Questions tagged [ionic-compounds]

Compounds in which at least some of bonds have ionic character stronger than covalent or metallic. Many compounds called salts are ionic compounds but not all of them.

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82 views

What exactly is lattice energy?

I was going through my chemistry textbook (Chemistry, 10th Ed. by Raymond Chang) when I encountered this explanation of lattice energy. 9.3 Lattice Energy of Ionic Compounds We can predict which ...
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why does lithium fluoride have a higher lattice energy than lithium iodide?

Based on my knowledge, lattice energy is proportional to the multiplcation of the charge of the ions, divided by the sum of the radius of ions, as follows. Since iodide has a larger radius than ...
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Lewis structures and chemical-compound formulas [closed]

In the Lewis structures listed below, M and X represent various elements in the third period of the periodic table. Write the formula of each compound using the chemical symbols of each element: a. b. ...
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When you melt an ionic compound, do you “break” its electrostatic force of attraction, or its lattice energy?

I know that the melting point and the boiling point of ionic compounds are very high. However, when I was trying to find the reason for this, I found that this is because of the high electrostatic ...
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What happens to boiled (BMIM)PF6?

[BMIM]PF6, or 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, is commonly used as an ionic liquid. As has been shown by the accepted answer to this question, sodium chloride that has been made to ...
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Why can’t I use solubility product for normally soluble compounds?

Solubility product only applies to sparing soluble ionic compounds (chemguide) I read this in a website. But I don’t see what this should be the case. Taking $\ce{NaCl}$ for example, there’s an ...
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Why is some ionic substance insoluble, such as BaSO4?

If Ba is less electronegative than Mg, then why is BaSO4 insoluble in water and MgSO4 is soluble? I thought the greater the EN difference the more soluble the compound is because of how unequally ...
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Why isn't the chemistry of a zinc-air battery (meaningfully) hindered by an activation energy barrier?

Virtually every source I've read pertaining to zinc-air batteries explain the chemistry of it either using these formulae or a simplified version of them: $$ \begin{align} &\text{Anode:} &\...
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A question about net ionic equations

I have a question regarding net ionic equations. In a solution, sodium fluoride and hydrochloric acid are mixed together. The "correct" net ionic equation is shown below. However, how can this ...
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In a battery, what happens to LiCoO2 when the lithium leaves? It becomes CoO2?

What chemical compound exists at the cathode of a lithium-ion battery when the lithium is not there? The cathode is usually described as $\ce{LiCoO2}$, so does it become $\ce{CoO2}$? $\ce{CoO2}$ ...
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Calculating concentration of OH⁻ ions [closed]

Calculate concentration of $\ce{OH-}$ ions in $\pu{0.66 mol L^-1}$ solution of $\ce{NH4+}.$ I think that there might be something missing, as the only law I have for this kind of problems is $$[\ce{...
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Can one describe the bonding of Na to F in terms of molecular orbital theory? What about valence bond theory?

I would kindly appreciate an explanation in terms of the two accepted quantum mechanical theories -valence bond & molecular orbitals- for the electronic energy level structure in natrium fluoride $...
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What are the limitations of the Born-Lande' equation?

The Born-Lande' equation is used to theoretically calculate the lattice energy, $\Delta U$, of ionic compounds. It is often cited as such in literature, $$\Delta U = -\frac{k_Az_1z_2Me^2}{4 \pi \...
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Calculation of Degree of Dissociation from Ostwald's Dilution Law

A "weak" electrolyte, $\ce{A+B-}$, ionizes in solution as: $$\ce{AB <=> A+ + B-}\tag{1}$$ $$ K_d =\dfrac{\ce{[A+][B-]}}{\ce{[AB]}}=\dfrac{(\alpha c_{0})(\alpha c_{0})}{(1-\alpha )c_{0}}=\...
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Ionic compound formation [closed]

Why do oxygen atoms differ in number in the compund Aluminate and Arsenate even they have the same suffixes ... Where Aluminate has 3 oxygen and Arsenate has 4 oxygen atoms.
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Unit cell structure of ionic crystal

I have a question about the structure of an LiH unit cell, and while this is related to a homework problem, it isn't the problem itself, I'm just looking for conceptual understanding. I've already ...
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Reaction of copper oxide with acid [closed]

