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Questions tagged [inorganic-chemistry]

Inorganic compounds generally do not have C-H bonds, while organic compounds do have such bonds. The distinction between inorganic and organic chemistry, however, is far from absolute.

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66 votes
9 answers
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Why do compounds like SF6 and SF4 exist but SH6 and SH4 don't?

Both $\ce{SF6}$ and $\ce{SH6}$ and $\ce{SF4}$ and $\ce{SH4}$ have the same central atom and the same hybridization, but my teacher specifically mentioned that $\ce{SH6}$ and $\ce{SH4}$ don't exist. I'...
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19 votes
1 answer
18k views

Is KF the most ionic compound?

I saw somewhere (can't recall where) that KF is the most ionic compound. I expected CsF. Does the greater polarizability of Cs allow it to more easily form covalent bonds compared to K? Does this ...
Brinn Belyea's user avatar
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252 votes
3 answers
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Why is gold golden?

Bulk gold has a very characteristic warm yellow shine to it, whereas almost all other metals have a grey or silvery color. Where does this come from? I have heard that this property arises from ...
tschoppi's user avatar
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21 votes
2 answers
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What is the perfect definition for chirality?

Why is chirality defined differently for organic and inorganic compounds? Why are inorganic compounds deemed to be optically active if they have more than one of the same ligands attached to the ...
JM97's user avatar
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40 votes
2 answers
35k views

What do the prefixes meta, ortho, pyro mean in inorganic chemistry?

In inorganic chemistry, when is the prefix meta used? (as in metaborate and metasulphite) What about the terms pyro and ortho (as in orthophosphorous acid)? For example, I recently came to know about ...
Karan Singh's user avatar
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9 votes
2 answers
9k views

Colour intensity of transition metal complexes

Even though they are both $\mathrm{d^7}$ complexes, the colour of $\ce{[Co(H2O)6]^2+}$ is pale whereas that of $\ce{[CoCl4]^2-}$ is more intense. Does the octahedral or tetrahedral geometry matter in ...
Subhadip Pal's user avatar
29 votes
2 answers
78k views

Melting and boiling points of transition elements

The melting and boiling points of transition elements increase from scandium ($1530~\mathrm{^\circ C}$) to vanadium ($1917~\mathrm{^\circ C}$). They increase because as we go across the group, we have ...
Rafique's user avatar
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25 votes
4 answers
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Will gaseous ionic compounds be free moving ions?

I knew while learning about electrolysis that if the ionic compound is molten it becomes free moving ions. If that is the case, what will happen if I continued heating till it reaches the boiling ...
Abdelrahman Esmat's user avatar
25 votes
1 answer
30k views

Why does mercury have low melting and boiling points?

Many metals have relatively high melting and boiling points, but mercury has relatively low melting and boiling points. What are the possible reasons for this?
Naila Naveed's user avatar
23 votes
3 answers
11k views

Why is the inversion barrier larger in PH3 than it is in NH3?

The inversion barrier in $\ce{NH3}$ is approximately $5~\mathrm{kcal~mol^{-1}}$ and that of $\ce{PH3}$ is $35~\mathrm{kcal~mol^{-1}}$. This has well-known stereochemical consequences in that amines ...
wuschi's user avatar
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14 votes
2 answers
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Hybridization of sulfur in sulfur dioxide

One of the canonical structures for sulfur dioxide - $\ce{SO2}$ - has sulfur (with a lone electron pair) double bonded to each oxygen atom to form a total of 4 bonds for sulfur - which can be achieved ...
Mark Adams's user avatar
39 votes
3 answers
44k views

Why does basicity of group 15 hydrides decrease down the group?

In my textbook it is written that the order of basic strength of pnictogen hydrides is $$\ce{NH3 > PH3 > AsH3 > SbH3 > BiH3}$$ I tried but could not find any explanation as to why this ...
Soham's user avatar
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44 votes
3 answers
111k views

What is the inert pair effect?

