Questions tagged [inorganic-chemistry]

Inorganic compounds generally do not have C-H bonds, while organic compounds do have such bonds. The distinction between inorganic and organic chemistry, however, is far from absolute.

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Is silicon dioxide decomposition possible?

I was thinking about this, I made Gibbs free energy calculations and I can't figure out if $$\ce{SiO2(s) -> Si(s) + O2(g)}$$ is actually possible, even at a ridiculous high temperature.
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316 stainless steel and high concentration, high temperature Hydrogen Peroxide

I'm looking at doing some experiments with small scale rocketry and I need to find the right materials for this project, where I will be burning through lots of HTC (peroxide above 90% concentration). ...
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What exactly are the frontier orbitals in diradical species like O2?

I read about frontier orbitals, namely HOMO, LUMO. But what's exactly HOMO/LUMO? I know HOMO stands for highest occupied molecular orbital and LUMO stands for lowest unoccupied molecular orbital. But ...
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Why is the Si-F bond one of the strongest single covalent bonds of them all?

I honestly have no clue where to begin explaining why the Si-F bond is one of the strongest single covalent bonds of them all. I would actually predict the bond to be relatively weak on account of ...
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Acidity comparison on R-PO3H2

Question Compare the acidity $(K_\mathrm{a1})$ of the following three acids: $\ce{H3PO4},$ $\ce{Ph-PO(OH)2}$ and $\ce{H3C-PO(OH)2}.$ Thoughts These three acids are of type $\ce{R-PO3H2},$ where ...
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Why is NOₓ conversion low at fuel rich conditions in a three-way catalytic converter?

$$ \begin{align} &\text{Oxidation:} &\quad \ce{2 CO + O2 &-> 2 CO2}\\ & & \ce{``HC" + O2 &-> CO2 + H2O}\\ & & & \\ &\text{Reduction:} &\quad \ce{2 CO +...
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Energy level of molecular orbitals in heteronuclear diatomic compounds

I have been studying the molecular orbital theorem. I read that the energy levels for the $\ce{p}$ orbitals in the first series of $\ce{p}$ block molecules are something to the tune of $$\pi_x=\pi_y&...
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138 views

Are Slater’s rule and lanthanide contraction contradictory?

According to most textbook and the Wikipedia page of lanthanide contraction, the phenomenon is due to poor shielding of nuclear charge by 4f electrons. However, the σ value of 4f electrons to 6s is 1....
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59 views

Why doesn't the Pilling-Bedworth ratio of silicon cause issues in silicon technology?

According to Wikipedia, silicon has a Pilling-Bedworth ratio of 2.15. In theory this should mean an SiO2 film on silicon should have a fairly large amount of compressive stress and high probability of ...
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Synthetic approach for precursor 1,1'-(bromomethylene)bis(1H-pyrazole) in ligand synthesis

Relevance During my Bachelor's project I focused on the synthesis of iron(II) complexes comprising a tetrapodal pentadentate ligand from the ligand family $\text{PY5R}_2\ (\text{R = H, Me, OH, OMe})$....
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Bond lengths in P₄O₁₀

According to JD Lee's Concise Inorganic Chemistry: The double bond $\ce{P=O}$ in $\ce{P4O10}$ contains p(π)–d(π) backbonding, where a full p-orbital on oxygen overlaps with an empty d-orbital on $\...
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Is black phosphorous aromatic?

I know that graphite and boron nitride are aromatic in nature. In a similar way, can black phosphorous too exhibit aromaticity? Since it is essentially the same having 6 membered rings with lone ...
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Why the second and third ionisation enthalpy of Bismuth is more than that of Antimony?

The first ionisation enthalpy values of Group 15 elements follows a descreasing trend due to increasing atomic size and metallic character but why the second and third ionisation enthalpy values ...
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What is reason of stability of metal (Sr and Ba) peroxides?

While studying inorganic chemistry I came across the following chemical equation. $$\ce{M + Air\left(1/2O2 + N2\right) ->[Δ] MO ->[\text{Excess}~O2] MO2 (Stable) + M3N2}$$ $$\ce{M} = \ce{Sr, ...
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Can the Lewis dot structure of SO2 be experimentally verified?

I have just watched 2 different videos on the Lewis dot structure of sulfur dioxide, $\ce{SO2}$. One says it is $$\ce{O=S=O}$$ and the other says $$\ce{^-O-S^+=O <-> O=S^+-O-}$$ The first ...
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What is symmetry of p- and d-orbitals in ${D_{3h}}$?

