Questions tagged [inorganic-chemistry]

Inorganic compounds generally do not have C-H bonds, while organic compounds do have such bonds. The distinction between inorganic and organic chemistry, however, is far from absolute.

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1answer
663 views

What elements don't observe the octet rule?

Apart from hydrogen which forms a duet, which element's don't observe the octet rule?
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Hybridization of tetraamminecopper(II) sulfate

$\ce{Cu^2+} $ has 9 electrons and a d-orbital and is almost completely filled (except 1 electron vacant) and $\ce{NH3}$ donates an electron eventually forming $\mathrm{sp^3}$ hybrid orbitals. But it ...
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Plot Binary Eutectic from Temperature of Melting and Enthalpy

I'm a little confused about plotting a binary eutectic diagram (temperature vs mole fraction), and finding the eutectic point. I understand the eutectic point is the lowest temperature that a mixture ...
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1answer
205 views

Why does copper have a high enthalpy of atomisation when it has a half filled d sub shell? [closed]

If I understood correct, the high energy of atomisation for d-block element comes from the ability to make many metallic bonds due to half electron filled d-orbitals, but it seems here that copper has ...
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Bond order for carbonate ion for resonance

I saw in a textbook that for carbonate ion, there are 3 resonance forms and the bond order is 1 and 1/3. So in general, how should we calculate the bond order for resonance structures? Is there any ...
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Are any bonds broken when NO2 becomes N2O4?

This reversible reaction occurs in room condition: $$\ce{2NO2 <=> N2O4}\quad(\Delta H=-57.23\mbox{ kJ/mol)}$$ This is the Lewis structure of $\ce{NO2}$ (courtesy Ben Mills via Wikipedia): ...
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How to assess the strength of the acid?

Which is the stronger acid in the given pairs? $\ce{HClO3}$ and $\ce{HBrO3}$ $\ce{HClO2}$ and $\ce{HClO}$ $\ce{H2Se}$ and $\ce{H2S}$ given that the number of oxygen atoms is the same, ...
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1answer
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How can we balance one-half of an oxygen molecule, or any other diatomic, in a chemical reaction?

How can we balance oxygen or any other diatomic molecule with a fractional coefficient in a reaction? I mean, if we can balance oxygen atoms in an odd number what happens to other oxygen atom, and ...
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What does 'organic/non-organic molecule' means exactly? [duplicate]

I am new to the organic chemistry world. I was delving for the exact answer to my question, and I've found some results: In wikipedia (french), is was mentioned that an organic molecule contains ...
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1answer
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Why does zinc sulfide glow?

Zinc sulfide is used in road signs because when light from cars hit the road signs, it glows. What actually is the reason for the glowing of road signs (actually glowing of $\ce{ZnS}$)?
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Formation of MnO2 vs [Mn(H2O)6]4+ in aqueous solution

I am looking for reasons why $\ce{Mn(IV)}$ wouldn't be stable as a hydrate. I know that from standard reduction potentials it exists as a ppt of $\ce{MnO2}$, but what is stopping it from being a ...
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1answer
209 views

What does a molecules color have to do with its bond/orbital energies?

For example, elemental iodine is deep violet. Its sigma bond or perhaps the lone pairs are capable of absorbing all visible light frequencies except violet which is why we see it as that color. ...
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1answer
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Uncertainties after Averaging Trials [closed]

If I conducted 6 trials for a lab, all with the uncertainty of (+/- 0.1 mL)... After averaging the 6 trials to plot the results, what is the new uncertainty?
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Preparation of Sodium Peroxoborate [closed]

Write balanced equations for each step, and an overall equation, for the preparation of sodium peroxoborate hexahydrate from the reagents borax, $\ce{NaOH}$, and $\ce{H2O2}$. Borax was added to a ...
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1answer
131 views

Finding out the concentration of oxygen in water

I read in a biology course that you can determine the concentration of oxygen in water by adding some $\ce{NaOH}$ and then a small amount of $\ce{MgCl2}$. They say that a dark coloured precipitate is ...
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Which has the highest melting point - NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI?

I've been trying to understand why NaF has the highest melting point among all of the given solids. I thought it would be NaI as it will have the biggest molar mass among them which would mean it has ...
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1answer
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How many hydrogen bonds are formed by water and by HF?

