$. What causes the stability in covalently bonded $\ce{Hg}$ ions?
22
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1answer
16k views

Can metals have a net negative charge

Normal metals like sodium or Calcium have a positive charge as $\ce{Na}^+$ or $\ce{Ca}^{2+}$. Transition metals have a loot of variable oxidation states. Yesterday I read about Iridium in Wikipedia ...
16
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1answer
319 views

Is there a preferred way of naming the resonance hybrid in keto-enol tautomerism?

While answering a question about keto-enol tautomerism the question arose, how can I refer to the resonance hybrid instead of on of the resonance forms. In the case of the deprotonated butane-2-one, I ...
12
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2answers
16k views

Conducting current in electrolytes

I keep trying to figure out how current is conducted through an electrolyte but all I can find are BS half answers. They say the ions conduct, but the specifics are poorly explained or absent. I ...
8
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1answer
710 views

Why are bromine oxyanions uncommon?

Sodium hypochlorite is used in bleach, calcium hypochlorite is used in public swimming pools, ammonium perchlorate is used in solid rocket fuel. Sodium periodate is used in the cleaving of syn-...
7
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1answer
1k views

Vaporized sodium hydroxide?

Some time ago, I was making a $\ce{NaOH}$ solution. The solution I had made was much too concentrated, and the heat released in the dissolution of the ions caused the water to begin steaming. ...
4
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2answers
2k views

What is the OH in alcohol?

What is the $\ce{OH}$ functional group in alcohol (ethanol)? My teacher told me it isn't the same as the $\ce{OH-}$ ion or hydroxide. But it does donate one electron to the respective carbon chain and ...
3
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3answers
1k views

Evaporating the water of a solution of only carbonate ions and water gives?

I have a solution with only $\ce{CO_3^{2-}}$ ions and water. What would happen with the carbonate ions if I were to evaporate the water of that solution (in a vacuum)?
2
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2answers
9k views

Is H+ (in an aqueous solution) = H3O+? [duplicate]

I was learning about autoionization in science and my science teacher wrote $\ce{H3O+}$ as $\ce{H+}$ — now, my intuition would lead me to assume that: $$\ce{H3O+} = \ce{H+}$$ But, $\ce{H+}$ is just ...
7
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2answers
4k views

Why oxygen is enclosed in parenthesis in some chemical reaction?

While going through my chemistry text book I came through the following reaction. $\ce{RCH2OH + (O) -> RCHO + H2O}$ In the above reaction why oxygen atom is enclosed in parenthesis ?
5
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1answer
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In which state does the bifluoride anion exist?

Statement 1. The $\ce{HF2-}$ ions exist in solid state and also in liquid state but not in aqueous state. Statement 2. The magnitude of hydrogen bonding between $\ce{HF}$ is weaker than that ...
2
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1answer
3k views

Where does the extra electron go in ionic compounds?

In ionic compounds, where does the extra electron go? Or, in case of a cation, from which shell does it come? Consider, for example, $\ce{OH^{-}}$, where did this extra electron go in the electronic ...
2
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1answer
233 views

Which ions are accounted for in total and net ionic equations?

There are a number of things I don't understand about ionic equations. First off, when you do net ionic equations, is it correct that you're only focusing on precipitates? The way I understood it, ...
10
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1answer
4k views

How does the HCl-KCl Buffer work?

I have just been studying the $\ce{HCl}$-$\ce{KCl}$ 'buffer', but there are still quite a few things I am uncertain about. I would appreciate any help in clearing up some questions I have. What I ...
22
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4answers
4k views

How does NaCl maintain its crystalline structure?

My understanding is that $\mathrm{NaCl}$ is an ionic compound, in which $\mathrm{Cl}$ becomes (effectively) $\mathrm{Cl^-}$ and $\mathrm{Na}$ becomes $\mathrm{Na^+}$. So I understand why I would get a ...
12
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3answers
31k views

Differentiation between zinc, aluminium, and magnesium ions in solution

If I have three aqueous ionic solutions in which I know that the cation is $\ce{Al^3+}$, $\ce{Mg^2+}$, or $\ce{Zn^2+}$, how do I find out which is which? I was thinking to add $\ce{OH-}$ in the form ...
6
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3answers
2k views

Why isn't the scandium(2+) cation isoelectronic with potassium?

