Questions tagged [inorganic-chemistry]

Inorganic compounds generally do not have C-H bonds, while organic compounds do have such bonds. The distinction between inorganic and organic chemistry, however, is far from absolute.

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What exactly is the use of photographic films in cameras? How are the pictures generated?

By definition: Photographic film is a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film base coated on one side with a gelatin emulsion containing microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide ...
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How does copper reduce dilute nitric acid to nitric oxide and concentrated nitric acid to nitrogen dioxide?

Here are the 2 equations: \begin{align} \ce{3Cu + 2NO3- + 8H+ &<=> 3Cu^2+ + 2NO + 4H2O} & E &= 0.62~\mathrm{V}\\ \ce{3Cu + 2NO3- + 4H+ &<=> 3Cu^2+ + 2NO2 + 2H2O}& E &...
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How can bromine water be called a solution?

Bromine water is a reagent which is used to test for unsaturation in organic compound. It is $2.8~\%$ bromine in water according to Wikipedia. But how is it made? This link describes the procedure ...
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Why are low spin tetrahedral complexes so rare?

As I was going through Concise Inorganic Chemistry by J. D. Lee, I realised that there are simply no low spin tetrahedral complexes mentioned in the book. Is there any specific condition required for ...
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Geometry of the pentachloridoindate(III) anion

According to Brown et al.,1 the crystal structure of $\ce{[NEt4]2[InCl5]}$ reveals that the pentachloridoindate(III) anion, $\ce{[InCl5]^2-}$, adopts a square pyramidal $C_\mathrm{4v}$ geometry (VSEPR ...
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Carbon tetraradical

I was just reading through Reactions: The private life of atoms by Peter Atkins and I noticed that in Chapter 3, the chapter on the combustion reaction, the author writes: As we watch we see $\ce {...
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Why is tantalum so unreactive?

What is the fundamental argument behind explaining why Ta metal is so inert and does not usually participate in corrosion? I know that it forms a protective oxide, but nothing explains why in an ...
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Why are d-d electronic transitions forbidden and weakly absorbing? Why do they occur at all?

I am unable to understand why d-d electronic transitions are forbidden? Why are they weakly absorbing and apart from that, why do they occur at all?
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Why doesn't tetraiodine exist?

I've run into a question that says after doing the Lewis structure of $\ce{IF3}$, which I did, explain why $\ce{I4}$ doesn't exist. I am confused as to how it can be explained. I've thought that ...
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How does polydimethylsiloxane stick to glass?

Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is the main ingredient in Rain-X, a treatment that adheres to windshields. How does PDMS adhere to class? It can't form covalent Si-O bonds with glass, according to one ...
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What is the actual reason behind PCl₅ existing as an ionic solid?

Why does $\ce{PCl_5}$ exists in the solid state as $\ce{[PCl_6]^{-}[PCl_4]^{+}}$? What is the problem with it that it doesn't exist in its original form in solid state? Like why isn't it just $\ce{...
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Bonds within complex anions

Many groups of bound atoms complexively bearing a (negative) charge are called complex anions. Examples are $\ce{NO3-}$, $\ce{CO3^2-}$, $\ce{BO3^2-}$, $\ce{CrO4^2-}$, $\ce{Cr2O7^2-}$, $\ce{MoO4^2-}$, $...
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Molecular orbitals of heteronuclear diatomic molecules

For drawing MO diagram for heteronuclear diatomic molecule, how do I know which is lower in energy than the other? For example, given a heteronuclear diatomic molecule $\ce{NO}$, which one is lower ...
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Why is the 5d orbital instead of the 4f orbital filled in lanthanum?

For orbitals with the same value of $n + l$ (e.g. the $\mathrm{3d}$ and $\mathrm{4p}$ orbitals), we usually expect the orbital with the lower value of $n$ to be filled earlier. Hence, for example, the ...
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Why is acidic hydrogen peroxide a potent oxidizer?

When hydrogen peroxide acts as an oxidizer it itself is reduced. Broadly this means that the peroxide bond is broken and that water is formed. However, why is there a tendency for hydrogen peroxide ...
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How can the solid state structure of cyclopentadienyllithium be explained?