How many hydrogen bonds are possible for $\ce{H2O}$, given that oxygen has two lone pairs? Is it 4 or 2? Related: why is it that HF forms only 1 hydrogen bond, given that HF has three lone pairs?
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Why is an S-S bond stronger than an O-O bond?

I'm wondering why exactly the single bond between two sulfur atoms is stronger than that of two oxygen atoms. According to this page, an $\ce{O-O}$ bond has an enthalpy of $142~\mathrm{kJ~mol^{-1}}$, ...
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1answer
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What is the mathematical basis behind the Jahn-Teller effect?

Both first-order and second-order Jahn-Teller distortions play a very important role in chemistry. It is often said that the Jahn-Teller effect is based on symmetry arguments, and hence nothing can ...
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Would it be possible to destroy gold?

I'm a writer. I have a scenario in which a sizable amount of gold needs to be rendered unusable, preferably completely destroyed. I know an acid like aqua regia is able to dissolve gold, but would ...
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Why iron reacts differently with concentrated and dilute sulfuric acid?

When $\ce{H2SO4}$ is dilute, $ \ce{Fe +H2SO4 -> FeSO4 + H2} $ and when $\ce{H2SO4}$ is concentrated, $\ce{3Fe +8H2SO4 -> FeSO4 + Fe2(SO4)3 + 4SO2 +8H2O}$ What made the reaction with ...
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Why is sulfur hexafluoride more stable than selenium or tellurium hexafluoride?

I was just reading about p Block elements from two different books. Both books say that $\ce{SF6}$ is extremely stable in 16th group due to steric reasons but my question is why is it more stable than ...
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The IUPAC name of sodium nitroprusside, and back-bonding in it

In the standard test for the sulfide ion, sodium nitroprusside $(\ce{Na^_2[Fe(CN)5(NO)]})$ is used. The IUPAC name for this compound as stated by Wikipedia is sodium pentacyanidonitrosylferrate(II) I ...
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Why does the solubility of Group II hydroxides increase and the solubility of sulphates decrease down the group?

I know that, solubility of alkaline earth metal hydroxides increases down the group and solubility of alkaline earth metal sulfates decreases down the group. I wish to understand the reason for these ...
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Please explain why dioxygen difluoride is so dangerous

I just read this article that mentioned that dioxygen difluoride is very dangerous. The terms it uses are "awful", "violently hideous" and "deeply alarming". But I couldn't get a handle on exactly ...
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Why does hydrogen fluoride have a boiling point so much lower than that of water?

$\ce{F}$ has more unshared electron pairs and is very electronegative, so $\ce{H}$ of another $\ce{HF}$ molecule can $\ce{H}$-bond with it. $\ce{HF}$ has normal boiling point of $\pu{19.5^oC}$ while $...
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Why is magic acid a superacid?

The above is a representation of magic acid. The left part is the acid; the right part is the solvent. Why would this combination make for a particularly good acid? The left part looks like a ...
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Why is diborane cleaved symmetrically by trimethylamine but unsymmetrically by ammonia?

I know that soft bases cleave diborane symmetrically but hard ones don't. However, what makes ammonia harder than trimethylamine? And why does hardness/softness affect this?
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Why does stannous chloride occur despite the octet rule?

Shouldn't reaching an octet be any atom's "goal"? However, I've recently learned about cases that are either expanding octets, or have lesser than "enough" electrons for an octet abiding. e.g.: S in ...
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What metals aren't dissolved in/attacked by aqua regia?

Aqua regia (Latin: Royal Water) is one of the strongest acids known in Chemistry, and is capable of dissolving gold and platinum. My copy of the Oxford science dictionary goes on to say (under the ...
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Why do the alkali metals form different products upon combustion in air?

From Wikipedia's article on sodium: When burned in dry air, it forms primarily sodium peroxide with some sodium oxide. We know that sodium has a strong reducing capacity, so why does it produce a ...
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Why do the melting and boiling points of the noble gases increase when the atomic number increases?

What causes the melting and boiling points of noble gases to rise when the atomic number increases? What role do the valence electrons play in this?
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What is the reason of the color difference for the cis/trans isomers of tetraamminedichloridocobalt(III) chloride?

The cis and trans isomers of $\ce{[CoCl2(NH3)4]Cl}$ are quite famous as one is purple and the other one is green which is a huge difference in color. Now I can't find any information to why this is ...
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Why can't phosphorus trifluoride be used as a Lewis acid catalyst in electrophilic substitution of benzene?

