Questions tagged [inorganic-chemistry]

Inorganic compounds generally do not have C-H bonds, while organic compounds do have such bonds. The distinction between inorganic and organic chemistry, however, is far from absolute.

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17
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2answers
11k views

Does water have a chemical name?

The title sums up the question: Does water have a chemical name? If so, what is it? P.S. I checked up the web and got all sorts of crazy answers like dihydrogenmonoxide, oxidane, ...
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1answer
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Why are antibonding molecular orbitals formed?

When two atomic orbitals make one molecular orbital there must be an antibonding orbital also. Why should they make also an antibonding molecular orbital, such as the $2\mathrm b_2$ orbital in the ...
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How is volatility useful in the production of acids?

Sulfuric acid because of its low volatility can be used to manufacture more volatile acids from their corresponding salts. How does volatility affect the production of acids? Isn't it that sulfuric ...
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Does O2 have a color in the gas phase

I have noticed that liquid $\ce{O2}$ (I clarify it as $\ce{O2}$ because oxygen exists in several other forms which have different colors in the liquid state than $\ce{O2}$) has a light blue color to ...
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How can bromine water be called a solution?

Bromine water is a reagent which is used to test for unsaturation in organic compound. It is $2.8~\%$ bromine in water according to Wikipedia. But how is it made? This link describes the procedure ...
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1answer
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Why is the vanadium(3+) ion paramagnetic?

I know that the electron configuration of vanadium is $[\ce{Ar}]\mathrm{4s^2 3d^3}$. None of the electrons in the 3d subshell are paired. Once it loses these three electrons, shouldn't the remainder ...
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1answer
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The instability of hydrated carbon dioxide or “carbonic acid”

Why is hydrated carbon dioxide - the predominant form of acid that one gets upon dissolution of carbon dioxide in solution - so unstable? Is the below rationale valid? Carbon in carbon dioxide has ...
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2answers
800 views

What's so special about chelation? [duplicate]

There is another closely related post here , and I've also read the referenced wiki article including applications of chelation, but I still don't see what's so special about chelation. I understand ...
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How does copper reduce dilute nitric acid to nitric oxide and concentrated nitric acid to nitrogen dioxide?

Here are the 2 equations: \begin{align} \ce{3Cu + 2NO3- + 8H+ &<=> 3Cu^2+ + 2NO + 4H2O} & E &= 0.62~\mathrm{V}\\ \ce{3Cu + 2NO3- + 4H+ &<=> 3Cu^2+ + 2NO2 + 2H2O}& E &...
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1answer
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How can there be decimal subscripts in a molecular formula?

While learning about how batteries work I have encountered the following notation for a Li-ion cathode: $\ce{Li_{0.5}FePO4}$.[1] According to Wikipedia, the subscript number in a reaction equation ...
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660 views

Do bare protons exist, even transiently, in aqueous solution?

Generally $\ce{H^+}$ ions in water remain in the form of hydronium ions ($\ce{H3O+}$), and not as "free" aqueous protons, as far as I've been taught. My question: is this always the case, even when ...
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What is hybridisation of XeF6 in solid state?

According to the following formula: Type of hybridisation/steric no. = (no. of sigma bonds + no. of lone pairs) it should be $\ce{sp^3d^3}$, however according to my textbook it is $\ce{sp^3d^2}$ in ...
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Why is BCl3 a monomer whereas AlCl3 exists as a dimer?

What makes dimerization possible in $\ce{AlCl3}$? Are there 3c-2e bonds in $\ce{Al2Cl6}$ as there are in $\ce{B2H6}$?
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1answer
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What is Drago's rule? Does it really exist?

My textbooks states the Drago's rule in inorganic chemistry as follows: The more electronegative atom prefers the orbital having more p character, and lone-pairs or less electronegative elements ...
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Can fluorine act as the central atom in interhalogen compounds?

Why can't fluorine be the central atom in inter-halogen compounds? A $\ce{F-F}$ bond is weaker than a $\ce{F-X}$ bond and thus, fluorine should be happy to form inter-halogen compounds. But, why ...
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Can magnetic fields affect a chemical reaction?

This question was asked recently in an interview and I just said that "Yeah, like if the reaction involves ions or paramagnetic species". But the interviewer went on and asked me to elaborate on HOW ...
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1answer
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Why is NaCl3 possible?

