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Questions tagged [hydrolysis]

Hydrolysis refers to any reaction with water. For example, it may be said that ammonia hydrolyzes in water to produce ammonium ion and hydroxide ion.

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29 views

Electrolysis of water with biocompatible electrolyte?

I want to perform electrolysis of water in a bacterial solution for production of hydrogen and oxygen. I am wondering what electrolytes could work best for this? The requirements are that the ...
5 votes
4 answers
3k views

Unexpected reaction during acid hydrolysis of cellulose

Recently I tried to hydrolyze some cellulose: I added some acid to it ($\ce{H2SO4}$) then noticed nothing. Even after a few days there was no visible change and after doing some tests for glucose, ...
2 votes
1 answer
195 views

Will electrolysis hydrolyze esters?

I'm doing some electroplating. Now, I want to know which components of my electroplating solution are being expended as I go about electroplating. I needed a wetting agent/surfactant & decided to ...
13 votes
1 answer
677 views

Unusual hydrolysis of methyl 2,4,6‐trimethylbenzoate

Problem 223 from Conceptual Problems in Organic Chemsitry by Singh [1, p. 367]: The given answer is b and I don't get why. Usual ester hydrolysis would've given a. I somehow managed to know that the ...
0 votes
0 answers
24 views

Proper batch adsorption mechanism for heavy metals

I'm a college student with scope on environmental science, specifically the adsorption of heavy metals in aquatic media. Currently, I suffered from serious issue of batch adsorption mechanism, which ...
1 vote
0 answers
47 views

Is it possible for sucrose to hydrolyse in water with a small amount of weak acid at room temperature?

Sucrose hydrolysis in the industry is done using HCl and heat. On the other hand I know that bee keepers add some of acetic or citric acid to wet sugar to prepare emergency food supply for bees, what ...
1 vote
0 answers
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DIY hydrolysis of starch with copper and test them with polarizer sheet due to muta rotation

When I read about muta rotation — the interconversion of alpha to beta glucose — recently, I decided to do it with rice, because rice contain 66% of starch which is alpha glucose polymer. To hydrolyze ...
-1 votes
1 answer
66 views

Soluble Ion separation [closed]

Is it possible to separate ions dissolved in solution? I know that the charges have to be balanced, so thinking that maybe it is possible to artificially give that charge? Take for example, sodium ...
4 votes
0 answers
114 views

Hydrolyse a fluorophosphonic compound / Which protective group strategy can I use for phosphonate esters to access the free acid after a reaction?

I have a synthetic problem in my PhD thesis, in which I synthesize a phosphonate ester. To be more precise, it is a phosphonofluoridic compound. In my specific case, the fluorine attached to the ...
2 votes
1 answer
69 views

Does Sugru (Formerol) decay underwater?

Sugru is described as waterproof and dishwasher-safe, but I still wonder if it will decay quickly (within months) if submerged in room-temperature tap water. Aren't silicone rubbers susceptible to ...
7 votes
0 answers
135 views

Metal hydrolysis and equilbrium constants from stability constants

Problem: I want to create minimum solubility plots for a series of metal hydrolysis species against pH (below). But I cannot reconcile literature stability constants and equilibrium constants. Context:...
3 votes
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119 views

Hydrolyse Phosphonate diester to free phosphonic acid under relatively mild conditions?

I want to hydrolyse a phosphonic acid diethylester to the corresponding free phosphonic acid. In the literature, it is described, that usually strongly basic or acidic conditions are utilized to ...
0 votes
0 answers
47 views

Reason for large barrier of hydrogenation of ATP

Why does hydrogenation of ATP have high barrier (mostly doesn't happen spontaneous in typical biological conditions) compared to hydrogenation of OH- (does happen spontaneously). Both contain Oxygen ...
-2 votes
1 answer
131 views

Acid hydrolysis and alkaline hydrolysis

Alkaline hydrolysis is not called "alkali hydrolysis", while acid hydrolysis is not called "acidic hydrolysis". Why? I am asking this question as I believe it may not be a simple ...
2 votes
1 answer
170 views

Explain the mechanism of the following reaction, which involves a 1,2-alkyl migration with double inversion of configuration

I came across the following reaction, whose mechanism is said to involve a 1,2-alkyl migration with a double inversion in configuration. The reagents used were nitrous acid (generated in situ) ...
0 votes
2 answers
204 views

Why does Sodium Hydrogen Sulfate (Sodium Bisulfate) produce moisture?

In my chemistry lab, I have a vial of Sodium Hydrogen Sulfate (Sodium Bisulfate). I've noticed that when I take a spoonful using a spatula, the spatula gets covered in many tiny droplets, and the lid ...
1 vote
0 answers
143 views

What reaction products are formed if an unsaturated fat is reacted at 20 - 50 °C with H2O2 of 35 %?

