Questions tagged [ionic-compounds]

Compounds in which at least some of bonds have ionic character stronger than covalent or metallic. Many compounds called salts are ionic compounds but not all of them.

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33 views

Determining whether a compound is ionic or molecular in nature

$\ce{HCl}$ is a molecular compound because there is a covalent bond between $\ce{H+}$(a proton) and $\ce{Cl-}$ (a chloride ion) $\ce{NH4NO3}$ is an ionic compound because there is an ionic bond ...
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What force causes an electron to jump from say Na to Cl?

Every explanation I can find says something like: valence electrons in metals have low ionising energies and non-metals ''want'' to complete their valence shell. But I can't seem to get my head around ...
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43 views

Do hydrides, like NaH or CsH, also form H-bond? [closed]

I know that when hydrogen acts as a cation, it can form H-bonds with the electronegative ions or groups. But, is this also true for anionic hydrogens? Will they form similar bonds, other than the ...
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Would ionic conduction be halted by shielding at the electrodes?

I've done this experiment myself and seen it front of my eyes. Set up a basic circuit with a battery, an LED, and connect the circuit with a salt-water solution and copper wire. The LED lights up. If ...
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Why is calcium and ammonium perchlorate soluble but not potassium perchlorate?

Why is potassium perchlorate's solubility 0.76 g/100 mL (0 °C) but ammonium perchlorate and calcium perchlorate have 11.56 g/100 mL and 188 g/100mL (20 °C) respectively?
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Why does a covalent solid have a high melting point and boiling point as compared to an ionic solid? [duplicate]

Why does a covalent solid have a high melting point and boiling point as compared to an ionic solid? Shouldn't it be less than that of ionic solids since the coulombic forces in ionic solid is ...
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Why does beryllium have an exceptionally high hydration energy?

You would expect solubility of Group $2$ fluorides to increase down the group, as lattice energy plummets much more sharply than hydration energy does. For the most part, this is true: $\ce{BaF2}$ is ...
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Is this analogy right? [closed]

Is my logic correct in this case ? Since the formal charge represents the charge the element possess in a covalent compounds, is it right to say that formal charge is the equivalent term for covalent ...
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Question on redox

I am unsure of how to construct redox equations that are not trivial. Here is what I mean. Suppose you have the compound $\ce{(NH4)_a[Fe(SO4)]_b\cdot xH2O}$. How does one construct the below equations....
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Are Group 2 metal fluoride salts less soluble in organic solvents than Group 1 fluorides?

It is clear that Group 1 metal fluoride salts DO NOT readily form solutions in organic medium. The amount of solvation that can occur leading to the eventual release of a fluoride ion depends on many ...
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How do I calculate weight percent of BaCl2

A $\pu{0.1036 g}$ sample containing only $\ce{BaCl2}$ and $\ce{NaCl}$ is dissolved in $\pu{50 mL}$ of distilled water. Titrating with $\pu{0.07916 M}$ $\ce{AgNO3}$ requires $\pu{19.46 mL}$ to reach ...
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How do you determine the coefficient for a compound in an equation? [duplicate]

I have been trying to figure out how to find the coefficients for compounds in chemical equations, but I just don't know how to. Can someone explain to me how I can determine the coefficient of a ...
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On the exact definitions of Frenkel and Schottky defects

The wiki page on vacancy defects says; It is also known as a Schottky defect, although in ionic crystals the concepts are not identical. As far as I'm aware, they're the same. Furthermore, the wiki ...
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Dielectric constant for gases possessing van der Waals forces [closed]

I've learnt that water can dissolve ionic bonds because it possesses a high dielectric constant. In the cases of covalent compounds (especially the non-polar covalent compounds), where the molecules ...
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How to find the atomic packing factor of Sodium Chloride (and other FCC ionic compounds in general)?

For a piece of coursework I am doing, I need to calculate the atomic packing factor of some ionic compounds. I have had no formal teaching in this area, so what I know comes from information I have ...
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What is the relationship between polarisation of ion and their bond strength/enthalpy?

Starting with things I Know: Size and charge of ions affect the bond strength and the lattice energy of ionic compounds Decrease in ionic radius(size) increases the bond strength and increases the ...
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charge density as a measure of lattice enthalpy & polarizing power?

