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Questions tagged [hydrolysis]

Hydrolysis refers to any reaction with water. For example, it may be said that ammonia hydrolyzes in water to produce ammonium ion and hydroxide ion.

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Saponification side reactions

When soap is made from triglycerides and NaOH reacting, is saponification the only reaction that occurs or are there other side reactions. Information concerning this issue seems slim online
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Alkoxide as a leaving group in hydrolysis of ester

In the base catalysed hydrolysis the hydroxide ion adds to the ester to form a tetrahedral intermediate, after which the alkoxide ions leave and forms carboxylate ion and alcohol. Also we find the ...
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Rate of hydrolysis of silicon tetrahalides

Concise Inorganic Chemistry for JEE(Main and Advanced) by JD Lee(Third Edition) writes If we compare the rate of hydrolysis for $\ce{SiX4}$(where X= F,Cl,Br,I), it is in the same order as that of ...
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Steric Factors on reaction with grignard reagent

I was asked to find the products X and Y. For the product X,Here the grignard reagent and even the carbonyl substrate was too sterically hindered to approach the carbonyl center so no reaction would ...
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How does pyrosulfate compare to pyrophosphate?

That is, in terms of stability in aqueous solution and the energy released by the hydrolysis of the S-O-S bond compared with pyrophosphate hydrolysis. More specifically, could sulfates substitute ...
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Hydrolysis under basic medium

The first compound is said to be hydrolyzed more easily than the 2nd compound below under Alkaline medium . How is this possible ? I thought due to resonance, -NO2 acquires negative charge which ...
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How is the hydrolysis of amides done in a lab?

I have seen this video about the hydrolysis of amides in order to convert them to a carboxylic acid. I understood how it works but I want to know how would someone physically do it in a lab. I need ...
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Acid hydrolysis of ethyl acetate uses

I was wondering if the above mentioned reaction has any uses? I looked up applications and significance and couldnt find anything. I came across Saponification but that involves a base and is a ...
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Acid hydrolysis of ethyl acetate [closed]

For my chemistry IA, I am planning to determine the reaction rate and activation energy of the acid catalyzed hydrolysis of ethyl acetate. Where can I find literature values for these, so i can ...
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Will PAEK polymers hydrolyze in concentrated sulfuric acid?

One of my duties at the company where I work is to perform intrinsic viscosity (IV) experiments on PAEK (poly(arly ether ketone)) polymers. These polymers don't dissolve well in most solvents, so the ...
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Why is SF6 inert towards hydrolysis? [duplicate]

Why is $\ce{SF6}$ inert towards hydrolysis? Would not $\ce{H - F}$ bonds be created in water which is much stable and has a high negative enthalpy of formation. This hydrogen bond making must ...
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How to check which compound is amphotheric,neutral,basic or acidic among - (ZnO ,Al2O3,PbO,Cr2O3,BeO,SnO,CO2,CO,NO,NO2)? [closed]

A lot of questions are asked on the nature(acidic,basic,neutral) of compounds in exam.How can I solve such questions ? without memorizing its nature is there any way to solve? please explain how to ...
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Why does hydrolysis of OF2 give a neutral solution?

I found this equation on the internet for the hydrolysis of $\ce{OF2}$: $\ce{OF2 + H2O -> HF + O2}$. So, according to me, $\ce{HF}$ must make generate an acidic instead of neutral solution. But ...
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Phosphonate reaction with oxides and their stability?

I have read some papers stating that $\ce{SiO2}$ surfaces can bind phosphonates, but in water they hydrolyse. However, for $\ce{Si}$ surfaces, they are stable in water. In both cases, the reaction ...
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How to synthesize tetrabutyl titanate from titanium dioxide powder?

How do you synthesize tetrabutyl titanate $(\ce{[CH3(CH2)3O]4Ti})$ from titanium dioxide ($\ce{TiO2}$) powder? As I know, we can get $\ce{TiO2}$ from tetrabutyl titanate, but how can we do the ...
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With which group does the middle oxygen atom of an anhydride remain, on hydrolysis?

With which group does the middle oxygen atom of an anhydride remain, on hydrolysis? As an example, let us say we have the following modification of ethanoic methanoic anhydride, with the middle oxygen ...
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Are polysulphates more(or less) susceptible to hydrolysis than polyphosphates?

