Questions tagged [hydrolysis]

Hydrolysis refers to any reaction with water. For example, it may be said that ammonia hydrolyzes in water to produce ammonium ion and hydroxide ion.

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Mechanism for hydrolysis of enol ether to aldehyde

I'm fairly confident in my answers for steps 1-3, but I am not certain how to have the methyl group bonded that is bonded to the alkene carbon leave in step 5 without forming methanol. Here is what I ...
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Does Nucleophilic substitution require water to happen?

I am under the impression that in a mixture of hydroxide ions, haloalkanes, water, and ethanol, under low temperatures, nucleophilic substitution will occur predominantly, with small amounts of ...
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How to remove sulfuric acid from sample

I have problem with my experiment. My experiment is acid hydrolysis of ethyl benzoate. The acid that I used is sulfuric acid. My problem is when I get the precipitate (impure benzoic acid) I have to ...
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Hydrolysis of salts containing amphiprotic anion

I am trying to understand the derivation of pH of salt containing amphiprotic anions, but I am facing some difficulty: Ionisation: $\ce{HCO3^- + H2O <=> CO3^2- + H3O+};\quad K_\mathrm{a_2}...
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Hydrolysing a compound by repeated methyl and hydride shifts

The question is to predict the major product in the following reaction. First of all the proton will abstract the bromide ion resulting in the formation of a primary carbocation which being unstable ...
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Hydrolysis of Phosphorus Trichloride

During hydrolysis of a halide of carbon via $\mathrm{S_N2}$ mechanism, the incoming neutral water molecule attacks the partially positive carbon centre from the side opposite to the halide side and ...
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Rates of hydrolysis in bicyclic and monocyclic compounds

Which of the following compounds, 1-bromo-1-methylcyclohexane 1 or 1-bromobicyclo[2.2.2]octane 2, hydrolyzes faster (under comparable conditions)? It may be acid catalyzed or base catalyzed hydrolysis,...
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589 views

Hydrolysis of vinyl bromide vs alkyl chloride

Which of the following compounds, 1-bromocyclopent-1-ene 1 or chlorocyclopentane 2, hydrolyses faster than the second under comparable conditions? It may be acid catalysed or base catalyzed hydrolysis ...
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Hydrolysis products of chlorides of group 15

$\ce{NCl3}$ on hydrolysis produces $\ce{NH4OH}$ and $\ce{HOCl}$. $\ce{PCl_3}$ when hydrolyzed produces $\ce{P(OH)3}$ i.e. $\ce{H3PO3}$. $\ce{AsCl_3}$ when hydrolyzed produces $\ce{As(OH)3}$. ...
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573 views

Relative rate of hydrolysis of the carbon chlorine bond in thioethers and ethers

I am solving problems based on rates of hydrolysis of compounds but I don't have a general approach to such questions. Which of the following compounds undergoes hydrolysis faster than the second ...
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Does the salinity in seawater affect the process of alkaline hydrolysis?

I am an architecture student doing a project on crematorium spaces. I am looking at resomation or alkaline hydrolysis as an alternative method of disposition of a body. From what I gather from ...
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What is the major hydrolysis product of 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl 2-acetamido-3-phenylprop-2-enoate?

In the below reaction we have to find the major hydrolysis product of 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl 2-acetamido-3-phenylprop-2-enoate. My doubt is why the major hydrolysis is not when $\ce{OH-}$ at the $\ce{C}...
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Hydrolysis of starch by means of amylase to unclog bathtub drain

After my son decided to pour a substantial amount of uncooked rice down the bathtub drain, I find myself in the situation of removing it. After trying some common methods - to no avail - I thought I ...
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What exactly is hydrolysis reaction in organic chemistry?What mechanism does it follow?

According to my study material: Hydrolysis is a special type of nucleophilic substitution ($\mathrm{S_N1}$) where water acts as both nucleophile and a solvent molecule. Is this definition correct? ...
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Comparing rates of hydrolysis in cyclohexane ring (involving neighbouring group participation)

I need to compare the rates of hydrolysis of these three compounds. MY ATTEMPT: By definition hydrolysis is either $\ce{S_N1}$ or elimination.But water being a weak base (and weak nucleophile) $\...
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977 views

Mustard gas hydrolysis (at a very high rate)

Explain mustard gas hydrolysis at a very high rate: $\ce{Cl-CH2-CH2-S-CH2-CH2-Cl}$ I tried searching online but did not find this reaction anywhere. Can someone explain me the steps/mechanism of ...
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Hydrolysis equilibrium of urotropin [closed]

In a test I was asked why the hydrolysis equilibrium of Urotropine (Hexamethylenetetramine) in neutral solution lies far on the side of the reactants. Well I had no idea and I'd be very glad if ...
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What is the mechanism of saccharification by H2SO4?