Which of the following cannot be used as Lewis acid in the electrophilic substitution of benzene? $\ce{BF3}$ $\ce{SbCl3}$ $\ce{FeCl3}$ $\ce{PF3}$ My Attempt: $\ce{BF3}$ and $\ce{...
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How to decide acidic or basic nature of oxides

How can we theoretically decide the acidic or basic nature of an oxide? What are the reasons/ factors which make an oxide acidic, basic, amphoteric or netural?
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How do I find the ground state term symbol for transition metal complexes?

I have a problem where I'm trying to match metal complexes with the proper ground state term symbol. I've tried doing a Google search and looking for a process, but haven't had any luck. I decided ...
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Why do spin isomers of hydrogen (ortho and para hydrogen) change their nuclear spin with temperature variance?

My book says that ordinary dihydrogen contains 75% ortho and 25% para forms of hydrogen, while at significantly lower temperatures (like 20K) ortho and para hydrogens are 0.18% and 99.82% respectively....
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Why does polonium form acidic oxides?

All metals form basic oxides. Metallic oxides are basic in character. Polonium is a metal, so it should form basic oxides but it forms acidic oxides. Why are its oxides acidic in character?
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Why do XeO and XeF8 not exist?

Since Neil Bartlett's 1962 discovery that xenon was capable of forming chemical compounds, a large number of xenon compounds have been discovered and described. Almost all known xenon compounds ...
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Why NH4OH? Why not NH3(aq)?

The title says it all. I had this question when helping someone with their high-school chemistry homework. What are the reasons that someone would use an (from my point of view) obfuscated notation?
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Why are bromine oxyanions uncommon?

Sodium hypochlorite is used in bleach, calcium hypochlorite is used in public swimming pools, ammonium perchlorate is used in solid rocket fuel. Sodium periodate is used in the cleaving of syn-...
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Mechanism for the Cleavage of Diborane?

The cleavage of diborane was presented in a recent lecture, and it was said that the borane could be cleaved unsymmetrically if sterics allowed, or symmetrically if they did not, as shown in the image ...
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Does deuterium exhibit hydrogen bonding?

I searched for this on Google but I only got research articles in the SERP. I know of the concept of hydrogen bonds, that they are a special class of van der Waals forces between highly ...
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Why is oxygen an oxidizing agent?

Why are diatomic oxygen molecules STILL reactive especially with metallic elements like sodium and copper even at room temperature? You would think that since the two oxygen atoms already have the ...
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How to explain the dipole moment anomaly of methyl fluoride and methyl chloride with respect to their hydracids?

I was checking dipole moment orders, and came across a very peculiar result: Methyl fluoride $(\ce{CH3F})$ has lesser dipole moment than methyl chloride ($\ce{CH3Cl}$), but hydrofluoric acid ($\ce{HF}$...
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Reaction between silver nitrate and aluminum chloride

I googled a bit about what $\ce{AgNO3 + AlCl3}$ will yield and found out the following: $\ce{3AgNO3 + AlCl3 -> Al(NO3)3 + 3AgCl}$ Why is that? I know that $\ce{Ag}$ is higher up in the reactivity ...
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Why is fluorine the most electronegative atom?

It seems related to the atomic size but hydrogen has a smaller atomic size than fluorine. Why is fluorine the most electronegative atom?
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Weird Wikipedia Section on Oxidizing Behavior of Nitric and Sulfuric Acids

It has been my understanding that when nitric, perchloric, or sulfuric acids act as oxidizing agents, they must exist as whole $\ce{HNO_3}$ or $\ce{HClO_4}$ or $\ce{H_2SO_4}$ molecules that are still ...
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Why is carbon dioxide considered a Lewis acid?

$\ce{CO2}$ is considered a Lewis acid. How it is an acid? According to Lewis: “species that accept an electron pair are acids”. But $\ce{CO2}$ can't accept electron pairs because oxygen and carbon ...
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1answer
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What is the bonding type in hydrides of group 2 elements?

In one of my MCQ questions, there was a statement saying all group 2 elements form covalent hydroxides. I know it is incorrect. I know that $\ce{BeH2}$ is a covalent hydride. What about the rest? Are ...

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