To identify IR and Raman active, symmetry of p- and d-orbitals are used. If we start since making ${D_{3h}}$ character table, how to match between symmetry of p- and d-orbitals and Mulliken symbol? ...
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Why does standard reduction potential get multiplied by the change in oxidation state and not by the number of electrons transferred?

The whole basis of Frost diagrams is to have a graphical representation of the Gibbs free energy of formation ($\Delta{G}_{f}$) of different oxidation states of an element using the proportional ...
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221 views

H-N-H bond angle in ammonia boron trifluoride adduct

In the reaction: $\ce{NH3 + BF3 -> NH3-BF3}$ does the HNH bond angle increase or decrease? Surely, the FBF bond angle decreases because boron changes from $\ce{sp^2 -> sp^3}$. But how can we ...
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Mechanism of sodium hypochlorite and hydrochloric acid

The overall reaction for the reaction between NaClO and HCl is: $\ce{NaClO + 2HCl -> NaCl + Cl2 + H2O}$ To try and understand how this reaction occurs, I've thought of a simple mechanism for it. ...
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197 views

Why AlCl3 more acidic than FeBr3?

In compounds with lone pairs or with charge it is easy to predict acidity of compounds but how to describe acidic nature of such ($\ce{FeBr3}$, $\ce{AlCl3}$) transition element compounds ?
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Comparison between Boron Nitride and Graphite: Interlayer distance

Boron-nitrogen chemistry has attracted significant attention, partly because a B–N unit is isoelectronic with C–C. Furthermore, the radius of carbon and its electronegativity are roughly the average ...
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Why is the N-N bond length greater in dinitrogen trioxide than in dinitrogen tetroxide?

Why is the N-N bond length greater in dinitrogen trioxide than in dinitrogen tetroxide? If the lone pair on $\ce{N}$ in $\ce{N2O3}$ delocalises, then the $\ce{N-N}$ bond will have a double bond ...
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Acidity comparison of charged group 16 hydrides

March's Organic Chemistry (7th ed - page 337 under "Periodic Table Correlations" in chapter "Acids and Bases") states that: $\ce{H3O+ > H3S+ > H3Se+}$ is the acidity order of these charged ...
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504 views

Do molecules like NH2 cation exist?

I saw that the book said that nitrogen cations must have four bonds and no lone pairs. I wasn't sure why you couldn't have a lone pair and 2 bonds.
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Removing Tungsten Trioxide from Tungsten Electrode

I need a very sharp tungsten electrode, and I think radial electrochemical etching with sodium hydroxide is the way to go. The problem therein (I think) is that the etching will cause an oxide layer ...
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Unexpected behavior during preparation of copper hypophosphite

I am using copper hypophosphite for the activation of through holes in printed circuit boards. The circuit board is dipped into activator solution and upon heating, metallic copper is deposited in the ...
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71 views

How do salts of a weak acid + weak base behave in solution?

Say you have Ammonium Formate in solution, the salt formed by the reaction of Formic Acid and Ammonia. Would both the Formate ion and Ammonium ion protonate and deprotonate, respectively, to form ...
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Polarisation of a cation by an anion

Shriver and Atkins' Inorganic Chemistry (5th edition) explains amphotericity of the oxides of the heavier elements in Groups III, IV and V by high covalent character of the bonds made by the elements. ...
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176 views

How does the rate determining step determine the overall speed of the reaction if it is the first step in the reaction?

I can imagine it determining the rate of the whole reaction if it is the last step since that means that we will have lots of the reactants needed for the rate determining step, synthesized in earlier ...
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561 views

What substances in ash may create a green colour and are also soluble in water?

I have an ash that is high in $\ce{K2O}$ ($ \gt 30 \text{%}$), $\ce{SiO2}$ ($ \gt 10 \text{%}$) and $\ce{CaO}$ ($ \gt 10 \text{%}$), with $\ce{P2O5}$ ($5 \text{%}$) and $\ce{MgO}$ ($3 \text{%}$) also ...
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548 views

Why is my Cu2O Cuprous Oxide Not Red

A thin film sample of polycrystalline Copper(I) Oxide (Cuprous Oxide, $\ce{Cu2O}$) on quartz looks reddish in the center but bluish/grayish at the sides where the film is thicker. The same thin film ...
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373 views

Why is cupric oxide more basic than cuprous oxide?

I have learnt earlier that metal oxides with higher metal oxidation states are more acidic than those with less oxidation states, but copper disobeys this rule. Why?
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Why does ammonia causes unsymmetric cleavage of diborane, but carbon monoxide causes symmetric cleavage?