I was reading about the p-block elements and found that the inert pair effect is mentioned everywhere in this topic. However, the book does not explain it very well. So, what is the inert pair effect? ...
radiantshaw's user avatar
20 votes
3 answers
15k views

Why copper(I) is unstable in aqueous medium?

I am expecting that $\ce{Cu+}$ attains a $\mathrm d^{10}$ configuration by losing one electron from s-subshell. Since it has fully filled d-orbital, it should be stable. But it is found that it is ...
Nilay Ghosh's user avatar
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14 votes
6 answers
27k views

Why is carbon dioxide nonpolar?

I understand that polarity corresponds to an electronegativity difference and that the larger the electronegativity difference, the more polar the bond. However, I have read that carbon dioxide is ...
Caters's user avatar
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12 votes
1 answer
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Hydrogen halide acidity

Why is it that $$\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a}(\ce{HF}) < \mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a}(\ce{HCl}) < \mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a}(\ce{HBr}) < \mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a}(\ce{HI}),$$ even though the electronegativity ...
Jori's user avatar
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44 votes
7 answers
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Why is BCl3 a monomer whereas AlCl3 exists as a dimer?

What makes dimerization possible in $\ce{AlCl3}$? Are there 3c-2e bonds in $\ce{Al2Cl6}$ as there are in $\ce{B2H6}$?
Papul's user avatar
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41 votes
2 answers
10k views

Why is arsenous acid denoted H3AsO3?

Inspired by this question, I'm wondering why arsenous acid is frequently denoted $\ce{H3AsO3}$, as opposed to $\ce{As(OH)3}$, which would appear to more accurately reflect its connectivity? [edit] I ...
Richard Terrett's user avatar
33 votes
2 answers
34k views

What is Drago's rule? Does it really exist?

My textbooks states the Drago's rule in inorganic chemistry as follows: The more electronegative atom prefers the orbital having more $\mathrm{p}$ character, and lone-pairs or less electronegative ...
user avatar
22 votes
2 answers
7k views

What is the favoured geometry of chlorine trifluoride?

Why is the first structure on the left more stable than the second one on the right? In the first one the angle between the two pair of nonbonding electrons is about 120° which is a lot less than ...
Abhirikshma's user avatar
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8 votes
1 answer
22k views

Trend in the melting point down the group

We know that the atomic radii increases down the group. So, less energy is required to pull out the outermost electron as we go down the group, hence, gradually melting point decreases down the group....
Nilay Ghosh's user avatar
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15 votes
2 answers
8k views

Dihedral angle of gaseous and crystalline HOOH

Why does hydrogen peroxide exhibit a dihedral angle of $111.5^\circ$ in the gaseous state? And a dihedral angle of $90.2^\circ$ in the crystalline phase? I know that in general, there is likely to be ...
Dissenter's user avatar
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11 votes
3 answers
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Is potassium bifluoride an ionic or a covalent compound?

The statement below is an excerpt from my textbook (Chemistry Part II, Textbook for Class XII by NCERT, ed. January 2014): Because of the tendency of fluorine to form hydrogen bond, metal fluorides ...
Nilay Ghosh's user avatar
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84 votes
7 answers
26k views

Do all salts taste salty?

Recently, I am learning the production of soluble and insoluble salts. My friend and I have done this experiment at the school lab. We wanted to taste them to see whether they are salty are not. The ...
Simon-Nail-It's user avatar
16 votes
1 answer
1k views

Why do different elements form different types of carbides?

What property of the elements make them form different types of carbides like: $\ce{Be}$ and $\ce{Al}$ - $\ce{Be2C}$ and $\ce{Al4C3}$ (Methanides) contains $\ce{C^4-}$ ion $\ce{Na}$ and $\ce{Ca}$ - $...
Nilay Ghosh's user avatar
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14 votes
1 answer
10k views

Delocalization of π-electrons in nitrate ion

Benzene and nitrate ion are given in my textbook as examples for the delocalization of π-electrons. Benzene, due to symmetry of its resonating structures, is simple enough. We assume that σ-electrons ...
Gerard's user avatar
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11 votes
2 answers
14k views

Reaction intermediates of MnO2 catalyzed H2O2 decomposition reaction

Manganese dioxide catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen gas. But what are the intermediates in this catalyzed reaction?
user avatar
9 votes
4 answers
4k views

Why does the inverse relationship between the strengths of an acid and its conjugate base appear to be violated in the case of chloric(I) acid?