There. And there. Almost a year ago, a group of scientists claimed to have reached compounds of $\ce{Na}$ and $\ce{Cl}$ with weird stochiometries ($\ce{NaCl3, Na3Cl, NaCl7, Na3Cl2}$ and $\ce{Na2Cl}$). ...
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Why is lithium the most reducing alkali metal, and not caesium?

Caesium has a larger size, and the effective nuclear charge that the valence electron experiences will be far less compared to that of lithium's, right? But lithium is still considered the strongest ...
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3answers
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Why doesn't nitrogen monoxide dimerize?

Why doesn't Nitrogen monoxide dimerize even though there is an odd electron present whereas nitrogen dioxide does (because of the odd electron on nitrogen)?
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Where does the label ‘Dq’ to denote the field split in coordination compounds come from?

As established in a previous question, coordination compounds typically have a field split between the $\mathrm{t_{2g}}$ and the $\mathrm{e_g}$ d-orbitals.[1] This energy difference can be explained ...
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1answer
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Is the bond in HF ionic while it is covalent in HCl?

Why would a hydrogen atom "donate" to fluorine in an ionic bond but not in $\ce{HCl}$? Why would $\ce{H}$ and chlorine share instead of $\ce{Cl}$ just stripping it away like $\ce{F}$ does?
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Difference between state of matter and phase

What is the difference between state of matter and phase? This site said that: Phases are different from states of matter. The states of matter (e.g., liquid, solid, gas) are phases, but matter ...
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Why Cu+ is unstable in aqueous medium?

This was one of the question that was given in the school exam. But what I am expecting is that $\ce{Cu+}$ attains a $d^{10}$ configuration by losing one electron from s-subshell. Since it has fully ...
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1answer
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Outermost electronic configuration of f block elements

Why is it $(n-2)\mathrm{f}^{1-14}(n-1)\mathrm{d}^{0-1}n\mathrm{s}^2$. The only exception I thought to this formula was Thorium $\ce{5f^{0} 6d^{2} 7s^{2}}$. So I feel it should be $(n-2)\mathrm{...
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2answers
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Why are silicon analogs of alkenes or alkynes so difficult to make?

We know that there are silicon analogs of alkanes, but according to Wikipedia, silicon analogs of alkenes or alkynes are virtually unknown. How come?
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What is the chemical structure / hybridization of sulfuric acid?

I was looking at the chemical structure of $\ce{H2SO4}$. Intuitively, I would have expected this molecule to be square planar in accordance with $p^2d^2$ or $sp^2d$ hybridization, but instead it is ...
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2answers
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Flame test: Is the metal atom or the metal ion responsible for the flame colour?

A sample of $\ce{CaCl2}$ is placed in the flame of a Bunsen burner. The component of the substance which is responsible for the production of the flame colour is: $\ce{Ca^2+}$ $\ce{Ca}$ $\...
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2answers
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Why do octahedral metal ligand complexes have greater splitting than tetrahedral complexes?

Octahedral complexes have greater splitting in the d orbitals. Is it because octahedral complexes have more atoms and thus more interactions?
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What is the reaction between oxalic acid and potassium permanganate?

I've already searched online some information about this equation, but everywhere I read, there's also sulfuric acid, which we did not use in the laboratory. We only used potassium permanganate and ...
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What exactly happened when I added KOH to hydrogen peroxide?

I recently added a potassium hydroxide, $\ce{KOH}$, pellet to a small droplet of hydrogen peroxide (30 %), $\ce{H2O2}$. You could clearly see the potassium hydroxide dissolving in the droplet when ...
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Why does N₂ react with O₂ to Form NO at high temperatures?

This also raises questions that I have about the Haber Process which produces ammonia ($\ce{NH3}$) from molecular nitrogen ($\ce{N2}$) and hydrogen ($\ce{H2}$). I have heard multiple times that bond ...
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Do hydrogen halides (HX) form strong or weak acids?

I know that when dissolved in water, hydrogen halides ($\ce{H-X}$), become acids. I know that $\ce{HF}$ forms a weak acid, but can it be generalized that all $\ce{HX}$ acids do so?
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Oxidation state of fluorine in HOF

What should be the oxidation state of $\ce{F}$ in $\ce{HOF}$. As fluorine is the most electronegative element in the periodic table, it should be $-1$. But when I googled it, I found that many ...
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1answer
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Why does ozone have an electrostatic potential map similar to that of SO2?