We have been estimating total carbohydrate by Umbreit method/ Anthrone method in college. The website I have been reading says that $\ce{H_2SO_4}$ and heat is used to treat a polysaccharide solution ...
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Why does dissolving a salt in water get a high pH?

I dissolved some sodium carbonate in water and I measured the $\mathrm{pH}$. It turned out to be 11. I don't really understand why dissolving it in water increased the $\mathrm{pH}$. I mean, I know ...
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Acetone absorbing water from the air

Our company uses acetone and isopropanol in our manufacturing process to clean our product. Our operators get the chemicals from a large container and put it into small containers like this (http://...
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Is (high) pressure required to form (quartz) crystals?

I've been reading a lot of sources about the hydrothermal synthesis of quartz using autoclaves. I want to try doing this myself, but before I can I need to know the minimum pressure required. If you ...
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Production of sulfuric acid using sulfur dioxide

Is it possible to create sulfuric acid using sulfur dioxide directly dissolved in water? Usually, people oxidize the $\ce{SO2}$ to sulfur trioxide ($\ce{SO3}$) first. If this is possible, why is it ...
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Hydrolysis of Aspartame with a warmed alkali

Aspartame has this structure below Shouldn't the peptide group be oxidised along with the ester group? Then why is the answer to the question below B? EDIT : I'm sorry I misunderstood a friend's ...
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Why does sodium react with water to produce a hydroxide, while zinc produces an oxide?

Sodium belongs to the so-called active metals and produces a hydroxide on contact with water. Zinc produces an oxide. Why is it so? I was given a hint: to read up about electrochemical series. I've ...
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Why are silyl chlorides more readily hydrolysed than alkyl chlorides?

I know that the $\ce{Si-Cl}$ bond has a slightly higher energy, but silyl chlorides are much more readily hydrolyzed compared to alkyl chlorides. I do not fully understand why that is. My thoughts so ...
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Is magnesium sulfate basic, neutral or acidic?

A question in my college test was whether $\ce{MgSO4}$ is neutral, acidic or basic. I was told to solve this kind of problem by hydrolyzing any ions that do not "come from" a strong acid or a strong ...
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Why do I have to use a 1:1 ethanol:water solution to hydrolyse aspirin?

I understand that water itself would not work as aspirin is not very soluble in water but Why not just use 100% ethanol?
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What will form in the hydrolysis of urea in urine?

I just wanna know what is the end product of hydrolysis of urea in urine. I know that the hydrolysis of urea will form ammonia and a subsequent rise in pH but will the ammonia react with the water ...
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Hydrolysis of 3,4-dihydropyran

In the 3,4-dihydropyran shown below will the oxygen or the pi electrons of the double bond attack the hydrogen cation during hydrolysis and why? This is my attempt towards a solution: The oxygen ...
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Why does the activation enthalpy of ester hydrolysis increase with an increase in alcohol-chain length?

(Particularly concerning acid hydrolysis) Is there some sort of chemical reason as to why with increasing alcohol-chain length, there is also an increase in the minimum energy needed to cause the ...
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Alkaline Ester Hydrolysis Reaction

In an ester hydrolysis reaction using a dilute base what is the pH change before and after the reaction occurs. In this reaction I want to react methyl ethanoate with dilute sodium hydroxide. I want ...
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Non-destructive solvents for cyan-salts

What dissolves cyan-salts (NaCN and KCN) without destroying them the way water does via hydrolysis? I have to make my own cyan-salts, so they're somewhat precious to me. Every time I have to ...
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How can the formation of an alkene be explained during the hydrolysis of an ester when the alkoxy moiety is tertiary?

$$ \ce{RCOOR' + H2O -> RCOOH + R'OH} $$ But when $\ce{R'}=3^\circ$ it may result in the formation of alkene. But by the normal mechanism given in books and in various sites I am not able to explain ...
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Diffusion into PMMA

