Questions tagged [ionization-energy]

The ionization energy of an atom or molecule describes the minimum amount of energy required to remove an electron from the atom or molecule in the gaseous state. Do not confuse with [electron-affinity].

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Why is leads first ionisation enthalpy greater than that of tin?

Using Slater's rule, I found that both lead and tin's $Z_\mathrm{eff}$ for 6p and 5p electrons equal. However, the ionisation energy is different. Is comparing ionisation enthalpy on the basis of $Z_\...
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H-1 and H-2 comparison [duplicate]

Why do H-1 and H-2 have different ionization energies and radii ? Is this due to the magnetic dipole moment of the neutron in H-2? Source:"Since the mass of a deuteron is about twice that of a proton,...
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Why is the Ionization Energy of Germanium less than that of Silicon?

I've read that in the 13th period, Ga has higher I.E. than Al because of the filling of the d-orbitals in Ga. The text said they have low penetration,hence they don't shield well and the effective ...
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Volume of orbitals

As I was learning about atomic structure, the lecturer made a seemingly dubious claim: The volume of a p orbital is one-third that of the s orbital. Thus, inter-electronic repulsions are ...
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Electron shells and subshells energies [duplicate]

According to what i learned in university, the energy of orbitals increases when the principal quantum number n increases. Also, in a given shell, s orbitals have lower energy than p orbitals which ...
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Ionization energy of S²⁻ vs S

Which of $\ce{S^2-}$ and $\ce{S}$ has smaller ionization energy? On one hand, ionization energy of $\ce{S^2-}$ can be predicted to be smaller than that of $\ce{S}$ because it is "easier" to remove ...
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Why does nitrogen molecule have greater ionization energy than nitrogen atom?

I am studying an article in my book that $\ce{N2}$ molecule has higher ionisation than $\ce{N}$ atom and I have no clue it may be because of strong triply bonded atom then why this is not applicable ...
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Why do impacting electrons have a low probability of causing ionization?

In a section on ionization efficiency and ionization cross section, my mass spectrometry textbook, Mass Spectrometry by Jürgen Gross [1, pp. 38–39], says the following: The ionization energy ...
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Choosing element with the highest ionization energy [duplicate]

Choose the element with the highest ionization energy: 1. Li 2. Be 3. B 4. N 5. O My answer would be 5. O since its very near to F on the periodic table, hence have more ionization ...
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Estimation of pressure and kinetic energy density of stellar interior using kinetic theory of gases

In Physical Chemistry we are working a problem that is confusing. We started by calculating the pressure half way to the centre of the sun assuming that the interior consisted of ionized hydrogen ...
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Why is the ionization energy of thallium less than that of lead?

Does lanthanoid contraction not affect the ionization energy trend of thallium, lead, and bismuth? My book says the trend for ionization energy is Tl< Pb< Bi.
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Ionization energy and charge localization: π-bonds/systems and ionization energy

Page 35 of my textbook, Mass Spectrometry by Jürgen H. Gross, says the following in a section on ionization energy (IE) and charge localization: Molecules with π-bonds have lower IEs than those ...
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In an emission spectrum, the limit of convergence at higher frequency corresponds to the first ionization energy

This is one of the syllabus points in the IB syllabus 12.1. We are advised to use the formula for the energy to remove one electron: $$E = hν$$ which apparently is the same as $$E_2 - E_1$$ where $...
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Are there processes of electric discharge to oxide As(III) into As(V)? [closed]

I want to know if there were any known experiment of electric discharge to oxyde the ion arsenic(III) into the ion arsenic(V).
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How does H's ionization energy relate to its transition energy (Bohr's Model)?

I am currently reviewing some material about orbital energy levels. In my review book there is a short snipet that reads: The IE of $\ce{H}$ from its ground state ($n=1$) is $1312\ \mathrm{kJ/mol}$....
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Removing ozone from a gas flow

I have a potential problem in that I need to reliably remove ozone from a stream of ionized gases, mostly air. The flow rate is quite low, less than 400 sccm. I was thinking of something catalytic, ...
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Why don't ionization energies vary linearly going down Group 2?