This is the electrostatic potential for ozone. This is the electrostatic potential for sulfur dioxide. (Click to enlarge) They look almost exactly the same except one is all oxygen atoms and the ...
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How to separate and analyse a sample of cations of alkaline and earth alkaline cations and ammonium?

I am teaching a section of qualitative analysis and I am trying to get a better grasp on the assignments the students are doing. These are the cations they may be presented with and must identify: $\...
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2answers
498 views

How is the trend of acidity in the sequence: phosphinic, phosphonic, phosphoric acid explained?

How is the trend of increasing $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a}(1)$ value in the sequence: phosphinic $(1.24)$, phosphonic $(2.00)$, phosphoric acid $(2.21)$ explained (the image was taken from Housecroft ...
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1answer
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Formation of ferrous chloride or ferric chloride

Question When $\ce{HCl}$ reacts with finely powdered iron, it forms ferrous chloride and not ferric chloride. Why? Answer. Its reaction with iron produces $\ce{H2}$. $\ce{Fe + 2HCl -> ...
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1answer
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Why does Ruthenium only have one electron in its 5s orbital in the neutral oxidation state?

So recently I have undertaken some research with some organometallic chemistry involved, specifically regarding that of ruthenium-aryl compounds. Trying to understand the chemistry of the central ...
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1answer
663 views

Do alkali metals not form diatomic molecules?

I know hydrogen forms a diatomic molecule $\ce{H2}$, where the electronic configuration of hydrogen is $\ce{1s}$. But why doesn't lithium also form a diatomic molecule? Its electronic structure is $\...
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1answer
636 views

What elements don't observe the octet rule?

Apart from hydrogen which forms a duet, which element's don't observe the octet rule?
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Plot Binary Eutectic from Temperature of Melting and Enthalpy

I'm a little confused about plotting a binary eutectic diagram (temperature vs mole fraction), and finding the eutectic point. I understand the eutectic point is the lowest temperature that a mixture ...
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Bond order for carbonate ion for resonance

I saw in a textbook that for carbonate ion, there are 3 resonance forms and the bond order is 1 and 1/3. So in general, how should we calculate the bond order for resonance structures? Is there any ...
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2answers
680 views

Are any bonds broken when NO2 becomes N2O4?

This reversible reaction occurs in room condition: $$\ce{2NO2 <=> N2O4}\quad(\Delta H=-57.23\mbox{ kJ/mol)}$$ This is the Lewis structure of $\ce{NO2}$ (courtesy Ben Mills via Wikipedia): ...
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2answers
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How to assess the strength of the acid?

Which is the stronger acid in the given pairs? $\ce{HClO3}$ and $\ce{HBrO3}$ $\ce{HClO2}$ and $\ce{HClO}$ $\ce{H2Se}$ and $\ce{H2S}$ given that the number of oxygen atoms is the same, ...
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1answer
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How can we balance one-half of an oxygen molecule, or any other diatomic, in a chemical reaction?

How can we balance oxygen or any other diatomic molecule with a fractional coefficient in a reaction? I mean, if we can balance oxygen atoms in an odd number what happens to other oxygen atom, and ...
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1answer
320 views

Formation of MnO2 vs [Mn(H2O)6]4+ in aqueous solution

I am looking for reasons why $\ce{Mn(IV)}$ wouldn't be stable as a hydrate. I know that from standard reduction potentials it exists as a ppt of $\ce{MnO2}$, but what is stopping it from being a ...
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3answers
2k views

What does 'organic/non-organic molecule' means exactly? [duplicate]

I am new to the organic chemistry world. I was delving for the exact answer to my question, and I've found some results: In wikipedia (french), is was mentioned that an organic molecule contains ...
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1answer
188 views

What does a molecules color have to do with its bond/orbital energies?

For example, elemental iodine is deep violet. Its sigma bond or perhaps the lone pairs are capable of absorbing all visible light frequencies except violet which is why we see it as that color. ...
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1answer
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Uncertainties after Averaging Trials [closed]

If I conducted 6 trials for a lab, all with the uncertainty of (+/- 0.1 mL)... After averaging the 6 trials to plot the results, what is the new uncertainty?
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1answer
126 views

Finding out the concentration of oxygen in water

I read in a biology course that you can determine the concentration of oxygen in water by adding some $\ce{NaOH}$ and then a small amount of $\ce{MgCl2}$. They say that a dark coloured precipitate is ...