Diborane reacts with Lewis bases to form adducts. I did some research on my own, and found that ammonia breaks it unsymmetrically but $\ce{CO}$ and $\ce{PF3}$ break it symmetrically. I cannot find ...
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How/where can I find a reliable atomic radii table?

I am currently working on a periodic table to include it in a experimental chemistry book and I would like to include non-bonded atomic radii data so it would be easier for the students to learn about ...
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Hydrogen Peroxide Heat of Dilution

Based on some data here, I am getting the heat of dilution of 100% $\ce{H2O2}$ as approx. 1100 cal/mole. That's about 4.6 kJ/mol if I did my math right. Is this a correct value? Seems too low to ...
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Predicting a route to use chloride as a reducing agent for titanium dioxide under UV

In my lab we are deadlocked on a seemingly simple problem. We would like to find some reaction where $\ce{Cl-}$ can be used as a reducing agent on $\ce{TiO2}$ in a UV photosynthesis. We ideally want ...
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2k views

Hard and Soft Acid and Bases in terms of HOMO and LUMO

It has been given in a book and on Wikipedia that: hard bases have highest-occupied molecular orbitals (HOMO) of low energy, and hard acids have lowest-unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMO) of high ...
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Ligand Field Theory with non-identical ligands?

Lots of undergraduate inorganic textbooks deal with complexes with $O_h$ or $T_d$ symmetry. So, if ligands are not same(like $\ce{[Ni(NH_3)_4(H_2O)_2]^{2+}}$), what methods are used to interpret their ...
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What reactions does this steel cold-bluing solution undergo?

Bluing steel generally refers to the process of forming a protective layer of $\ce{Fe_3O_4}$ ("black iron oxide") that prevents normal rust from forming. The chemistry behind the traditional ...
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702 views

Why are certain reflections forbidden in body centered cubic and face centered cubic structures?

I know that for body centered cubic structures the allowed reflections only happen if h+k+l is even and reflections are forbidden is h+k+l is odd, and for basic face centered cubic structures (...
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Could any constituent of normal human urine produce a false positive in a Kastle-Meyer test for presence of blood?

From my understanding, one forensic test for the presence of traces of blood at a crime scene is (or was) the Kastle-Meyer test. Doing some research, I understand that in the test, hemoglobin reacts ...
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Why do isomeric bis-ethylenediamine cobalt complexes react differently?

A compound $\ce{Co(en)2(NO2)2Cl}$ has been prepared in a number of isomeric forms.One form undergoes no reaction with $\ce{AgNO3}$ or $\ce{(en)}$ and is optically inactive. A second form reacts with $...
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Relative etch rates of nitric acid on metals and oxides

I am trying to either find or calculate the etch rate of nitric acid ($\ce{HNO3}$) for various different metals and oxides. The ones I am interested in are titanium ($\ce{Ti}$), zirconium ($\ce{Zr}$), ...
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What acid can remove Calcium in Ca2SiO4 to leave SiO2 (mostly)

What acid can remove calcium in $\ce{Ca2SiO4}$ to leave $\ce{SiO2}$ (mostly)? It seems that calcium silicate is stable in most acids, but I need to etch it and leave only silica (mostly).
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Is it possible to react Rb + Al2O3?

I am wondering if the Rubidium ($\ce{Rb}$) in gas form can react naturally with Sapphire crystal ($\ce{Al2O3}$)? The temperature is $500\ \mathrm{K}$ and the pressure is around $1\ \mathrm{Pa}$ to $10\...
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Iodine clock reaction

I have been investigating the iodine-clock reaction for my chemistry project. I have done a great deal of research on the titration of iodate ions, iodide ions and sodium thiosulfate using HCl. But, I ...
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Iron (II) dioxygen reaction mechanism?

Ok so I'm confused about the mechanism for this process: Now the idea here is that iron first becomes oxidised to Fe(III) by placing an electron in the antibonding orbital of dioxygen. This is ...
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147 views

Strength and magnetic charge of KNO3

A question asks for physical properties of potassium nitrate, and specifically asks for "magnetic charge" and "strength" (that is how it is phrased). I have properties such as white in color, vitreous,...
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300 views

Spectral reflectance identification of types of iron rust

Based on the Wikipedia page about rust, there are red and green types of rust that occur on iron. Red rust is the reaction with oxygen and water and the green with chlorine (in oxygen poor ...
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Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting

I'm starting to prepare for my research project on photoelectrochemical (PEC) splitting of water into H and O using (F doped) titanium dioxide as the photoanode. I've been unsuccessfully searching in ...

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