Questions tagged [ionization-energy]

The ionization energy of an atom or molecule describes the minimum amount of energy required to remove an electron from the atom or molecule in the gaseous state. Do not confuse with [electron-affinity].

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Reorganization during ionisation for d block elements

This is a quote from my textbook: The irregular trend in the first ionisation enthalpy of 3d lmetals,can be accounted for by considering that the removal of one electron alters the relative ...
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Why Zn has highest ionisation enthalpy in 3d series?

Zn which has the highest ionisation enthalpy in 3d series.The reason given in my textbook is: The value of zinc is higher because it represent ionisation from 4s level. This is not correct because ...
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Why does hydrogen have a lower ionization energy than fluorine?

I found here that the ionization energy of hydrogen is $\pu{1312kJ/mol}$ and for fluorine, it is $\pu{1681kJ/mol}$. Now clearly, from the data, we can see that hydrogen has a lower ionization energy ...
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Is reverse transition is possible?

We have seen many times, especially in d-block, where an atom of d-block like $\ce{Cr}$ which has outer most atomic configuration as $4s^2$, $3d^4$, there will be a transfer of one electron from ...
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Heats of formation of neutral molecules and homolytic vs heterolytic bond dissociation in mass spectrometry

I am currently studying the textbook, Mass Spectrometry, third edition, by Jürgen H. Gross. Chapter 2.4.3 Bond Dissociation Energies and Heats of Formation says the following: Great efforts have ...
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Work function and ionization energy

I've seen that the first ionization energy of a particular metal is always greater than its work function. This implies that the valence electrons in an isolated atom are more strongly bound than the ...
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Why ionisation enthalpy of early lanthanides are expected to be greater than early actinides?

In my book Chemistry Part I (NCERT XII), a statement on p. 232 goes like this: It is evident from the behaviour of the actinoids that the ionisation enthalpies of the early actinoids, though not ...
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How to calculate the energy to dissociate a bond into neutral atoms?

I am self studying chemistry through MiT ocw 5.111 . On practice exam 2 problem 2 there is a question which states the following ...
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Why is there a big jump in first ionisation energy between sodium and potassium?

I know the trend in group 1 is that ionisation energy decreases down the group due to an increase in atomic radius and more energy levels are added so more shielding, but I'm not sure why there's such ...
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Electron Ionization and the Franck-Condon Diagram: vibrationally excited and vibrationally ground states

I am currently studying Mass Spectrometry: A Textbook, third edition, by Jürgen H. Gross. On page 41, the author says the following: As explained by the Franck-Condon diagram, hardly any molecular ...
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Ionization trends in period 6 [closed]

I know that there is a drop of Ionization energy in the second period with Nitrogen and Oxygen, but why does that not apply to bismiuth and polonium, which are in the same groups but different period.
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Second ionization energies of copper(Cu) and silver(Ag)

The ionization energies of copper and silver are First ionization energy: Cu-745.5 kJ/mol Ag-731.0 kJ/mol Second ionization energy: Cu-1958 kJ/mol Ag-2073 kJ/mol Now, looking at the ...
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The irregular trend in ionization enthalpy of 3d elements

The d block elements display several exceptional behaviours, and one of them is the irregular trend in ionization enthalpy of 3d elements. The reason given by my textbook is very confusing, which I'...
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Why does iron have an abnormally high ionization energy?

Along a period the ionization energy should increase because the atomic number is increasing, but there is negligible increase in shielding. However, $\mathrm{IE}_\ce{Mn} < \mathrm{IE}_\ce{Fe} > ...
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Why does Calcium have a higher ionization energy than Aluminium?

Given their places on the periodic table I'd assume Aluminium has a higher ionization energy, because it has fewer energy levels, and is on a "righter" row on the periodic table, but in reality it is ...
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Does electron shielding increase or stay constant moving LEFT to RIGHT across a period?