In the solid state, LiCp adopts a polymeric multidecker structure where Li atoms are sandwiched between two Cp rings (shown in this diagram from Organometallics 1997, 16 (17), 3855–3858): If we ...
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Reaction of barium peroxide forming barium carbonate

I stumbled across this reaction: $$\ce{BaO2 + H2CO3 -> BaCO3 + H2O2}$$ This reaction seems quite similar to the variant with sulfuric acid $$\ce{BaO2 + H2SO4 -> BaSO4 + H2O2}$$ which is well ...
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What is the alternative to chromyl chloride test?

Chromyl chloride test is by far the best test to determine the presence of chloride ions in a salt because no analogous compounds are formed with fluorides, bromides, iodides and cyanides, so this ...
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Why does magnesium have an exceptionally low melting point?

Why does magnesium have a lower melting point than both calcium and beryllium? It does not seem to fit into the group trend.
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Order of Acidic strength: Phosphorus oxoacids [duplicate]

I was asked to compare the acidic strength of the following phosphorus oxoacids, I thought the order (of strength) would be $\ce{H3PO4 > H3PO3 > H3PO2}$, because they have three, two and ...
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Hydrogen bonding in solid bicarbonates

Why is there two different kinds of hydrogen bonding in solid bicarbonates $\ce{NaHCO3}$ and $\ce{KHCO3}$? In both cases we consider anions of each for hydrogen bonding . The anions involved in ...
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Allotropes of Phosphorus

Something I noticed whilst revising about group 15 is that the darker the allotrope of phosphorus, the more stable it is. white/yellow – very volatile, soluble, pyrophoric red – air ...
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How to recycle 60 tons/hour of CaCO3?

I hope this is the right place to ask. I'm not a chemist so my question may seem obvious but it's not for me. I work in the egg industry and we produce every hour 60 tons of dried egg shells as waste....
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What is the structure of iodide of Millon's base?

In qualitative analysis, $\ce{NH4+}$ ions are confirmed using Nessler's reagent:- $$\ce{NH4+ + 2[HgI4]^{2−} + 4OH− → HgO·Hg(NH2)I ↓ + 7I^{−} + 3H2O}$$ The brown precipitate ...
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Seashell and grape juice

My daughter is working on a 5th grade science fair experiment. She soaked white seashells in various drinkable liquids to test the effects of those liquids on teeth (teeth are represented by ...
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IS DMSO-o a σ-donor, a π-donor, or both?

DMSO is an ambidentate ligand that can bind in a κO fashion via the oxygen lone pair and in a κS fashion via the sulfur lone pair. I know that DMSO can behave as a π-acceptor when it ...
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Why are palladium and platinum carbonyls unstable at room temperature?

By palladium and platinum carbonyls, I mean the mononuclear, homoleptic, charge-neutral, binary carbonyl complexes of the form $\ce{M(CO)_n}$ and not any heteroleptic complexes like $\ce{Pd(CO)(PPh3)3}...
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Does this binary compound of C and N - isoelectronic with carbon suboxide - exist?

I am a mathematician not a chemist, so my questions are naive and rather combinatorial. I am intrigued by the possibility of the following compound: $$\ce{N- = N+ = C = N+ = N-}$$ which ought to ...
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Relative acidity of aqueous LiF, SnCl2, and YCl3

Which one of the following salts make the highest and lowest pH when dissolved in water? $$\ce{LiF, SnCl2, YCl3}$$ My approach was : considering the corresponding aqua acids, the order of acidity ...
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Is there a difference between NaCl or table salt (processed) and salt from the Himalayas?

So, I was doing some research on bonding and electronegativity and one of the examples used was NaCl (Sodium Chloride) which is salt. We don't buy processed salt, rather we buy salt from the Himalayas....
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Is there a mnemonic to study the spectrochemical series?

Mnemonics help to by-heart things which are difficult to do so and which are important. I found mnemonics for studying the periodic table, electromagnetic series etc which were of great help. So, is ...
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Testing thermite for chemical properties

I'm writing a movie in which a bunch of military explosive ordnance experts destroy a turbine with thermite and the local fire chief has to work out whether it is plain $\ce{Fe2O3}$ and aluminium ...
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How can the equilibrium shift, while Kc remains constant?

Consider the following reversible reaction. $$\ce{Cr2O7^2-(aq) + H2O(l) <=> 2 CrO4^2-(aq) + 2 H+(aq)}$$ What will happen to the position of equilibrium and the value of $K_c$ when more ...
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Why is aluminium carbonate unstable?