Copper metal is less electropositive than hydrogen and thus less reactive. It is unable to displace hydrogen ions from a solution of sulfuric(IV) acid. Why then would copper oxide or copper carbonate ...
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Bond strength of carbon compounds

I read online that C=O is more stronger than C=N and the reason behind this was, 'Since bond between C and O is more polar hence it will have a slightly higher ionic nature than C and N. As we know ...
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Basic Water Dissolving Salt Questions

I have a basic question about how water dissolves salt. In the Khan Academy explanation, it says that the H and Cl atoms attract each other while the O and Na atoms attract each other. My question: ...
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152 views

Conditions for Complete hydrolysis of salt [closed]

My text book says that the cations (or anions) which are stronger than hydronium ion(or OH-) and their conjugate base (or acid) being very much weaker than water show complete hydrolysis. While the ...
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Seeing solubility in various cases

[![enter image description here][1]][1] Question is in the image 'match' each option having multiple answers. I have invested a considerable time over this but couldn't solve it. Anyone explaining how ...
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Are there ionic solids that conduct electricity?

We are taught in school that ionic substances don't conduct electricity, and when they do, it is either because they are in a molten state or because they are in solution. I understand these concepts. ...
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How can I remove the bitartrate anion from an organic bitartrate salt?

I have a compound, dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) bitartrate, which I originally purchased as a supplement and possible smart drug. I bought an absurd amount of it. It didn’t do anything for me as a ...
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Covalent Bonds and Ionic Bonds [duplicate]

Covalent bond is a strong bond compared to Ionic Bonds but Ionic Compounds have higher melting and boiling points then covalent compounds. Why?
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How can ionic bonding in lanthanides occur without valence orbitals available for overlap?

I've recently been taught that the 4f orbitals in lanthanides are "core-like", supposedly meaning they have radius smaller than the 4d orbitals, therefore they are not available on the outside of the ...
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Why do ionic compounds form in the exact ratios that they do instead of more variable ratios? [closed]

I read that e.g. $\ce{Mg^{2+}}$ and $\ce{Cl-}$ come together because of electrostatic force or coulomb force and form an ionic bond. Then why is the formula $\ce{MgCl2}$? Why does one $\ce{Mg^{2+}}$ ...
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Why are stable ionic charges so strongly related to the group number?

Why do lighter elements have ionic charges so strongly related to the group number? For example, why does $\ce{Al}$ only show +3 ionic charge? The basic concept of stability in an ionic compound is ...
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How to account for the common ion effect on osmolarity quantitatively?

In adjusting the osmolarity of a solution of Benzalknonium Cl, Disodium Editate, and Disodium borate/boric acid buffer to be isotonic (about 290 mOsm), the addition of NaCl showed unexpected behavior, ...
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186 views

Can Ca and K exist as an ionic compound?

Recently in the Chemistry.SE chatroom a user posted this to celebrate the New Year: Can Ca and K exist as an ionic compound? If not, why is it impossible? Ca with atomic number 20, K 19 so 2019 -...
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Does brewing tea with hard water reduce the amount of bioavailable fluorine?

I read that brewed tea contains a relatively large concentration of Fluorine. Fluorine can have negative health effects such as Skeletal Fluorosis. EDIT: I understand some Fluorine is necessary and ...
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309 views

Why does aluminum chloride have a higher lattice energy than aluminum fluoride?

From the table below (source: McMurry's Chemistry [1, p. 212]), it is evident that $\ce{AlCl_3}$ has a higher lattice energy than $\ce{AlF3},$ even though $\ce{F}$ is smaller than $\ce{Cl}$. Why is ...
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A question about nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

In the structure of NAD+, why does the nitrogen of pyridine bind covalently to the the first carbon of glucose while the anion stabilizing the nicotine amide ion is the phosphate group? In other words,...
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Why are alkali metal compounds like sodium hydride or sodium amide strong bases but weak nucleophiles?

