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Questions tagged [hydrolysis]

Hydrolysis refers to any reaction with water. For example, it may be said that ammonia hydrolyzes in water to produce ammonium ion and hydroxide ion.

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Metal hydrolysis and equilbrium constants from stability constants

Problem: I want to create minimum solubility plots for a series of metal hydrolysis species against pH (below). But I cannot reconcile literature stability constants and equilibrium constants. Context:...
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Slow acidification process

I'm trying to find a substitute of Glucono delta-lactone (GDL). This food additive is usually used to produce silk tofu. Because of its slow hydrolysis the pH decreases very smoothly, which results in ...
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Hydrolyse a fluorophosphonic compound / Which protective group strategy can I use for phosphonate esters to access the free acid after a reaction?

I have a synthetic problem in my PhD thesis, in which I synthesize a phosphonate ester. To be more precise, it is a phosphonofluoridic compound. In my specific case, the fluorine attached to the ...
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Hydrolyse Phosphonate diester to free phosphonic acid under relatively mild conditions?

I want to hydrolyse a phosphonic acid diethylester to the corresponding free phosphonic acid. In the literature, it is described, that usually strongly basic or acidic conditions are utilized to ...
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Why are certain hot polycarbonate films stickier than others? Molecular weight? Hydrolysis?

In van der waals dry transfer, we pick up flakes of materials such as graphene using polymer films. The material is exfoliated onto an SiO2 covered wafer and picked off using the polymer film. It's ...
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Hydrolysis of Magnesium Carbide

I came across a question in which the following reaction was taking place: $$ \ce{Mg4C3 + H2O -> CH3CH \bond{#} CH} $$ Each $\ce{Mg}$ atom must be present in a +2 oxidation state, thus the total ...
Box Box Box Box's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
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What is the easiest way to concentrate a solution without causing it to hydrolyze?

I’ve been working with iron acetate solutions in dilute acetic acid (vinegar) and I’ve been running into a problem. Every time I try to boil off the solvent the solution hydrolyzes to form iron oxides....
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Why doesn't XeF6 displace oxygen from water?

Consider the following reactions (unbalanced): $$ \begin{align} \ce{XeF2 + H2O &→ Xe + HF + O2} \tag{a} \\ \ce{XeF4 + H2O &→ XeO3 + Xe + O2 + HF} \tag{b} \\ \ce{XeF6 + H2O &→ XeO3 + HF} \...
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Can I degrade PLA into something usable?

I have a lot of 3D printer waste and don't have a recycling machine for it. As a side project, I was wondering if there is any way to degrade/compost/recycle it meaningfully. I have my Uni's chemistry ...
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Tetrachlorophosphonium

I am aware that PCl3 and PCl5 both react with water. In these reactions, water breaks the chlorine atoms off of the phosphorus atom and hydroxyl groups take their place: $\ce{PCl3 + 3H2O -> H3PO3 + ...
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Does cellulase catalyze the hydrolysis (or break down) of soluble starch?

I’m attempting to perform an Iodometric redox titration to evaluate the vitamin c concentration in a particular solution. These solution have dissolved within them up to 2% cellulase enzyme. In an ...
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Hydrolysis of an amidine derivative under acidic conditions

I know that an imine can undergo acid hydrolysis to yield a corresponding amide: https://chem.libretexts.org/@api/deki/files/13283/10.jpg?revision=1 But I am looking at a mechanism for acid ...
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Phosphonate reaction with oxides and their stability?

I have read some papers stating that $\ce{SiO2}$ surfaces can bind phosphonates, but in water they hydrolyse. However, for $\ce{Si}$ surfaces, they are stable in water. In both cases, the reaction ...
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Why does water electrolysis use direct current?

Every source I've found regarding water electrolysis says that it's done using direct current (rather than alternating current), but I haven't found a single source that mentions why. Obviously, ...
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proteolysis - how to determine the partial or completeness of the cleavage reaction?

Though the question is about biomolecules, we agree the underlying functions, formation, degradation etc come down to chemistry, (then physics and maths). I am posting it here to receive an ...
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What is the mechanism of saccharification by H2SO4?

We have been estimating total carbohydrate by Umbreit method/ Anthrone method in college. The website I have been reading says that $\ce{H_2SO_4}$ and heat is used to treat a polysaccharide solution ...
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Why does the activation enthalpy of ester hydrolysis increase with an increase in alcohol-chain length?

