Questions tagged [ionic-compounds]

Compounds in which at least some of bonds have ionic character stronger than covalent or metallic. Many compounds called salts are ionic compounds but not all of them.

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Why aren't NaF and KF (sodium and potassium fluoride) as common as NaCl and KCl? If fluorine is (roughly) as abundant as chlorine?

The abundances of chlorine and fluorine in Earth's crust, throughout Earth as a whole, etc. are roughly similar, from what I have been able to find... So... Why are crystals of sodium fluoride and ...
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Why is the Conductivity trend same in fused and in dissolved or aqueous state of ionic compounds?

For an example if we take $\ce{KCl}$ and $\ce{NaCl}$ then I have understood the part where in aqueous state $\ce{Na+}$ becomes bigger than $\ce{K+}$ hence the conductivity reverses but in fused state ...
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Where can I find data for ionic radii? [duplicate]

Where can I find data for the ionic radius of various ions? I am looking specifically at yttrium ions, zirconium ions, niobium ions, molybdenum ions, chlorine ions, hafnium ions, tantalum ions, and ...
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Data for Madelung Constants

Where can I find data for the Madelung constants for various ionic compounds? Specifically, I am looking at silicon tetrachloride, yttrium (III) chloride, zirconium (IV) oxynitrate hydrate, niobium (V)...
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Which atom carries charge in polyatomic ions?

I have a basic confusion regarding polyatomic ions: Is it meaningful to say "which atom" in a polyatomic ion is charged? Consider for instance hydroxide OH$^-$: The oxygen has greater ...
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Displacement Reaction [closed]

In a displacement reaction I understand that the more reactive metal essentially takes the place of the less reactive metal. But I can't seem to understand how this more reactive metal can break the ...
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Calculating ionic strength at different concentrations

Zn$^{2+}$ reacts with a molecule, B, in a solution at several different concentrations of NaCl. Determine the charge of the biomolecule and k$_0$ (second order) ​​(assume that Zn$^{2+}$ does not ...
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Do both phosphoric acid and sulphuric acid prevent oxidation of ferrous ion in iron titration?

For the Determination of iron by Redox Titration experiment, I am finding the role of sulphuric acid and phosphoric acid. Then I found that other than $\ce{H3PO4}$ masks the yellow color of $\ce{Fe^3+}...
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What happens during a displacement reaction? [closed]

When Zn metal is added to a solution of Cu(II)SO4, Zinc displaces Cu to form ZnSO4 as Zn is more reactive than Cu. What I don't understand is how. 1- What I'm assuming is: Zn metal collides with [SO4]...
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Calculating the Hopping distance in K+ F- bonds

[![enter image description here][1]][1] This is a graph showing the formation of K+ F- ionic bonds. To my understanding, when the atoms are far apart, their neutral state is more stable. But when they ...
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Why aren't ionic crystals stronger than diamond?

If ionic bonds are stronger than covalent bonds, then why aren't ionic crystals stronger than diamond, which is bonded by covalent bonds? Diamond has tetrahedral structure with carbons forming ...
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How to choose descriptors for QSAR/QSPR?

I would like to carry out a QSPR study with ionic liquids. After reading the QSAR/QSPR literature, I am a bit confused on how should I choose molecular descriptors. There seem to be a lot of options, ...
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Balancing a chemical reaction with oxidation numbers

We have been teached how to balance chemical reactions with oxidation numbers in school, but somehow I can't understand it. This is the equation to balance $$\ce{Cu(s) + NO3−(aq) + H+(aq) -> Cu^2+(...
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Impurities in household baking soda

For a long time, I have been using store bought baking soda (with sodium bicarbonate as the sole ingredient listed) as the sodium bicarbonate in my (qualitative) home experiments, but recently I ...
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What is the structure of sodium chloride in the liquid state?

I understand that sodium chloride when solid, is a lattice, so NaCl there is an empirical formula,(so, expresses that the ratio of Na to Cl is 1-1), and not a molecular formula expressing exact ...
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Why are group 13 compounds in the +1 oxidation state more ionic than those in the +3 oxidation state?