My question is: What reaction products are formed if an unsaturated fat is reacted at ca. 20 - 50 °C with aqueous hydrogen peroxide of ca. 35 %? To find the answer, we can subdivide the question into ...
-2 votes
3 answers
830 views

Why do we have to prevent the hydrolysis of iron(III) nitrate?

I want to make particular concentration of ferric ions from $\ce{Fe(NO3)3.9H2O}$, and then I found this video It says that we have to add nitric acid to prevent iron from hydrolysis, what does it mean?...
-3 votes
1 answer
301 views

Does BCl4- exist? [closed]

Is [BCl4-] a good Lewis acid as I according to Jerry March's Advanced Organic Chemistry ,the reactivity order of Lewis acids in Friedel Craft reactions , BCl3 is mentioned which means that BCl4- is a ...
2 votes
1 answer
92 views

By what mechanism does amylase catalyze hydrolysis?

I've recently been learning bits and pieces of starch metabolism, and am wondering if anyone could explain exactly what is going on when alpha or beta amylase "cleaves" the 1-4 glycosidic ...
1 vote
0 answers
65 views

Hydrolysis of polyamides using solid acid catalyst

The neutral hydrolysis of polyamides (eg. nylon 6,6) does not go to completion as the reaction is reversible. You can get around this by carrying out the reaction in an acidic/basic medium. With acid ...
0 votes
0 answers
59 views

Is there any literature regarding the neutral hydrolysis of nylon 66?

I am working on a project for my thesis regarding the neutral hydrolysis of nylon 66 at high temperatures and pressures (265C,40 bar) however the only literature I could find relates to alkaline and ...
0 votes
1 answer
175 views

Can copper hydroxide be formed as a byproduct of water electrolysis?

I was electrolysing water with a 12v DC power supply at about 3 milliamps, using copper wire for both my anode and cathode. The solution was about 17 grams of table salt in 750 milliliters of purified ...
0 votes
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61 views

How to separate nylon 66 salt (hexamethylenediammonium adipate) into adipic acid and hexamethylenediamine?

After hydrolyzing nylon 66 in water (neutral hydrolysis) in a batch autoclave reactor, the resulting solution contains the organic salt hexamethylenediammonium adipate. Is there any way to precipitate ...
1 vote
0 answers
856 views

How does the branched structure of glycogen, increase its ability to be hydrolysed?

"Glycogen branching is essential because it allows for increased water solubility and several sites to break it down; this allows for easy and quick glycogen utilization when it is broken down&...
2 votes
1 answer
147 views

Is hydrolysis of acid chlorides still favored when the resulting acids cannot donate their protons?

For example, take the reaction: MeCOCl + H₂O -> MeCOOH + HCl Bonds broken: C-Cl + H-O -> 330 + 460 = 790 kJ/mol Bonds formed: C-O + H-Cl -> 350 + 432 = 782 kJ/mol I realize that BDE is only ...
0 votes
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59 views

Why is the hydrolysis constant of a salt of Weak Acid and a Weak Base so?

I read that the hydrolysis constant for a salt of a weak acid and a weak base is Kh=Kw/(Ka*Kb) Now I recall reading in the autoionization of water that Kw=Ka*Kb. So, is there any relation between the ...
3 votes
2 answers
185 views

What is the easiest way to concentrate a solution without causing it to hydrolyze?

I’ve been working with iron acetate solutions in dilute acetic acid (vinegar) and I’ve been running into a problem. Every time I try to boil off the solvent the solution hydrolyzes to form iron oxides....
3 votes
0 answers
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Why are certain hot polycarbonate films stickier than others? Molecular weight? Hydrolysis?

In van der waals dry transfer, we pick up flakes of materials such as graphene using polymer films. The material is exfoliated onto an SiO2 covered wafer and picked off using the polymer film. It's ...
1 vote
2 answers
510 views

Why does base aspirin hydrolysis work better than acid aspirin hydrolysis? [duplicate]

Why does base aspirin hydrolysis work better than acid aspirin hydrolysis? I conducted an experiment and found that there was greater Salicylic Acid yield for the one I added base compared to the one ...
1 vote
1 answer
163 views

Heating effect of alkaline earth metal chloride

Why does $\ce{MgCl2.8H2O}$ undergoes internal hydrolysis? $$\ce{MgCl2.8H2O(s) ->[\Delta]MgO(s) + H2O + HCl}$$ while Calcium, Strontium, and barium undergoes dehydration and form anhydrous chloride. ...
1 vote
1 answer
313 views

Why Hg doesn’t form hydroxide?

In my textbook it was written that if you put alkali solution into Hg2+ solution you won't get Hg(OH)2 but you get HgO. And this is because Hg has high electronegativity and this makes polarization of ...
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261 views

What do you think is happening to aluminium in salt water with rusted copper?

I put some aluminium foil and rusted copper(namely a Japanese 10 yen coin) in saturated NaCl solution. After some minutes tiny amount of small bubbles were observed on the surface of the foil. After ...
-2 votes
1 answer
57 views

Aluminum nitride hydrolysis [closed]

I wanted to ask some reference about aluminum nitride hydrolysis in water. Specifically I would like to know if there is the formation of radicals or of some other reactive species.
0 votes
1 answer
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Why is is that tellurium(VI) fluoride is completely hydrolysed but iodine(III) fluoride isn't, even in hot water?