I saw that I got this question wrong on a test, and was very confused. Why aren't they isoelectronic? $\ce{Sc^2+}$ with atomic number 21 should have 19 electrons since 21 - 2 = 19, which is the same ...
18
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4answers
18k views

Why does salt dissolved in water taste like salt? If it's just Na+ and Cl- ions

When $\ce{NaCl}$ is dissolved into water it breaks down into $\ce{Na+}$ and $\ce{Cl-}$. It stays in this form until the water evaporates and then the ions go back to normal $\ce{NaCl}$. So why does ...
15
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1answer
395 views

How does conductivity work for non-redoxed ions?

Related (very similar, but here I want a mechanism) https://physics.stackexchange.com/q/21827/7433 By the Kohlrausch law, all ions contribute to the conductivity of an electrolyte. Now, as I ...
6
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1answer
3k views

Hybridization of Na in [Na(H2O)6]+

In the complex ion $\ce{[Na(H2O)6]+}$, the sodium cation forms 6 coordinate bonds with water ligands. Typically this octahedral form is associated with $\mathrm{sp^3d^2}$ hybridization as far as I ...
6
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1answer
387 views

How are alkalide ions synthesized?

How are alkalide molecules synthesized, for example, I have read in a paper that the reaction $$\ce{2Na -> Na+ + Na-}$$ is exothermic with a $\Delta H = \pu{-438 kJ/mol}$. I have also read that in ...
20
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6answers
9k views

Do ligands with a positive charge exist?

Are there positively charged ligands which can bind to a central metal atom to form coordination compounds? My thoughts: I know that ligands are Lewis bases which donate a pair of electrons, and the ...
13
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1answer
7k views

Can H4O 2+ form?

Like $\ce{NH4+}$ ,Is there any possibility of formation of $\ce{H4O^{2+}}$ (of tetrahedral structure)? My theory is: it can be formed by osmosis setup where heavy acids like $\ce{H3PO4}$ or $\ce{...
8
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1answer
573 views

How do I determine whether it is the *ferrous* or *ferric* ion that is implied in this displacement reaction?

I'm supposed to write a balanced equation for: $$\ce{Iron(s) + copper(II) sulfate(aq) -> ?}$$ If I use Iron(II)/ferrous I get $$\ce{Fe + CuSO4 -> FeSO4 + Cu}$$ and if I use Iron(III)/ferric, ...
8
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1answer
176 views

Fundamentals of Li-ion Functionality

I would like to have an in-depth understanding of Li-ion batteries functionality, at atomic level. Can anyone help me to understand it? I have included some known background to support my questions. ...
7
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2answers
6k views

What is difference between H⁺ and proton?

What is difference between $\ce{H+}$ and a proton?
7
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2answers
810 views

Superscript and subscript together after the same atom

In the chemical formula of some ion compounds, there is the necessity to write the charge in the superscript and the numbers of atoms in the subscript, but together at the right of the same symbol ...
5
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3answers
10k views

Express the maximum work from a voltaic cell

The net cell reaction of an electrochemical cell and its standard potential is given below: $$\ce{ Mg + 2Ag+ ->Mg^{2+} + 2Ag} \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ E^\circ=3.17\:\mathrm{V}$$ The question is to find the ...
4
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1answer
4k views

Why is the radius of the caesium cation smaller than that of the chloride anion?

I am currently studying the structures of ionic compounds and how we can use radius ratios to predict the possible arrangement of ions in the lattice. My book mentions that the cation to anion radius ...
3
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1answer
887 views

Deuterium removal from water

What percentage of deuterium might be removed from water after a typical electrolysis procedure? From a post on this site I read that, "In the first stage, $\ce{NaOH}$ solution (initially $0.5\rm{M}$) ...