(Particularly concerning acid hydrolysis) Is there some sort of chemical reason as to why with increasing alcohol-chain length, there is also an increase in the minimum energy needed to cause the ...
Dominic Williamson's user avatar
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Is it possible for sucrose to hydrolyse in water with a small amount of weak acid at room temperature?

Sucrose hydrolysis in the industry is done using HCl and heat. On the other hand I know that bee keepers add some of acetic or citric acid to wet sugar to prepare emergency food supply for bees, what ...
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DIY hydrolysis of starch with copper and test them with polarizer sheet due to muta rotation

When I read about muta rotation — the interconversion of alpha to beta glucose — recently, I decided to do it with rice, because rice contain 66% of starch which is alpha glucose polymer. To hydrolyze ...
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What reaction products are formed if an unsaturated fat is reacted at 20 - 50 °C with H2O2 of 35 %?

My question is: What reaction products are formed if an unsaturated fat is reacted at ca. 20 - 50 °C with aqueous hydrogen peroxide of ca. 35 %? To find the answer, we can subdivide the question into ...
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Hydrolysis of polyamides using solid acid catalyst

The neutral hydrolysis of polyamides (eg. nylon 6,6) does not go to completion as the reaction is reversible. You can get around this by carrying out the reaction in an acidic/basic medium. With acid ...
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How does the branched structure of glycogen, increase its ability to be hydrolysed?

"Glycogen branching is essential because it allows for increased water solubility and several sites to break it down; this allows for easy and quick glycogen utilization when it is broken down&...
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How to remove starch from silicone ("Oogoo")?

Oogoo is an easy and cheap way of creating silicone rubber objects from a hand-formable putty. Basically: just mix silicone caulk with starch (I'm using acetate moisture absorbing silicone caulking ...
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Why is Ag+ not hydrolysed?

Usually, strong acid anions and strong base cations don't get hydrolysed. But I've noticed through some questions that $\ce{Ag^+}$ doesn't seem to get hydrolysed, why is that? Is there any concept ...
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What would be the product of this reaction?

A 3 membered carbon ring with a double bond to oxygen from one carbon and a double bond between the remaining carbon with a methyl group attached to one of the carbon is made to undergo acid catalyzed ...
Ritwij Kashyap's user avatar
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Why does acid hydrolysis of glucose-1,6-bisphosphate produce glucose-6-phosphate and not glucose-1-phosphate?

A paper I found details treating glucose-1,6-bisphosphate with 6M HCl to produce glucose-6-phosphate. I'm curious why glucose-1-phosphate (and then even plain glucose) isn't formed instead?
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Why isn't the base reformed in base-catalyzed hydrolysis of esters?

In acid-catalyzed hydrolysis, the hydronium ion is clearly reformed; however, in the base-catalyzed hydrolysis, an alcohol is formed as a by-product, but the strong base isn't reformed. Is it a ...
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How does HCl break down amylopectin in starch into amylose?

I'm currently researching on manufacturing bioplastics. During one of the steps, HCl is added to break down amylopectin into amylose, but I don't understand how exactly this happens. It would really ...
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How does pyrosulfate compare to pyrophosphate?

That is, in terms of stability in aqueous solution and the energy released by the hydrolysis of the S-O-S bond compared with pyrophosphate hydrolysis. More specifically, could sulfates substitute ...
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Can a molecular sieve be used increase the saturation of a fructose solution?

The Problem: Let's say we have an experiment where we are attempting to grow rock candy crystals by letting a solution of sugar crystalize on a wooden dowel. However, an error may have been made in ...
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1 vote
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Non-destructive solvents for cyan-salts

What dissolves cyan-salts (NaCN and KCN) without destroying them the way water does via hydrolysis? I have to make my own cyan-salts, so they're somewhat precious to me. Every time I have to ...
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Diffusion into PMMA

My thesis is about effect of cigarette smoke to PMMA polymer, apparently cigarette smoke have some amount of eugenol which is mildly acidic and they will evaporate when the cigarette is burned. In ...
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Is there a correlation between the susceptibility of a polymer to undergo hydrolysis and its melting point?

As per topic, I was wondering why the Tm of the polymers PGA, PLA and PLGA are in the following order. Does it correlate to their ability to undergo hydrolysis? PGA>PLA>PLGA
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Cyanide hydrolysis; could it yield an oxime?