Tellurium(VI) fluoride is completely hydrolysed into tellurium(VI) oxide and hydrofluoric acid, but iodine(III) fluoride isn't, stopping at the iodine(III) fluoride dihydroxide/hydrofluoric acid level,...
5 votes
2 answers
355 views

Does the salinity in seawater affect the process of alkaline hydrolysis?

I am an architecture student doing a project on crematorium spaces. I am looking at resomation or alkaline hydrolysis as an alternative method of disposition of a body. From what I gather from ...
0 votes
0 answers
78 views

Why doesn't an acid-base reaction occur in basic amide hydrolysis instead of nucleophilic acyl substitution?

In the reaction of Grignard reagent with a primary and secondary amide, nucleophilic acyl substiution doesn't happen. The reason given is that R- is a strong base as well as strong nucleophile, an ...
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57 views

How does the second hydrolysis of phthalimide work (hydrolysis of amide)?

In the hydrolysis of Phthalimides we can see two successive hydrolysis of "amides" see ChemLibre for a nice mechanism This is interesting because normally (also according to ChemLibre) ...
-4 votes
1 answer
68 views

What makes a molecule lipopholic? [closed]

I know that non polar (Hydrophobic) molecules are usually lipophilic. Is there a general explanation for this phenomenon, or does the explanation differ depending on the molecule itself?
2 votes
0 answers
189 views

Why doesn't XeF6 displace oxygen from water?

Consider the following reactions (unbalanced): $$ \begin{align} \ce{XeF2 + H2O &→ Xe + HF + O2} \tag{a} \\ \ce{XeF4 + H2O &→ XeO3 + Xe + O2 + HF} \tag{b} \\ \ce{XeF6 + H2O &→ XeO3 + HF} \...
5 votes
2 answers
2k views

Why does hydrolysis of ADP to AMP yield the same amount of energy as ATP to ADP, if ADP is more stable?

I learned about the resonance stability of ADP and the fact that ATP is less stable due to intramolecular instability. I was surprised to see that the energy net of conversion of ADP to AMP is the ...
2 votes
1 answer
169 views

Old sodium hydroxide based drain cleaner become stony and brown, not hydrosoluble anymore

My drain was clogged and I used an old sodium hydroxide based drain cleaner to free it. The cleaner was quite old and inside it was brownish and monolithic, not a bunch of small white spheres anymore. ...
2 votes
0 answers
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Can I degrade PLA into something usable?

I have a lot of 3D printer waste and don't have a recycling machine for it. As a side project, I was wondering if there is any way to degrade/compost/recycle it meaningfully. I have my Uni's chemistry ...
2 votes
0 answers
74 views

Tetrachlorophosphonium

I am aware that PCl3 and PCl5 both react with water. In these reactions, water breaks the chlorine atoms off of the phosphorus atom and hydroxyl groups take their place: $\ce{PCl3 + 3H2O -> H3PO3 + ...
-1 votes
1 answer
230 views

Mechanism for hydrolysis of cyanohydrin [closed]

I know that acetals can be hydrolyzed with H2SO4 but I am not sure how benzaldehyde would be formed following hydrolysis of the cyanohydrin. When I searched online it I found answers suggesting that a ...
0 votes
0 answers
480 views

Alkaline hydrolysis with KOH instead of NaOH. Why?

I really loved the series breaking bad. So I started reading about the science behind. I found this paper: Harnisch, F., & Salthammer, T. (2013). Die Chemie bei Breaking Bad. In Chemie in unserer ...
4 votes
1 answer
392 views

Comparing Rate of Hydrolysis of Acyl halides

In this particular question, my answer is (D) as steric hinderance is minimum there, but answer (B) was given due to the electron withdrawing (-M) effect of the nitro group. Isn't steric hinderance ...
1 vote
0 answers
164 views

How to remove starch from silicone ("Oogoo")?

Oogoo is an easy and cheap way of creating silicone rubber objects from a hand-formable putty. Basically: just mix silicone caulk with starch (I'm using acetate moisture absorbing silicone caulking ...
0 votes
1 answer
5k views

Sodium Sulfate or Sodium Carbonate for electrolysis in water

I am not a chemist but I have a question regarding electrolytes in electrolysis. I have done a lot of reading but cannot find the answer I'm looking for regarding Sodium Sulfate (or Sulfide) I intend ...
0 votes
1 answer
83 views

Solubility of lead(II,IV) oxide

I was solving a question: Which of the following liberate $\ce{O2}$ upon hydrolysis? $\ce{Pb3O4}$ $\ce{KO2}$ $\ce{Na2O2}$ $\ce{Li2O2}$ The answer is no doubt $\ce{KO2}$ but if I am not wrong $\ce{...

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