I know that for group 13 metals in the p block, the stability of +1 OS is generally more than the stability of +3 OS as it is energetically not favourable to attain the higher OS of +3 and such ions ...
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Why does $\mathrm{NO_3}$ have charge $1-$? [closed]

I'm given the following problem: Write the molecular equation for the reaction $\mathrm{Iron\;(III)\; Nitrate\; and\; Sodium \;Phosphate}$ I begin by attempting to determine the empirical formula of ...
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What are the Ionic Properties of Co-ordinate Covalent Bonds? [closed]

In my 10th grade book, it says that A coordinate bond has properties of both covalent and ionic bonds. Therefore, it is also called dative or co-ionic bonds. I understand that it has properties of ...
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Isn't my book doing this problem about ionic product wrongly?

Problem: After adding a $\pu{150 mL}$ $\pu{6.7\times10^{-5} M}$ $\ce{NaOH}$ solution to a $\pu{100 mL}$ $\pu{2.5\times10^{-5} M}$ $\ce{FeCl2}$ solution, green colored $\ce{Fe(OH)2}$ precipitate is ...
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If bond types are in reality intermixed, how come different bonds form completely different structures?

According to the bond triangle, compounds don't exist as solely ionic or solely covalent, but rather have ionic, covalent, and metallic character to them. So each bond type is connected and similar in ...
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Dissolution of ionic compounds

Where can I find a table that lists the rates of dissolution of common ionic compounds like sodium chloride, potassium permanganate, and ammonium nitrate? Are there tables and equations that relate ...
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Are there any binary ionic compounds with carbon in it? [closed]

It may be organic, may be inorganic but is ionic and binary in nature and contains carbon. Is there any such compound?
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Linearity of membrane resistance and contact resistance overvoltages in proton-exchange-membrane-water-elektrolyzer-cells (PEM-WE)

I am questioning why the cell component's resistance to the electrons (contact resistance) and protons (membrane resistance) flow follow the ohmic law. This assumption is made in recent papers on PEM-...
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Isn't hydrogen chloride a salt, because it is an ionic compound? [closed]

So I just learned in chemistry that salts are ionic compounds. Shouldn't, $\ce{H+Cl-}$ be a salt since hydrogen ion has positive charge and chloride ion has negative charge? If $\ce{HCl}$ is a salt ...
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What is the correct molecular, total ionic, and net ionic reaction equation of reaction between magnesium nitrate and sodium chromate? [closed]

From the question, I think that the reactants are $$\ce{Mg(NO3)2(aq) + Na2CrO4(aq)}$$ But the problem is, I am confused about the result of the reaction. Is it $$\ce{MgCrO4}$$ and/or $$\ce{NaNO3}$$? ...
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Databases for Enthalpy of Solution and Ionic Radii for Ionic Salts

I am looking to investigate the relation between experimental enthalpies of solution and theoretical enthalpies of solution calculated using theoretical equations for the lattice enthalpy and ...
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Does lithium form ionic hydride? [duplicate]

It is stated in my chemistry textbook that lithium indeed forms lithium hydrides. However, significant covalent characters could be found in lithium hydrides (like least reactivity). But in some other ...
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Why is the thermal stability of calcium carbonate higher than that of magnesium carbonate even though lattice energy decreases down a group?

The difference in thermal stability of $\ce{CaCO3}$ and $\ce{MgCO3}$ can be explained using Fajans' rules, but why not using the lattice energy method? Why is the thermal stability of $\ce{CaCO3}$ ...
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Determining ion charge using rate constants and ionic strength

I am given the following data: The rate constant $k$ at $\pu{25 ^\circ C}$ in a reaction of persulfate ions and iodide ions in a water solution is assumed to vary with the total ionic strength of the ...
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Why does iodine trichloride dimerize?

In which of the dimerization process, the achievement of the octet is not the driving force $\ce{2AlCl3 \to Al2Cl6}$ $\ce{BeCl2 \to BeCl2}$ (solid) $\ce{2ICl3 \to I2Cl6} $ $\ce{2NO2 \to N2O4}$ ...
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Can chemical composition be determined from elemental composition?

I have the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy results from a sample of salt that I produced by collecting and processing ocean water by filtering, boiling, evaporating, and additional steps to try ...
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Why is it advised to use neutral ferric chloride solution while performing confirmatory test for acetate ions? [duplicate]

The reaction of $\ce{FeCl3}$ with $\ce{CH3COO-}$ is $$\ce{3Fe^{+3} +6CH3COO- +H2O<=> [Fe3(OH)2(CH3COO)6]^{+} +2H^{+}}$$ Recently I read that a solution of $\ce{FeCl3}$ hydrolyses very quickly to ...
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Why are entries missing on a solubility data chart for ionic compounds? [closed]

There is a solubility chart in my college chemistry class text for "Solubility of Ionic compounds in water". I have copied and pasted image of chart below. I was surprised to find a dozen ...
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Calculating the ionic strength for an aqueous solution containing potassium ferricyanide and sodium sulfate

I have the $100$ microM of K$_3$Fe(CN)$_6$ is dissolved in water and the following data: $$\begin{array}{c|c} \text{Experiment} & \ce{[Na_2SO_4]}/\pu{M} \\ \hline \mathrm{A} & 0 \\ \mathrm{B} ...
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Why does the dissolution of calcium hydroxide have a negative entropy?

