Questions tagged [ionic-compounds]

Compounds in which at least some of bonds have ionic character stronger than covalent or metallic. Many compounds called salts are ionic compounds but not all of them.

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Why does the Leidenfrost effect (seemingly) not apply to the case of molten NaCl when it is poured into water?

On pouring molten sodium chloride into water you can see that when molten $\ce{NaCl}$ (table salt, i.e. sodium chloride) is poured into water ($\ce{H2O}$), the Leidenfrost effect appears to be ...
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The Conductivity of Electrolytes based on structure of Ionic Crystal [closed]

Background I want to run an experiment to test the conductivity of various ionic compounds dissolved in water. I was hoping to see some sort of trend in the increase/decrease of conductivity based ...
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8k views

Which has a greater dominance: hydration enthalpy or lattice energy?

When I was reading my notes I came up with a problem. I read that for the s block element salts, when checking the solubility, we consider the hydration enthalpy so we decide their stability in water. ...
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211 views

How can an ionic bond have partial covalent in character? [duplicate]

I was going through the topic of 'ionic bond' and read this: No bond is 100% ionic in character. It has some percentage of covalent character. I didn't understand how an ionic bond can be ...
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1answer
2k views

What is the difference between an ionic compound and a salt? [duplicate]

What is the difference between an ionic compound and a salt? They both have a cation and an anion bonded. On one of my homework sheets, it says that $\ce{NaCl}$ is an ionic compound (which it ...
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Ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvent cation vs anion shape

If we consider an ionic liquid of a deep eutectic such as the choline chloride type DESs, why are ionic liquids (and deep eutectics) with not very symmetric cations and very symmetric anions more ...
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3k views

Comparing ionic character of group 1 elements

According to Fajan's rule ionic character should increase down the group as the size of cation increase. So it must be $$\ce{LiH < NaH < KH < RbH < CsH}$$ However, the following two ...
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1answer
75 views

Is a non-compound molecule a chemical substance?

The Wikipedia definition of chemical substance states: A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that has constant chemical composition and characteristic properties....
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126 views

Metallic character of bonds?

Why in discussions of percent character of bonds, are only ionic and covalent bondings discussed? Do bonds not have a partial metallic character, and are either metallic and ionic-covalent?
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Is PbO ionic compound?

In IIT-JAM 2018, There was one question, which one of the following oxides are ionic? There was one option PbO also. According to the official answer key, PbO isn't ionic. Although I know this ...
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1answer
971 views

Identifying covalent character in ionic compounds when varying multiple ions

By Fajans' rules, we can easily find out which compound shows covalent character. Example: Among $\ce{NaCl}$, $\ce{MgCl2}$, $\ce{AlCl3}$ which one is more covalent? Answer: There is a point in ...
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1answer
129 views

Why are ionic reactions very fast in aqueous medium? [closed]

(No, I am not talking about why Ionic Reactions are faster than Covalent reaction.) This question has me stumped. I mean, at first it looks obvious; water is polar in nature, but what exactly does ...
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1answer
427 views

What changes does zinc chloride undergo when ‘fusing’ on an atomic level? How does this influence reactivity?

I have been using a reaction with an organozincate starting material. This zincate is freshly prepared from zinc chloride and a Grignard reagent. The experimental procedure ‘handed down’ from more ...
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Is it possible to freeze water by dissolving a salt?

Theoretically, by dissolving a salt in water the melting point lowers, approximately 1.86 K kg/mol, making it more difficult to freeze water. However, the process of dissolution of certain salts is ...
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The impossibility of 100% ionic bond

Recently, I read the definition of oxidation state on Wikipedia. It read that a 100% ionic bond is impossible. So what does a 75% ionic and 25% covalent bond mean at all?
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Reversed size dependence in ion solubility

My book says that solubility increases with interionic distance, because the attractive forces between ions gets smaller. However, if one of the ions in a binary ionic system is very large compared to ...
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1answer
6k views

Are all ionic compounds salts?

According to Wikipedia: A salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base. Are all ionic compounds salts? Are all salts ionic compounds?
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When comparing boiling points of two ionic compounds, what bonding factors should you assess?