To clarify, when I speak of polysulphates(not sure if that's the correct term or if sulphate ester is the proper term) I'm talking about molecules like: ...
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Why should hydrolysis break down fat into fatty acid and glycerol?

Fats and lipids are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Both esters form different structures at different room temperatures. Now fats and lipids are generally insoluble in polar solvents(water)...
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What are the optimal conditions for the complete acid hydrolysis (using HCl) of potato starch? [closed]

I'm hoping someone can provide the specifics on the optimal conditions required for the complete acid hydrolysis (using $\ce{HCl}$) of potato starch? I will be using an autoclave (~$\pu{15 psi}$ @ $\...
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Can a molecular sieve be used increase the saturation of a fructose solution?

The Problem: Let's say we have an experiment where we are attempting to grow rock candy crystals by letting a solution of sugar crystalize on a wooden dowel. However, an error may have been made in ...
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How can I attempt to inhibit the hydrolysis/degeneration of aspartame? [closed]

I've surfed the internet, looking for some possible inhibitors for the hydrolysis process of aspartame, but couldn't find any. I'm wondering if such a thing is possible and if yes, how should I ...
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Why does water electrolysis use direct current?

Every source I've found regarding water electrolysis says that it's done using direct current (rather than alternating current), but I haven't found a single source that mentions why. Obviously, ...
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Hydrolysis of transition metals' halides?

So, it's a relatively common known solubility rule that any hydroxide with a cation not in the first two groups is basically insoluble. So supposing we have a transition or post-transition metal $M$ ...
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Why are polysaccharides not sweet in taste?

Polysaccharides are defined as polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketone which on hydrolysis yield many units of monosaccharides. I got one answer(to my question above) as: On our tongue, we have things ...
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USNCO question - Finding pH of salt solution from pKa of its parent acid

The question from 2017 USNCO is as below: What is the $\mathrm{pH}$ of a $\pu{0.25 M}$ solution of $\ce{NaCN}$? (The $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a}$ of $\ce{HCN}$ is $9.21$.) (A) $4.91$ (B) $8.61$ ...
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A problem in solubility of salts with multistep hydrolysis of an ion possible

Calculate the solubility of $\ce{MnS}$ in pure water, $K_\mathrm{sp}(\ce{MnS}) = \pu{2.5e-10}$. Assume hydrolysis of $\ce{S^2-}$ ion. $K_1$ and $K_2$ for $\ce{H2S}$ are $10^{-7}$ and $10^{-14}$, ...
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Weak acid and weak base salt hydrolysis [closed]

While solving for weak acid and weak base salt hydrolysis, why do we take the degree of hydrolysis for both the anion and cation to be the same? If we assume they are the same, when solving for $K_\...
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Why is the hydrolysis of the conjugate base of a weak acid neglected in buffer solutions?

Consider a solution which contains a weak acid and the salt of its conjugate base with a strong base. e.g. $$\ce{CH3COOH + H2O <=>[$K_\rm{a}$] CH3COO- + H3O+}\tag1$$ $$\ce{CH3COO- + H2O <=&...
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Reasons for solid or liquid soap

Soap is made by a saponification reaction, where a fat reacts with hydroxide ions to form a surfactant and glycerol. To make a solid soap $\ce{NaOH}$ is used, while $\ce{KOH}$ is used for liquid ...
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Why doesn't NF₃ undergo hydrolysis?

I was reading Jan's answer to the following question-: Why can NCl3 be hydrolyzed but CCl4 cannot? Since nitrogen is less electronegative than fluorine, in NF3 the electrophilic site is the Nitrogen ...
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Hydrolysis of an ester

An organic compound X of formula $\ce{C5H10O2}$ forms two compounds when boiled in aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. One of these compounds forms a ketone when treated with acidified potassium ...
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What happens during oxidative and hydrolytic rancidity of fats?

I understand that when lipid molecules - triacylglycerol - are hydrolysed, the fatty acids 'break' off from the glycerol backbone. And when fatty acids oxidise, these in turn can break into smaller ...
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Hydrolysis of β-1,2 glycosidic bond

Are there any easy, not enzymatic, ways to hydrolyse $\beta$-1,2 glycosidic bonds like they occur in steviosids? I thought of something like vinegar, which is commonly used to cleave the $\alpha$-1,...
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What are the products of the hydrolysis of ICl3?