We had an experiment on the dissolution of calcium hydroxide and we obtained the experimental entropy value $\pu{-203 J mol^-1 K^-1}$ with a percent error of $26.7\%.$ Doesn't dissolving a solid in a ...
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Forces operating in molten ionic solids

What type of forces exist between ions in molten ionic solids? If this force is electrostatic attraction only, then how is it different from electrostatic interaction when ionic compound exist as ...
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Calculating the ionic strength of a histidine solution

I'm trying to repeat the calculation of the ionic strength of a solution containing histidine as a buffer I recently read in a paper. In their paper, the authors calculate the ionic strength of a 20 ...
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Is ionisation an equilibrium process?

I read in a page that ionisation is an irreversible process. But, as equilibrium is always reversible would that mean equilibrium does not involve ionisation process. And than dissociation is a ...
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Determining whether a compound is ionic or molecular in nature [closed]

$\ce{HCl}$ is a molecular compound because there is a covalent bond between $\ce{H+}$(a proton) and $\ce{Cl-}$ (a chloride ion) $\ce{NH4NO3}$ is an ionic compound because there is an ionic bond ...
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What force causes an electron to jump from say Na to Cl?

Every explanation I can find says something like: valence electrons in metals have low ionising energies and non-metals ''want'' to complete their valence shell. But I can't seem to get my head around ...
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Do hydrides, like NaH or CsH, also form H-bond? [closed]

I know that when hydrogen acts as a cation, it can form H-bonds with the electronegative ions or groups. But, is this also true for anionic hydrogens? Will they form similar bonds, other than the ...
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Would ionic conduction be halted by shielding at the electrodes?

I've done this experiment myself and seen it front of my eyes. Set up a basic circuit with a battery, an LED, and connect the circuit with a salt-water solution and copper wire. The LED lights up. If ...
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Why does beryllium have an exceptionally high hydration energy?

You would expect solubility of Group $2$ fluorides to increase down the group, as lattice energy plummets much more sharply than hydration energy does. For the most part, this is true: $\ce{BaF2}$ is ...
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Is this analogy right? [closed]

Is my logic correct in this case ? Since the formal charge represents the charge the element possess in a covalent compounds, is it right to say that formal charge is the equivalent term for covalent ...
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Are Group 2 metal fluoride salts less soluble in organic solvents than Group 1 fluorides?

It is clear that Group 1 metal fluoride salts DO NOT readily form solutions in organic medium. The amount of solvation that can occur leading to the eventual release of a fluoride ion depends on many ...
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How do I calculate weight percent of BaCl2

A $\pu{0.1036 g}$ sample containing only $\ce{BaCl2}$ and $\ce{NaCl}$ is dissolved in $\pu{50 mL}$ of distilled water. Titrating with $\pu{0.07916 M}$ $\ce{AgNO3}$ requires $\pu{19.46 mL}$ to reach ...
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On the exact definitions of Frenkel and Schottky defects

The wiki page on vacancy defects says; It is also known as a Schottky defect, although in ionic crystals the concepts are not identical. As far as I'm aware, they're the same. Furthermore, the wiki ...
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Dielectric constant for gases possessing van der Waals forces [closed]

I've learnt that water can dissolve ionic bonds because it possesses a high dielectric constant. In the cases of covalent compounds (especially the non-polar covalent compounds), where the molecules ...
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Finding the atomic packing factor (APF) of Sodium Chloride and other FCC ionic compounds

For a piece of coursework I am doing, I need to calculate the atomic packing factor of some ionic compounds. I have had no formal teaching in this area, so what I know comes from information I have ...
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charge density as a measure of lattice enthalpy & polarizing power?

My official CIE A level textbook, and some mark schemes mention the following: Ions with the same charge have a lower charge density if their radius is large. This is because the same charge is ...
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