When comparing boiling points of two ionic compounds, should you look at their electronegativity difference, lattice energy, or strength from LDF forces (or all 3 factors)? For example, between LiCL ...
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1answer
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How do you write the ionization equation for calcium hydroxide?

This is a base that would ionize completely, and the dissociation equation would look like this: $$\ce{Ca(OH)2 <--> Ca^2+ + 2OH-}$$ but how would I write the Brønsted equation with water? $$\ce{...
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1answer
175 views

How do the pKa and pH indicate to the proper environment of protonation?

I have been reading an abstract of a paper for a couple of minutes (reference below) but I cannot understand a piece of it. The abstract: The ionization state and $\mathrm pK_\mathrm a$ of the ...
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Fajans' Rules Versus Lattice Enthalpy

In analyzing the solubility among $\ce{CaF2, CaCl2, CaBr2}$, I found that $\ce{CaF2}$ is insoluble due to high ionization enthalpy. But comparing among $\ce{AgF, AgCl, AgBr }$, it was said that $\...
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1answer
422 views

So, is baking soda actually a strong base? [duplicate]

Based on my recent thoughts, when baking soda ($\ce{NaHCO3}$) is dissolved in water, the following hydrolysis reaction occurs: $$\ce{NaHCO3 + H2O <=> NaOH + H2CO3}$$ However, $$\ce{H2CO3 -> ...
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Ionic Compounds [closed]

Do elements share chemical or physical properties in an ionic compound? I mean if a metal would have an ionic compound with a nonmetal would the compound have physical properties of the metal and ...
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How to calculate the concentration of the elements after dissolution of iron(III) chloride?

I was presented with the following problem: In the laboratory you dissolve $\pu{24.7 g}$ of iron(III) chloride in a volumetric flask in water to a total volume of $\pu{375 ml}$. What is ...
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Is molten potassium nitrate possible?

Is it possible to melt potassium nitrate without it decomposing into potassium nitrite and oxygen? If so when it solidifies does it keep its oxidizing properties?
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Which has higher lattice energy: MgO or LiF?

Which has higher lattice energy: MgO or LiF ? A compound has higher lattice energy if it's ions have smaller size and greater charge Li cation is smaller than Mg cation => +1 for (LiF) Fluoride ...
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439 views

To what extent are the radius ratio rules valid for predicting the crystal structure of an ionic compound?

The ionic radii of $\ce{Ba^2+}$ and $\ce{O^2-}$ in barium oxide are $\pu{135pm}$ and $\pu{140pm}$, respectively. The ratio of the radius of $\ce{Ba^2+}$ to $\ce{O^2-}$ is approximately $0.964$. ...
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How does the electron configuration correlate with the emission spectrum of an ionic compound? [closed]

trying to find a way to correlate the electron configuration of an ionic compound (ie. Cupric sulfate, potassium chloride, Cupric chloride, sodium carbonate, strontium chloride) with its emission ...
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926 views

What is the analogue of “molecule” for ionic compounds?

In a system, if we have $\pu{18 g}$ of $\ce{H2O}$ ($M_\mathrm r = 18$), we can say we have a mole of water molecules or $6 \times 10^{23}$ molecules. But in another system, if we have $\pu{342 g}$ of $...
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Why is lead (IV) chloride covalent while lead (II) chloride ionic?

I would like to find out more about what makes a compound ionic and what makes one covalent. However, I felt this was too general a question so I thought that asking about the chlorides of lead would ...
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1answer
4k views

How do you explain the formula Fe3O4 using the ionic compound theory?

I don't understand at all how the ionic bonding in $\text{Fe}$$3$$\text{O}$$4$ works. The oxygens all together have $4(–2e)=–8e$ net charge. But we cannot give the three irons equal positive charges ...
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How to interpret the shape in this representation of an electride?

This excellent answer describes the appearance of solvated electrons in ammonia as first a blue, and then metallic color. It is produced by dissolving sodium in ammonia at low temperature. According ...
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839 views

How to know which ionic compound have the highest lattice energy without knowing the values of the radii?

Given two ionic compounds, for instance: $$\ce{CaS} \quad \mathrm{or} \quad \ce{KCl}$$ What is the procedure to predict which of the two have the highest lattice energy (in absolute value)? (...
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If I drink water without sipping, is there a chance of saliva diffusing into my bottle?