I have learnt that interhalogens on hydrolysis give a halic acid derived from the smaller atom and an oxoacid derived from the larger atom. For example hydrolysis of $\ce{BrF5}$ would give me $\ce{HF}$...
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proteolysis - how to determine the partial or completeness of the cleavage reaction?

Though the question is about biomolecules, we agree the underlying functions, formation, degradation etc come down to chemistry, (then physics and maths). I am posting it here to receive an ...
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Which side of the C-o-C bond breaks in esters?

When an ester undergoes hydrolysis which side of the C-O-C breaks for instance in the following example: I believe the first is correct but is it a rule that the salt of a carboxylic acid is formed (...
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Mechanism for basic hydrolysis of α-chloronitrile to ketone?

In Corey's 1969 prostaglandin synthesis,1 compound 2 is formed from compound 1 by: [...] treatment with 2.5 equiv of potassium hydroxide (added as a hot saturated aqueous solution) in dimethyl ...
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Mechanism for hydrolysis of enol ether to aldehyde

I'm fairly confident in my answers for steps 1-3, but I am not certain how to have the methyl group bonded that is bonded to the alkene carbon leave in step 5 without forming methanol. Here is what I ...
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Does Nucleophilic substitution require water to happen?

I am under the impression that in a mixture of hydroxide ions, haloalkanes, water, and ethanol, under low temperatures, nucleophilic substitution will occur predominantly, with small amounts of ...
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How to remove sulfuric acid from sample

I have problem with my experiment. My experiment is acid hydrolysis of ethyl benzoate. The acid that I used is sulfuric acid. My problem is when I get the precipitate (impure benzoic acid) I have to ...
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Hydrolysis of salts containing amphiprotic anion

I am trying to understand the derivation of pH of salt containing amphiprotic anions, but I am facing some difficulty: Ionisation: $\ce{HCO3^- + H2O <=> CO3^2- + H3O+};\quad K_\mathrm{a_2}...
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Hydrolysing a compound by repeated methyl and hydride shifts

The question is to predict the major product in the following reaction. First of all the proton will abstract the bromide ion resulting in the formation of a primary carbocation which being unstable ...
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Hydrolysis of Phosphorus Trichloride

During hydrolysis of a halide of carbon via $\mathrm{S_N2}$ mechanism, the incoming neutral water molecule attacks the partially positive carbon centre from the side opposite to the halide side and ...
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Rates of hydrolysis in bicyclic and monocyclic compounds

Which of the following compounds, 1-bromo-1-methylcyclohexane 1 or 1-bromobicyclo[2.2.2]octane 2, hydrolyzes faster (under comparable conditions)? It may be acid catalyzed or base catalyzed hydrolysis,...
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Hydrolysis of vinyl bromide vs alkyl chloride

Which of the following compounds, 1-bromocyclopent-1-ene 1 or chlorocyclopentane 2, hydrolyses faster than the second under comparable conditions? It may be acid catalysed or base catalyzed hydrolysis ...
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Hydrolysis products of chlorides of group 15

$\ce{NCl3}$ on hydrolysis produces $\ce{NH4OH}$ and $\ce{HOCl}$. $\ce{PCl_3}$ when hydrolyzed produces $\ce{P(OH)3}$ i.e. $\ce{H3PO3}$. $\ce{AsCl_3}$ when hydrolyzed produces $\ce{As(OH)3}$. ...
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Relative rate of hydrolysis of the carbon chlorine bond in thioethers and ethers

I am solving problems based on rates of hydrolysis of compounds but I don't have a general approach to such questions. Which of the following compounds undergoes hydrolysis faster than the second ...
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Does the salinity in seawater affect the process of alkaline hydrolysis?

I am an architecture student doing a project on crematorium spaces. I am looking at resomation or alkaline hydrolysis as an alternative method of disposition of a body. From what I gather from ...
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What is the major hydrolysis product of 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl 2-acetamido-3-phenylprop-2-enoate?

In the below reaction we have to find the major hydrolysis product of 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl 2-acetamido-3-phenylprop-2-enoate. My doubt is why the major hydrolysis is not when $\ce{OH-}$ at the $\ce{C}...
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Hydrolysis of starch by means of amylase to unclog bathtub drain

After my son decided to pour a substantial amount of uncooked rice down the bathtub drain, I find myself in the situation of removing it. After trying some common methods - to no avail - I thought I ...