The mechanisms for both acid and base catalyzed hydrolysis of nitriles are clear; (With the subsequent deprotonation from the hydroxyl) and (Source) In both cases, the hydroxyl adds to the carbon ...
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Proper batch adsorption mechanism for heavy metals

I'm a college student with scope on environmental science, specifically the adsorption of heavy metals in aquatic media. Currently, I suffered from serious issue of batch adsorption mechanism, which ...
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Reason for large barrier of hydrogenation of ATP

Why does hydrogenation of ATP have high barrier (mostly doesn't happen spontaneous in typical biological conditions) compared to hydrogenation of OH- (does happen spontaneously). Both contain Oxygen ...
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Is there any literature regarding the neutral hydrolysis of nylon 66?

I am working on a project for my thesis regarding the neutral hydrolysis of nylon 66 at high temperatures and pressures (265C,40 bar) however the only literature I could find relates to alkaline and ...
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How to separate nylon 66 salt (hexamethylenediammonium adipate) into adipic acid and hexamethylenediamine?

After hydrolyzing nylon 66 in water (neutral hydrolysis) in a batch autoclave reactor, the resulting solution contains the organic salt hexamethylenediammonium adipate. Is there any way to precipitate ...
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Why is the hydrolysis constant of a salt of Weak Acid and a Weak Base so?

I read that the hydrolysis constant for a salt of a weak acid and a weak base is Kh=Kw/(Ka*Kb) Now I recall reading in the autoionization of water that Kw=Ka*Kb. So, is there any relation between the ...
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What do you think is happening to aluminium in salt water with rusted copper?

I put some aluminium foil and rusted copper(namely a Japanese 10 yen coin) in saturated NaCl solution. After some minutes tiny amount of small bubbles were observed on the surface of the foil. After ...
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Why doesn't an acid-base reaction occur in basic amide hydrolysis instead of nucleophilic acyl substitution?

In the reaction of Grignard reagent with a primary and secondary amide, nucleophilic acyl substiution doesn't happen. The reason given is that R- is a strong base as well as strong nucleophile, an ...
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How does the second hydrolysis of phthalimide work (hydrolysis of amide)?

In the hydrolysis of Phthalimides we can see two successive hydrolysis of "amides" see ChemLibre for a nice mechanism This is interesting because normally (also according to ChemLibre) ...
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Alkaline hydrolysis with KOH instead of NaOH. Why?

I really loved the series breaking bad. So I started reading about the science behind. I found this paper: Harnisch, F., & Salthammer, T. (2013). Die Chemie bei Breaking Bad. In Chemie in unserer ...
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Grignard Reagent Facilitates Epoxide Opening

I have read from my textbook, that the opening of an epoxide ring with a strong nucleophile like a Grignard reagent, takes place from a less substituted side, with a higher SN2 character. The acidic ...
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What are the gaseous outputs of electrolysis of Water along with NaOH or KOH?

Theoretically electrolysis of water yields Hydrogen and Oxygen in gaseous form. But to enhance conductivity we have to add an electrolyte like $\ce{NaOH}$ or $\ce{KOH}$. Does this produce any other ...
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Possibility of removing two water molecules from glycerol

Not a chemist, but from a chemical formula perspective, how hard would it be to create acetone by acidifying glycerol? $$\ce{C3H8O3 + 2 H+ <=> C3H6O + 2 H2O}$$ Has anyone ever heard of this ...
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Mechanism of alkaline hydrolysis of cyclic amide

In this mechanism, I got a pretty different mechanism from the solution. From the model answer, there is an intramolecular proton transfer just before the formation of the carboxylate ion. However, in ...
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Why does CCl4 not undergo hydrolysis while other chlorine-derivatives of methane do?

In one of my textbooks, I came across a question as to why does $\ce{CCl4}$ not undergo hydrolysis. The answer given went along the lines of carbon lacking a vacant d-orbital to accept the lone pair ...
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Efficiency of H production from FeOOH catalyst?

Research has recently found that FeOOH is 25 times better at hydrogen production than titanium dioxide. Today, a new electrolysis plant delivers energy efficiency of around 80%. Is 25x the Honda-...
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Saponification side reactions

When soap is made from triglycerides and NaOH reacting, is saponification the only reaction that occurs or are there other side reactions. Information concerning this issue seems slim online
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