Hypochlorous acid is a weak acid with $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a}(\ce{HClO}) = 7.53$. Then why is its conjugate base, $\ce{ClO-}$, a weak base in water? Shouldn't the strength of the base be inversely ...
asdf's user avatar
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9 votes
2 answers
4k views

Why do copper (II) complexes contain so many valence electrons?

Consider tetraaminecopper (II) ion. $\ce{[Cu(NH3)4]^2+}$ or $\ce{[Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2]^2+}$. The copper(II) ion has the electron configuration $\mathrm{[Ar]\ 3d^9}$. How do the 4 electron pairs from the ...
Armadillomon's user avatar
54 votes
4 answers
63k views

Is carbon dioxide organic or inorganic?

Today in chemistry class we were discussing Organic Chemistry. We discussed what organic compounds basically are and then I asked the teacher whether $\ce{CO_2}$ is organic or not. She told that it is ...
Devarsh Ruparelia's user avatar
47 votes
1 answer
12k views

Why does sulfur, but not oxygen, catenate?

Oxygen is a rather boring element. It has only two allotropes, dioxygen and ozone. Dioxygen has a double bond, and ozone has a delocalised cloud, giving rise to two "1.5 bonds". On the other hand, ...
ManishEarth's user avatar
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38 votes
1 answer
79k views

Why is [PdCl4]2- square planar whereas [NiCl4]2- is tetrahedral?

The molecule $\ce{[PdCl4]^2-}$ is diamagnetic, which indicates a square planar geometry as all eight d electrons are paired in the lower-energy orbitals. However, $\ce{[NiCl4]^2-}$ is also $\mathrm{d^...
user avatar
13 votes
1 answer
18k views

Why does magnesium have an exceptionally low melting point?

Why does magnesium have a lower melting point than both calcium and beryllium? It does not seem to fit into the group trend.
Charles Collingwood's user avatar
13 votes
3 answers
9k views

How can the equilibrium shift, while Kc remains constant?

Consider the following reversible reaction. $$\ce{Cr2O7^2-(aq) + H2O(l) <=> 2 CrO4^2-(aq) + 2 H+(aq)}$$ What will happen to the position of equilibrium and the value of $K_c$ when more $\ce{H+}$ ...
DarkLightA's user avatar
13 votes
4 answers
13k views

Why is CaCl2 called calcium chloride?

Doing a first year chem class. Just read through the molecular naming of compounds and now I'm confused as to why $\ce{CaCl2}$ is called calcium chloride and not calcium dichloride?
Chef Flambe's user avatar
12 votes
2 answers
64k views

What is the definition of organic compounds?

According to the definition of organic compounds on Wikipedia: An organic compound is any member of a large class of gaseous, liquid, or solid chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. ...
Sensebe's user avatar
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11 votes
3 answers
5k views

How does copper reduce dilute nitric acid to nitric oxide and concentrated nitric acid to nitrogen dioxide?

Here are the 2 equations: \begin{align} \ce{3Cu + 2NO3- + 8H+ &<=> 3Cu^2+ + 2NO + 4H2O} & E &= 0.62~\mathrm{V}\\ \ce{Cu + 2NO3- + 4H+ &<=> Cu^2+ + 2NO2 + 2H2O}& E &...
Brinn Belyea's user avatar
  • 3,838
10 votes
3 answers
65k views

Why doesn't copper react with hydrochloric acid while the other metals do?

5) Which one of the following metals does not react with hydrochloric acid? A. zinc B. magnesium C. iron D. copper E. aluminium The right answer must be copper, but why ...
Adam's user avatar
  • 849
8 votes
1 answer
6k views

Why do sodium halides react so differently with sulfuric acid?