Can it be isolated at room temperature? Or even at any temperature?
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Inorganic chemistry handbook with reaction lists

There is a handy handbook on common inorganic substances' properties called "Reactivity of Inorganic Substances" (eds. R. A. Lidin, V. A. Molochko, and L. L. Andreeva). It was originally written in ...
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Why do copper (II) complexes contain so many valence electrons?

Consider tetraaminecopper (II) ion. $\ce{[Cu(NH3)4]^2+}$ or $\ce{[Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2]^2+}$. The copper(II) ion has the electron configuration $\mathrm{[Ar]\ 3d^9}$. How do the 4 electron pairs from the ...
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Is there an iron–iron bond in diiron nonacarbonyl?

Diiron nonacarbonyl, $\ce{[Fe2(CO)9]}$, is often depicted with an Fe–Fe bond as shown at the left-hand side: The Fe—Fe bond is usually invoked in order to (1) explain the observed diamagnetism and (2)...
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Why N2O is a “laughing gas”?

It is (mostly) used as an "oxidizer" in motors and engines, I understand that much. The oxygen "oxidizes" with other chemicals, while the nitrogen returns to the air. But $\ce{N2O}$ also produces "...
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Formula of Oxone

A problem in my book asked the commercial name of sodium peroxide. The answer given was 'Oxone'. Even the website https://www.911metallurgist.com/oxone/ mentions oxone as sodium peroxide. However, ...
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Do quaternary sulfur dications exist?

We know that sulfur can form sulfides $\ce{R2S}$, with two substituents bonded to it. The simplest example of this would be hydrogen sulfide. However, sulfur can also form sulfonium ions $\ce{R3S+}$,...
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Derivation of the Orgel diagram for octahedral d2 complexes

The Orgel diagram for a typical octahedral $\mathrm{d^2}$ complex is shown below: (source: Kettle, Physical Inorganic Chemistry, p 146) I understand that the right-hand half of the graph shows how ...
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Why is H2S2O7 stronger than H2SO4?

I've read that for an oxyacid, the oxidation number of the central atom shows the power of that acid, but here, the oxidation numbers of sulphur in sulphuric acid and pyrosulphuric acid are both the ...
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Is the shorthand electron configuration of Br- just [Kr]?

Is the shorthand electron configuration of $\ce{Br-}$ just $\ce{[Kr]}$? Also what about $\ce{Ca^2+}$—is it just $\ce{[Ar]}$? And, is $\ce{Na+}$ just $\ce{[Ne]}$?
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What is a stereochemically active or inactive s orbital?

In Concise Inorganic Chemistry by JD Lee (4th edition; adapted by Sudarshan Guha), page 73 under the section 3.6 (VSEPR Theory chapter Chemical Bonding): ...according to this theory, the position ...
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Why does silver oxide form a coordination complex when treated with ammonia?

Part of the preparation of Tollens' reagent occurs according to the formula: $$\ce{Ag2O (s) + 4 NH3 + 2 NaNO3 + H2O → 2 [Ag(NH3)2]NO3 + 2 NaOH}$$ I wonder how exactly the oxygen gets "unstuck" from ...
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Why are the densities of europium and ytterbium anomalously low?

Why do europium and ytterbium have lower densities than expected in comparison to other lanthanides? I know it has something to do with the fact that they have half-full and full 4f subshells in the +...
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The instability of hydrated carbon dioxide or “carbonic acid”

Why is hydrated carbon dioxide - the predominant form of acid that one gets upon dissolution of carbon dioxide in solution - so unstable? Is the below rationale valid? Carbon in carbon dioxide has ...
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Why is oxygen absorbed in a colorless alkaline solution of pyrogallol and why does it turn dark brown?

My book says: Oxygen is absorbed in colorless alkaline solution of pyrogallol and turns dark brown? I'd like to know why and how.
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Weird Wikipedia Section on Oxidizing Behavior of Nitric and Sulfuric Acids

It has been my understanding that when nitric, perchloric, or sulfuric acids act as oxidizing agents, they must exist as whole $\ce{HNO_3}$ or $\ce{HClO_4}$ or $\ce{H_2SO_4}$ molecules that are still ...
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Oxygen and sulfur bonding

Why does oxygen form a double bond in $\ce{O2}$ but sulfur, also from group 16, forms single bonds in $\ce{S8}$?