I understand why compounds such as $\ce{NaH}$ or $\ce{NaNH2}$ are weak nucleophiles: as they aren't very soluble in organic solvents, they react only on the clusters' surface. But why are they strong ...
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Clarifying question about chloride ions, water softening & corrosion

I have a question regarding the use of NaCl as a water softener. Recently i was asked to comment on a series of test results from a water softening device were a lot of corrosion had occurred post ...
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Degree of dissociation of weak electrolyte at infinite dilution

Why the degree of dissociation of weak electrolyte is 1 at infinite dilution and how do we get the result? Like I know that at infinite dilution the concentration of solution is 0 but what does that ...
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151 views

What does higher electron gain enthalpy mean here?

While talking about ionic bonds my book states : Higher the value of electron gain enthalpy of the atom, greater the ease of formation of the anion from it, i.e., other atom should have high value ...
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X-ray bombardment of CaCl2 and its resultant chemical changes

If one were to take $\pu{1 mol}$ of pure liquid Calcium Chloride (at $\pu{600 ^\circ C}$) and bombard it with $\pu{7.65 \times 10^{14} Ci}$ ($\pu{2.83 \times 10^25 particles}$) of x-rays ($\pu{75 keV}$...
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The “nose” of the periodic table [closed]

My teacher said that on the periodic table there is a "nose" formed by Al, Zn, Ag, and Cd. She said that they are all fixed charged (+3, +2, +1, and +2 respectively), and said that if I write them in ...
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Calculating the Ionic strength of sodium acetylsalicylate

With the addition of aqueous NaOH to an aspirin solutions in water the reaction will yield products of sodium acetylsalicylate and water. I would like to measure the amount of sodium apsirin formed ...
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Feasibility of using ionic liquid fuels in an MHD type reactor

First off I would like to say that my knowledge on chemistry, even general chemistry, is basic if not poor. That said, I have some intuituions on this matter. I haven´t found any paper regarding ...
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Measurement of the lattice energy

The lattice energy of a solid ionic compound is the energy released when one mole of the solid compound is formed from its constituent gaseous ions at $\ce {298 K}$ and $\ce {1 bar}$. However, gaseous ...
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Determining which compound is more 'ionic'

I was going through my chemistry textbook (IB Pearson), and it explicitly stated that the higher the absolute difference between the electronegativity of elements in a binary compound, the more 'ionic'...
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Sulfate and carbonate ions as ligands

The pentahydrate salt of copper (II) sulfate exists as a blue solid while the anhydrous and monohydrate salts appear as white solids. The structures of these salts are discussed here. The blue colour ...
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Why is the product of the reaction “Bi + O2” Bi2O3 instead of Bi2O5?

I am stuck on a homework question that states: A piece of solid bismuth is heated strongly in oxygen. The answer key states the answer as $\ce{Bi + O2 → Bi2O3}$. However, it is to my understanding ...
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Lattice Energy of MX2 type

While finding the solution to the question that which among BaO and BaCl2 has hi that is energy I found that it was BaO whose lattice energy is high and there were explaining it just with charges. So ...
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What is dielectric constant and how does it explain the reason why water is one of the best solvents

When i was reading solublity of ionic compounds,they mentioned that polar compunds are fairly soluble in polar solvents and water is better solvent due its high dielectric constant.Can anybody explain ...
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Why don't ionic compounds show stereoisomerism?

When I was reading about crystalline nature of ionic compounds, I came across the statement that ionic compound doesn't show stereoisomerism. What does that mean and can anybody explain the reason ...
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463 views

Is it possible to burn things in a halogen atmosphere?

Fires can burn in oxygen. But, can they burn in halogen atmospheres (fluorine and chlorine only)? I am wondering this because combustion reactions involve oxygen and carbon and other elements. But, ...
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470 views

In the Lewis structure for barium fluoride, why does barium lose its valence electrons?

I searched for $\ce{BaF2}$ Lewis structure, and found out that the Barium atom loses its 2 valence electrons to form $\ce{F- Ba^2+F-}$. Before seeing it I thought each of $\ce{Ba}$'s valence ...
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Why is there no effective alternative to metal salts in antiperspirants?

Metal salts, especially aluminum compounds are used in antiperspirants to prevent sweating. I found out aluminum chloride hexahydrate, which is found in most antiperspirants, undergoes an acid-base ...

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