I understand why the 1st ionization energies (1st IEs) of Group 2 elements decrease down the group. However, why is the difference between 1st IEs of successive elements greater for Be to Ca and ...
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Second ionization energies of copper(Cu) and silver(Ag)

The ionization energies of copper and silver are First ionization energy: Cu-745.5 kJ/mol Ag-731.0 kJ/mol Second ionization energy: Cu-1958 kJ/mol Ag-2073 kJ/mol Now, looking at the ...
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Heat of formation of aqueous H⁺

In my book it is given that by convention heat of formation of aqueous $\ce{H+}$ is taken to be zero. Heat of formation is energy released or absorbed when 1 mole of a compound is formed from its ...
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Is the first ionization energy in oxygen slightly more than nitrogen?

Why is the first ionization energy in oxygen slightly more than nitrogen? In nitrogen: $\ce{[He] 2s^2 2p^3}$ In oxygen: $\ce{[He] 2s^2 2p^4}$ This tells me that it should be easier to remove an ...
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Why lithium gives flame coloration?

Theoretically speaking, beryllium and magnesium does not give flame test because their atoms are comparatively smaller and the valance electrons are strongly attached to the nucleus. Therefore their ...
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If fluorine has a lower electron affinity than chlorine, why does it have a higher ionization energy?

I have read that fluorine has a lower electron affinity than chlorine despite its lower atomic radius because its electron cloud is extremely dense. If this is the case, shouldn't the ionization ...
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Electronic configuration of period 3 element from its successive ionization energies

Given below are the first five successive ionization energies $(\mathrm{IE})$ in $\pu{kJ mol-1}$ of an element in period 3. $$ \begin{array}{ccccc} \hline \mathrm{IE_1} & \mathrm{IE_2} & \...
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Relation between electron gain enthalpy and electron affinity

The correct relation between electron gain enthalpy $(Δ_\mathrm{eg}H)$ and electron affinity $A_\mathrm{e}$ at any temperature '$T$' is A) $Δ_\mathrm{eg}H = -A_\mathrm{e} - \frac{5}{2}RT$ B) ...
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What happens to the first ionization potential when a hydrogen-like atom captures a particle?

This is a textbook problem from Resonance DLPD Physical Chemistry, Page #83: The mass of a proton is $1836$ times the mass of an electron. If a subatomic particle of mass $207$ times the mass of an ...
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Why ionisation enthalpy of early lanthanides are expected to be greater than early actinides?

In my book Chemistry Part I (NCERT XII), a statement on p. 232 goes like this: It is evident from the behaviour of the actinoids that the ionisation enthalpies of the early actinoids, though not ...
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Relationship between effective nuclear load and periodic properties

The effective nuclear charge is defined as the net positive charge experienced by an electron in a polyelectronic atom. It can be calculated using the well-known Stars Rule. Once I have calculated ...
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Sorting ions by radius and ionization energy

Sort the ions $\ce{F-}$, $\ce{Mg^2+}$, $\ce{O^2-}$ by their ionic radius and the minimal energy needed to remove an electron. For the radius I considered that they all have the same electron ...
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Why is ionisation energy of bismuth lower than lead?

Why is ionisation enthalpy of Bismuth less than that of Lead for it just comes after the latter in periodic table? First ionisation energy of bismuth is 703 kg/mol while that of lead is 715 kg/mol. I ...
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Work function vs ionization enthalpy [closed]

I've seen that the work function of a particular metal is always greater than its work function. Is it the case always? If so why? For example, the first ionization energy of sodium is 5.14 eV/atom(...
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Why is the common magnesium ion Mg(II) and not Mg(I) when the second ionization energy is higher than the first ionization energy?