My thesis is about effect of cigarette smoke to PMMA polymer, apparently cigarette smoke have some amount of eugenol which is mildly acidic and they will evaporate when the cigarette is burned. In ...
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Reversablity of dehydration

Aqueous magnesium bicarbonate when evaporated decomposes into magnesium carbonate. Is that reaction reversible by dissolving the carbonate in soda water?
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Alkylating agent to produce methanol

I was just working though some simple organic problems and came across the reaction of dimethyl sulfate with water to yield methanol. I was curious how that works as $\ce{H2O}$ isn't a strong ...
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Predictions about hydrolysis reactions [duplicate]

Predict whether these $1.0~\mathrm{M}$ solutions are acidic, basic, or neutral. Lets start with $\ce{CH3NH3+NO3-}$ How do I approach a problem such as this? I certainly do not know all the chemical ...
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Why are phosphate-phosphate bonds weaker than phosphate-water bonds?

According to the Wikipedia entry on ATP, ATP is an unstable molecule in unbuffered water, in which it hydrolyses to ADP and phosphate. This is because the strength of the bonds between the ...
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Wood Hydrolysis

According to this article on Live Strong, children have an average saliva pH of 7.5, while adults tend to be more acidic, with a saliva pH of 6.5 or lower. Even though a pH of 6 is not very ...
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Are there any substances that react very slowly with water to create heat?

I know there are things like the alkali metals that react very violently with water. I was wondering if there is anything that produces a slower more controlled reaction? Also, is there anything that ...
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Why can NCl3 be hydrolyzed but CCl4 cannot?

While explaining why $\ce{CCl4}$ cannot be hydrolyzed, we say carbon atom doesn't have any d-orbitals and therefore a water molecule (lone pair electrons of $\ce{O}$ atom) cannot form coordinate bond ...
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Why is ATP, but not ADP or AMP, a sole source of energy?

Why are three phosphate groups (such as in ATP) required for release of energy, but not two (ADP) or one (AMP) phosphates? How does breaking the phosphate bond release energy?
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Hydrolysis of Radiolabeled Esters

Hydrolysis of C$_6$H$_5$COO$^{18}$CH$_3$ with aqueous NaOH produces what final product. (a) CH$_3$$^{18}$OH (b) CH$_3$CO$^{18}$ONa (c) CH$_3$C$^{18}$OONa (d) CH$_3$$^{18}$ONa (e) CH$_3$OH The ...
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Why is HCl used in hydrolysis of sucrose?

I am aware that $\ce{HCl}$ can be used to help speed up the hydrolysis of sucrose but I haven't really been able to find out why. I've read somewhere that the glycosidic link in sucrose is broken off ...
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Does evaporation reverse salt hydrolysis?

It has been a long time since I studied organic chemistry, but one thing I do remember is that when we needed cyanide salts we were told not to bother keeping any remaining solution because the salts ...
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steam distillation of 4-bromoaniline , why render it basic prior

In the multistage synthesis of 4-bromobenzenamine, why must the solution be rendered alkaline prior to the steam distillation after the hydrolysis of 4-bromo-N-ethanoylbenzenamine?
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Comparing the Lewis acidity of carbon tetrafluoride and silicon tetrafluoride

I've been asked to compare the relative acidity of $\ce{CF4}$ and $\ce{SiF4}$. As both atoms have noble gas configurations, neither can act as a lewis acid and so I assume the question is inferring ...
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How is it possible, that the hydrolysis of ethers proceed via a SN2 mechanism?

Ethers on hydrolysis with dilute $\ce{H2SO4}$ under pressure produce alcohols. This is basically a type of acidic cleavage of ethers by the SN2 mechanism. (source) There is inversion of ...
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What an aqueous solution really contains?

I want to know what an aqueous solution is. For example, let's consider a $1~\mathrm{M}$ aqueous solution of $\ce{MgCl2}$. Does it also contain $\ce{MgOH2}$? Though it is a simple question, I feel it ...
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Partial hydrolysis of XeF6

What are the products of partial hydrolysis of $\ce{XeF_6}$? Is $\ce{XeOF_4}$ formed or $\ce{XeO_2F_2}$ is formed?