Does electron shielding increase or stay constant moving left to right across a period? I have read about both, and I just want to know which one is right. I believe that electron shielding remains ...
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Second Ionisation Energy Confusion

It is intuitive that the second ionisation will require more energy than the first. However, I'm having trouble explaining exactly why. I came across this other question on a similar topic: Why second ...
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Reason for usage of Metal chlorides and Platinum or Nichrome wires in flame test

I'm studying about the s-block elements in my course of Inorganic Chemistry and I happened to come across the following text. Electrons may be quite readily excited to a higher energy level, for ...
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X-ray bombardment of CaCl2 and its resultant chemical changes

If one were to take $\pu{1 mol}$ of pure liquid Calcium Chloride (at $\pu{600 ^\circ C}$) and bombard it with $\pu{7.65 \times 10^{14} Ci}$ ($\pu{2.83 \times 10^25 particles}$) of x-rays ($\pu{75 keV}$...
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Ionization energy of beryllium

Suppose I have $\ce{Be^3+}$. What would be its 4th ionization energy? By trying to solve the issue I saw that its a "hydrogen-like" atom – means that beryllium left with only $1$ electron in his ...
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Comparing ionisation energy between an element and an ion [closed]

Choose one that has the biggest ionization energy: $\ce{Br-}$ and $\ce{Kr}$ $\ce{Cl-}$ and $\ce{Ar}$ $\ce{Cl}$ and $\ce{Cl-}$ I am not sure how I can compare the ionization energy ...
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Database for experimental diatomic ionization energies

I am looking for a database, in which the experimental ionization energies (and e.g. heat of formation) of atoms and diatomic molecules are listed as files. If it comes with a Python package, that ...
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Why is the 2nd ionization energy of chloride similar to that of sulfur?

The first ionization energy of chloride is significantly greater than that of sulfur. I suggest that this is very expected as the effective nuclear charge of chloride is higher and additionally, ...
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How can I relate the reactivity series to electronegativity and ionization energy?

I am trying to figure out how the reactivity series comes about. My understanding is that elements with a higher electronegativity will be more reactive than elements with a lower electronegativity, ...
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Ionization energy of neon vs its cationic counterpart

Which requires more ionization energy: $\ce{Ne}$ or $\ce{Ne+}?$ It seems to me like it should be neon because of noble gas configuration, but the answer given is $\ce{Ne+}.$ Does this anything to do ...
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Why is lead's first ionisation enthalpy greater than that of tin?

Using Slater's rule, I found that both lead and tin's $Z_\mathrm{eff}$ for 6p and 5p electrons equal. However, the ionisation energy is different. Is comparing ionisation enthalpy on the basis of $Z_\...
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Why is the Ionization Energy of Germanium less than that of Silicon?

I've read that in the 13th period, Ga has higher I.E. than Al because of the filling of the d-orbitals in Ga. The text said they have low penetration,hence they don't shield well and the effective ...
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Volume of orbitals

As I was learning about atomic structure, the lecturer made a seemingly dubious claim: The volume of a p orbital is one-third that of the s orbital. Thus, inter-electronic repulsions are ...
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Electron shells and subshells energies [duplicate]

According to what i learned in university, the energy of orbitals increases when the principal quantum number n increases. Also, in a given shell, s orbitals have lower energy than p orbitals which ...
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Ionization energy of S²⁻ vs S

Which of $\ce{S^2-}$ and $\ce{S}$ has smaller ionization energy? On one hand, ionization energy of $\ce{S^2-}$ can be predicted to be smaller than that of $\ce{S}$ because it is "easier" to remove ...
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Why does nitrogen molecule have greater ionization energy than nitrogen atom?

I am studying an article in my book that $\ce{N2}$ molecule has higher ionisation than $\ce{N}$ atom and I have no clue it may be because of strong triply bonded atom then why this is not applicable ...
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Why do impacting electrons have a low probability of causing ionization?

In a section on ionization efficiency and ionization cross section, my mass spectrometry textbook, Mass Spectrometry by Jürgen Gross [1, pp. 38–39], says the following: The ionization energy ...
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Estimation of pressure and kinetic energy density of stellar interior using kinetic theory of gases

In Physical Chemistry we are working a problem that is confusing. We started by calculating the pressure half way to the centre of the sun assuming that the interior consisted of ionized hydrogen ...
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Why is the ionization energy of thallium less than that of lead?