My official CIE A level textbook, and some mark schemes mention the following: Ions with the same charge have a lower charge density if their radius is large. This is because the same charge is ...
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Understanding strong acid titrated with weak base graph

I don’t understand why the conductivity doesn’t change after the equivalence point. To my understanding, at the equivalence point there is $\ce{NH3}$, $\ce{NH4+}$ and $\ce{Cl-}$ in the solution. As ...
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Why is the ionic radius of hydride so large?

The order of ionic radii for halides and hydride is apparently as follows: $$\ce{F-} < \ce{Cl-} < \ce{Br-} < \ce{H-} < \ce{I-}$$ Why is the hydride ion so large, even larger than bromide ...
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A trick to find resultant pH [duplicate]

Consider the following problem: Find the $\mathrm{pH}$ of the solution formed by the mixing of two solutions of $\mathrm{pH}$(s) $2$ and $3$ of equal volumes. The normal way: Since the resulting ...
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59 views

Is there a notion of generalized acidity for lithium ions?

From my understanding, the basic notions of acidity can be explained by considering a cup of pure water, and then adding a substance to it which creates either free $\ce{H+}$, or free $\ce{H3O+}$ and $...
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Expression comparing the Solubility of Ionic compounds

In chemical bonding, I am taught an expression that compares the Solvation Energy and the Lattice Energy of an ionic compound which is being dissolved in a polar solvent (could be water, could be ...
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Does boron form compounds without covalent bonds?

I have read that boron, due to the very high sum of its first three ionization energies, it is not able to form its +3 ions, and thus it generally forms only covalent compounds. But in a popular ...
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216 views

Order of solubility of sodium halides and potassium iodide

Order the following ionic compounds in decreasing order according to their ease to dissolve in water. a) NaBr; b) KI; c) NaF; d) NaCl. d > a > b > c a > b > c > d b > c > d &...
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Is there a room temperature ionic liquid permanganate [closed]

I need to figure out a permanganate based ionic liquid that is usable at room temperature. Unfortunately, information on which compounds could be usable and which ones aren't is scarce. That's why I'm ...
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When converting between a hydrated electrolyte amount in mass and in milliequivalents (meq), why are the water molecules taken into account?

A textbook I'm reading called "Ansel's Pharmaceutical Calculations, 13th edition" defines the milliequivalent (meq) thus (p. 187): This unit of measure is related to the total number of ...
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What kind of bond exists between a metal and a non-metal with a difference in electronegativity of less than 1.7? [duplicate]

I'm being taught that the kind of bonds that exist between elements depends on the electronegativity difference between the elements. A difference less than 1.7 is covalent and a difference higher ...
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How does a body lose electrons? [closed]

If there is a Na and cl in solid form , There will be atoms inside of them.How do they lose electrons ?.We know solid body has a structure and covering.Just like you can touch is the covering of table ...
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115 views

Why does increasing charge density matter more for the hydration enthalpy compared to the lattice energy?

For the solvation of ionic salts, if we look down a group, say Group II, and we keep the anion constant, we find that the solubility decreases going down the group. This is because the hydration ...
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108 views

When writing the net ionic equation, if one of the products ionizes, what is the most appropriate way to account for this in the answer?

Take these two practice problems and their solutions from Ebbing (8th ed) that involve completing the molecular equation, then writing the net ionic equation: 4.42a: $\ce{Ca(OH)2(aq) + 2H2SO4(aq) ->...
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101 views

Why does lattice enthalpy decrease with increasing ionic size?

Lattice enthalpy decreases as ions get larger, but I have found two explanations: The charge density is greater in smaller ions, so greater attraction The ions are themselves able to get closer ...
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bonding in polar covalent bonds

I have recently learned that pure ionic and covalent bonds are just the extremes of a spectrum of bonds from this article from Chemguide. But I can't seem to square this with my understanding of how ...
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How to determine the van't Hoff factor for different salts in water experimentally?

How do I experimentally determine the van't Hoff factor for different salts in water? I'm going to dissolve each of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and lithium chloride in $\pu{20 mL}$ of water ...
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154 views

What exactly is lattice energy?