I always prefer to drink water without sipping, like this: I do this so that my saliva doesn't contaminate the water contents, which would make the water impossible to share with my friends. But ...
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1answer
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Why is the empirical formula of sodium chloride NaCl? [duplicate]

Since we know in sodium chloride crystal sodium ions are surrounded by $6$ chloride ions and each chloride ions are again bonded to $6$ sodium ions. What I want to know is that on what basis empirical ...
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282 views

Why does the conductivity of a LiOH solution decrease when boric acid is added?

If I start with pure water and add $\ce{LiOH}$ the conductivity of solution increases. However, if I then dissolve boric acid in the same solution the conductivity falls. I would have thought adding ...
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An ionic compound dissociates into 3 ions of 3 different elements?

When an ionic compound dissolves in water and becomes ions. 1) Typically we see: $\ce{AB ->}$ Ions $\ce{A+ + B-}$ $\ce{ABC ->}$ Ions $\ce{AB+ + C-}$ 2) But how about the one below, is there ...
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Why is there an increasing solubility in water for chlorides, chlorates, perchlorates in that order?

According to Wikipedia $\pu{100 mL}$ of water dissolve at $\pu{25 ^\circ{}C}$ about $\pu{35 g}$ of $\ce{NaCl}$ (1), but about $\pu{79 g}$ of $\ce{NaClO3}$ (2), and around $\pu{210 g}$ for $\ce{NaClO4}$...
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Where can I find a downloadable database of basic physical and chemical properties?

The web has many online databases of properties of compounds locked behind search interfaces, but I can't find anything you can actually download. I want a corpus of data that might allow me to, say, ...
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Dissociation of zinc hydride

How can we determine if zinc hydride is a ionic compound? If it is a ionic compound then why doesn't it dissociate when put in water?
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Covalent and Ionic Bonds

Is sodium nitrate a covalent or ionic compound? This is a test question. I put the answer ionic compound but my teacher says that statement is false because it is only partially ionic as there is ...
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1answer
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Crystallisation and crystal surface

It is my understanding that if you put table salt (as an example of polar compound) in water, the Na+ and Cl- ions will freely move through the solution. They will make the solution conductive and ...
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1answer
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Anion-exchanged compound - smaller 1H NMR integrations

I anion exchanged one of my compounds (Br- to PF6-) and the NMR integrations changed as shown on the two NMRs below. The aliphatic region peaks integrate to smaller values in the second one. Are there ...
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3answers
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Why does adding salt to water reduce the pH?

I recently heard someone claim that adding table salt to vinegar caused HCl to form which helped them clean coins - clearly not the case - however I thought I'd disprove it by doing an experiment. So ...
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What is melting? Which bonds do we break to melt something?

To melt diamond, we have to break the covalent bonds, which we can consider 'intermolecular' because it is one giant molecule. To melt Methane, we have to break the van der Waals (intermolecular) ...
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520 views

Dielectric constant and dissolution of ionic salts

We say that salts like $\ce{NaCl}$ get easily dissolved in water because the dielectric constant of water is very high. I know the dielectric constant of water is 81 and if a salt is put into water ...
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Why is the melting point of magnesium oxide higher than aluminium oxide?

There's a graph of the melting points of period three oxides. The melting point of magnesium oxide is several hundred Kelvin higher than aluminiumoxide. I can't find any explanations for this on the ...
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1answer
1k views

How do hydrogen bonds break the ionic bonds of a crystal lattice? [duplicate]

In the case of water dissolving sodium chloride. I was under the impression that hydrogen bonds were much weaker than the ionic bonds in sodium chloride, so how do they overcome the ionic bond ...
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1answer
431 views

Why does Fluorine have a high affinity for Calcium?

I keep hearing from several websites and videos that Fluorine seems to like bonding to Calcium specifically; can someone please tell me why? I can't seem to find a clear response on the internet. ...
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1answer
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Why do Ca-Ca distances get shorter in ionic structures, as compared to the metal?

I saw in the book Chemistry of the Elements by Greenwood & Earnshaw, 2nd ed., p 66, that the distance between calcium atoms decrease when it's forming an ionic structure. The closest $\ce{M-M}$ ...