Does lanthanoid contraction not affect the ionization energy trend of thallium, lead, and bismuth? My book says the trend for ionization energy is Tl< Pb< Bi.
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Ionization energy and charge localization: π-bonds/systems and ionization energy

Page 35 of my textbook, Mass Spectrometry by Jürgen H. Gross, says the following in a section on ionization energy (IE) and charge localization: Molecules with π-bonds have lower IEs than those ...
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In an emission spectrum, the limit of convergence at higher frequency corresponds to the first ionization energy

This is one of the syllabus points in the IB syllabus 12.1. We are advised to use the formula for the energy to remove one electron: $$E = hν$$ which apparently is the same as $$E_2 - E_1$$ where $...
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Are there processes of electric discharge to oxide As(III) into As(V)? [closed]

I want to know if there were any known experiment of electric discharge to oxyde the ion arsenic(III) into the ion arsenic(V).
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How does H's ionization energy relate to its transition energy (Bohr's Model)?

I am currently reviewing some material about orbital energy levels. In my review book there is a short snipet that reads: The IE of $\ce{H}$ from its ground state ($n=1$) is $1312\ \mathrm{kJ/mol}$....
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Removing ozone from a gas flow

I have a potential problem in that I need to reliably remove ozone from a stream of ionized gases, mostly air. The flow rate is quite low, less than 400 sccm. I was thinking of something catalytic, ...
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Why don't ionization energies vary linearly going down Group 2?

I understand why the 1st ionization energies (1st IEs) of Group 2 elements decrease down the group. However, why is the difference between 1st IEs of successive elements greater for Be to Ca and ...
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Heat of formation of aqueous H⁺

In my book it is given that by convention heat of formation of aqueous $\ce{H+}$ is taken to be zero. Heat of formation is energy released or absorbed when 1 mole of a compound is formed from its ...
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Is the first ionization energy in oxygen slightly more than nitrogen?

Why is the first ionization energy in oxygen slightly more than nitrogen? In nitrogen: $\ce{[He] 2s^2 2p^3}$ In oxygen: $\ce{[He] 2s^2 2p^4}$ This tells me that it should be easier to remove an ...
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Why lithium gives flame coloration?

Theoretically speaking, beryllium and magnesium does not give flame test because their atoms are comparatively smaller and the valance electrons are strongly attached to the nucleus. Therefore their ...
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If fluorine has a lower electron affinity than chlorine, why does it have a higher ionization energy?

I have read that fluorine has a lower electron affinity than chlorine despite its lower atomic radius because its electron cloud is extremely dense. If this is the case, shouldn't the ionization ...
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Electronic configuration of period 3 element from its successive ionization energies

Given below are the first five successive ionization energies $(\mathrm{IE})$ in $\pu{kJ mol-1}$ of an element in period 3. $$ \begin{array}{ccccc} \hline \mathrm{IE_1} & \mathrm{IE_2} & \...
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Relation between electron gain enthalpy and electron affinity

The correct relation between electron gain enthalpy $(Δ_\mathrm{eg}H)$ and electron affinity $A_\mathrm{e}$ at any temperature '$T$' is A) $Δ_\mathrm{eg}H = -A_\mathrm{e} - \frac{5}{2}RT$ B) ...
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What happens to the first ionization potential when a hydrogen-like atom captures a particle?

This is a textbook problem from Resonance DLPD Physical Chemistry, Page #83: The mass of a proton is $1836$ times the mass of an electron. If a subatomic particle of mass $207$ times the mass of an ...
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Relationship between effective nuclear load and periodic properties

The effective nuclear charge is defined as the net positive charge experienced by an electron in a polyelectronic atom. It can be calculated using the well-known Stars Rule. Once I have calculated ...
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Why is ionisation energy of bismuth lower than lead?

Why is ionisation enthalpy of Bismuth less than that of Lead for it just comes after the latter in periodic table? First ionisation energy of bismuth is 703 kg/mol while that of lead is 715 kg/mol. I ...
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Why is the common magnesium ion Mg(II) and not Mg(I) when the second ionization energy is higher than the first ionization energy?

The first ionization energy for magnesium is given as $\pu{737.7 kJ/mol}$, and the second ionization energy is $\pu{1450.7 kJ/mol}$. Given this information, doesn't it take $\pu{737.7 kJ/mol}$ to ...