Why do sodium halides react so differently with sulfuric acid? \begin{align} \ce{NaF + H2SO4 &-> NaHSO4 + HF} \tag{1a}\label{NaF}\\ \ce{NaCl + H2SO4 &-> NaHSO4 + HCl} \tag{...
Meow's user avatar
  • 899
8 votes
1 answer
1k views

How does the radial distribution function of Vanadium differ from that of Calcium and how does this affect the ionic electron configurations?

When Vanadium is ionised it loses the 4s electron first, meaning that it's 3+ ion has a different electron configuration to Calcium despite it being isoelectronic. Can it be explained in terms of ...
RobChem's user avatar
  • 9,784
7 votes
2 answers
18k views

What is hybridisation of XeF6 in solid state?

According to the following formula: Type of hybridisation/steric no. = (no. of sigma bonds + no. of lone pairs) it should be $\ce{sp^3d^3}$, however according to my textbook it is $\ce{sp^3d^2}$ in ...
James Hunt's user avatar
35 votes
3 answers
12k views

Does O2 have a color in the gas phase

I have noticed that liquid $\ce{O2}$ (I clarify it as $\ce{O2}$ because oxygen exists in several other forms which have different colors in the liquid state than $\ce{O2}$) has a light blue color to ...
Caters's user avatar
  • 2,113
21 votes
2 answers
8k views

Why is the boiling point of stibane higher than that of ammonia?

I recently came across the fact that the boiling point of $\ce{SbH3}$ (stibane) is greater than that of $\ce{NH3}$ (ammonia). I was expecting $\ce{NH3}$ to have a greater boiling point as a ...
Arishta's user avatar
  • 4,197
18 votes
2 answers
2k views

Do bare protons exist, even transiently, in aqueous solution?

Generally $\ce{H^+}$ ions in water remain in the form of hydronium ions ($\ce{H3O+}$), and not as "free" aqueous protons, as far as I've been taught. My question: is this always the case, even when ...
Sangkha Borah's user avatar
15 votes
1 answer
5k views

The bond in coordination complexes

This is a very basic question and I'm surprised it only just struck me. The nature of the bond in coordination complexes is a coordinate covalent bond. Only the ligand donates electrons for bond ...
Keerthana A.K.'s user avatar
15 votes
2 answers
9k views

Flame test: Is the metal atom or the metal ion responsible for the flame colour?

A sample of $\ce{CaCl2}$ is placed in the flame of a Bunsen burner. The component of the substance which is responsible for the production of the flame colour is: $\ce{Ca^2+}$ $\ce{Ca}$ $\ce{Cl-}$ $\...
confused's user avatar
  • 751
15 votes
3 answers
22k views

How does chlorine form more than 1 bond?

How are perchlorate or chlorate or chlorite ions and their respective acids or compounds formed. $\ce{Cl}$ can't form more than one bond but still... $\rightarrow$'Perchlorate ion' $\rightarrow$'...
NeilRoy's user avatar
  • 1,673
14 votes
1 answer
14k views

Thermal stability of alkali metal hydrides and carbonates

Why is it that thermal stability of alkali metal hydrides decreases down the group, but for carbonates, it increases? I used Fajans' rule to check for ionic character but somehow this is only ...
Avyansh Katiyar's user avatar
14 votes
2 answers
7k views

Which has the largest bond angle between water, oxygen difluoride and dichlorine oxide?

Which one out of $\ce{H2O}, \ce{Cl2O}, \&\ \ce{F2O}$ will have largest bond angle? I think it should be $\ce{H2O}$ because oxygen is most electronegative in this case so electrons will be more ...
user354545's user avatar
13 votes
2 answers
10k views

Should bromine water be called a solution?

Bromine water is a reagent which is used to test for unsaturation in organic compound. It is $2.8~\%$ bromine in water. In many places, it is refer to as bromine solution. But it is observed that ...
Nilay Ghosh's user avatar
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