I was going through my chemistry textbook (Chemistry, 10th Ed. by Raymond Chang) when I encountered this explanation of lattice energy. 9.3 Lattice Energy of Ionic Compounds We can predict which ...
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why does lithium fluoride have a higher lattice energy than lithium iodide?

Based on my knowledge, lattice energy is proportional to the multiplcation of the charge of the ions, divided by the sum of the radius of ions, as follows. Since iodide has a larger radius than ...
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Lewis structures and chemical-compound formulas [closed]

In the Lewis structures listed below, M and X represent various elements in the third period of the periodic table. Write the formula of each compound using the chemical symbols of each element: a. b. ...
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When you melt an ionic compound, do you “break” its electrostatic force of attraction, or its lattice energy?

I know that the melting point and the boiling point of ionic compounds are very high. However, when I was trying to find the reason for this, I found that this is because of the high electrostatic ...
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What happens to boiled (BMIM)PF6?

[BMIM]PF6, or 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, is commonly used as an ionic liquid. As has been shown by the accepted answer to this question, sodium chloride that has been made to ...
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Why can’t I use solubility product for normally soluble compounds?

Solubility product only applies to sparing soluble ionic compounds (chemguide) I read this in a website. But I don’t see what this should be the case. Taking $\ce{NaCl}$ for example, there’s an ...
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176 views

Why is some ionic substance insoluble, such as BaSO4?

If Ba is less electronegative than Mg, then why is BaSO4 insoluble in water and MgSO4 is soluble? I thought the greater the EN difference the more soluble the compound is because of how unequally ...
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Why isn't the chemistry of a zinc-air battery (meaningfully) hindered by an activation energy barrier?

Virtually every source I've read pertaining to zinc-air batteries explain the chemistry of it either using these formulae or a simplified version of them: $$ \begin{align} &\text{Anode:} &\...
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A question about net ionic equations

I have a question regarding net ionic equations. In a solution, sodium fluoride and hydrochloric acid are mixed together. The "correct" net ionic equation is shown below. However, how can this ...
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In a battery, what happens to LiCoO2 when the lithium leaves? It becomes CoO2?

What chemical compound exists at the cathode of a lithium-ion battery when the lithium is not there? The cathode is usually described as $\ce{LiCoO2}$, so does it become $\ce{CoO2}$? $\ce{CoO2}$ ...
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Calculating concentration of OH⁻ ions [closed]

Calculate concentration of $\ce{OH-}$ ions in $\pu{0.66 mol L^-1}$ solution of $\ce{NH4+}.$ I think that there might be something missing, as the only law I have for this kind of problems is $$[\ce{...
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Can one describe the bonding of Na to F in terms of molecular orbital theory? What about valence bond theory?

I would kindly appreciate an explanation in terms of the two accepted quantum mechanical theories -valence bond & molecular orbitals- for the electronic energy level structure in natrium fluoride $...
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What are the limitations of the Born-Lande' equation?

The Born-Lande' equation is used to theoretically calculate the lattice energy, $\Delta U$, of ionic compounds. It is often cited as such in literature, $$\Delta U = -\frac{k_Az_1z_2Me^2}{4 \pi \...
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567 views

Calculation of Degree of Dissociation from Ostwald's Dilution Law

A "weak" electrolyte, $\ce{A+B-}$, ionizes in solution as: $$\ce{AB <=> A+ + B-}\tag{1}$$ $$ K_d =\dfrac{\ce{[A+][B-]}}{\ce{[AB]}}=\dfrac{(\alpha c_{0})(\alpha c_{0})}{(1-\alpha )c_{0}}=\...
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Ionic compound formation [closed]

Why do oxygen atoms differ in number in the compund Aluminate and Arsenate even they have the same suffixes ... Where Aluminate has 3 oxygen and Arsenate has 4 oxygen atoms.
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Unit cell structure of ionic crystal

I have a question about the structure of an LiH unit cell, and while this is related to a homework problem, it isn't the problem itself, I'm just looking for conceptual understanding. I've already ...
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68 views

Reaction of copper oxide with acid [closed]

Copper metal is less electropositive than hydrogen and thus less reactive. It is unable to displace hydrogen ions from a solution of sulfuric(IV) acid. Why then would copper oxide or copper carbonate ...

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