The first ionization energy for magnesium is given as $\pu{737.7 kJ/mol}$, and the second ionization energy is $\pu{1450.7 kJ/mol}$. Given this information, doesn't it take $\pu{737.7 kJ/mol}$ to ...
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Anomalous trends in ionization energy

I want to address two exceptions in the trend of ionization energy across the period, that are causing me problems: Taking the second period as an example : The two exceptions from the general trend ...
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How to find the formula of an binary oxide based on the ionisation energies? [closed]

I am a little confused about this multiple choice question and what the requirements are to answer it. It is for a year 11 chemistry student that I am helping and I think I am going in a little too ...
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Why isn't ionization energy called cationization energy? [closed]

I'm learning chemistry and ionization energy is "[...] the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron, the valence electron, of an isolated gaseous atom to form a cation." It ...
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Comparing first, second, and third ionization energies between atoms

Among the elements boron, carbon, nitrogen, and magnesium, what are the first ionization energies from least to greatest? What about the second and third ionization energies? I understand the first ...
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Is the energy of the orbital an electron “resides” in, considered to be a factor of that electrons ionization energy? [duplicate]

The answers to a Quora question mainly refer to the factors as generally being, the electrostatic forces of attraction between the electron and the positively charged nucleus and all other events, by ...
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what is the basic factor which determines the order of ionization energies of K,Li,Ca,S?

There was a question which was asking about the order of ionization energies of K,Li,Ca,S. The electronic configuration of all the elements were as follows Li:${1s^2 2s^1}$ K :${1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 ...
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is Li ion less stable than Li atom? [closed]

so our teacher introduced the concept of ionization energy... heres my doubt : if we remove an electron from , say, Lithium , we need to supply energy first and that will be very less compared to the ...
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Can the first ionization energy for a specific element be calculated?

I'm taking a first-year Inorganic Chemistry course in college, and stumbled upon this problem: For $\ce{Mn}$ and $\ce{P}$, calculate the first ionization energy and explain the difference between ...
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Successive ionization energies (work functions?) for metals

Are there tables for successive ionization energies for metals (like for gases)? All I can find are work functions to remove one electron from the surface of a metal into vacuum (and to keep it there)....
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Ionization energy of C2-, C2, and C2+

My textbook says that $\ce{C_2}^-$ has a lower ionization energy than both $\ce{C_2}$ and $\ce{C_2}^+$. I calculated that the bond orders of $\ce{C_2}^+$, $\ce{C_2}$, and $\ce{C_2}^-$ are 1.5, 2, and ...
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Ionization energy in Geiger counters

Geiger counters can detect radioactivity because nuclear radiation consists of particles or radiation of sufficiently high energy to eject electrons from atoms. Consequently, this type of radiation is ...
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Why is electron gain generally exothermic?

I understand that we need to supply energy to counter the nuclear attraction when we remove electrons, and that is the reason why ionization energy is endothermic. However, why does an atom release ...
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Can visible light or infrared radiation excite electrons?

So the limit of ionizing radiation seems to be UV light. I'm wondering if IR light or Visible light can excite the electrons in an atom. It has to do with the difference in energy level right? So ...
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How can I relate the reactivity series to electronegativity and ionization energy?

I am trying to figure out how the reactivity series comes about. My understanding is that elements with a higher electronegativity will be more reactive than elements with a lower electronegativity, ...
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What is the ionization constant, $K_a$, of the acid?

A 0.45 M solution of a weak acid, HX, has a pH of 4.5. What is the ionization constant, $K_a$, of the acid? Attempt at solution: [HX] is already given as 0.45 M. [H+] is given by $10^{-4.5}$. ...
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Second Ionisation Energy in d Block elements

The second ionisation energy is expected to be highest for element with atomic number: 22 24 25 30 I had expected the answer to be option 2 because the second electron has to be ...
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What is the range of photon energies can be effectively used to split a diatomic molecule like hydrogen?

I saw photo-ignition of hydrogen-chlorine mixture using UV light on YouTube. Chlorine molecule bond dissociation energy is $\pu{2.51 eV}$ (bluish colour). Bromine molecule bond dissociation energy is ...
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Order of second iozination energies of lithium,berillium,neon,carbon and boron?

The correct arrange of them is like this: Be < B < Li ... But why? Li will have the greatest IE2 (second ionization energy) because that will involve removing a core electron, but what I am ...
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The irregular trend in ionization enthalpy of 3d elements

The d block elements display several exceptional behaviours, and one of them is the irregular trend in ionization enthalpy of 3d elements. The reason given by my textbook is very confusing, which I'...