Questions tagged [hydrolysis]

Hydrolysis refers to any reaction with water. For example, it may be said that ammonia hydrolyzes in water to produce ammonium ion and hydroxide ion.

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Hydrolysis of sodium carbonate [closed]

This is the equation given by my textbook for hydrolysis of sodium carbonate: $$\ce{Na2CO3 + 2 H2O -> H2CO3 + 2 Na+ + 2 OH-}$$ and it mentions that sodium ion $(\ce{Na+})$ does not tend to ...
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What happens when ferric chloride is dissolved in water?

Ferric chloride can be prepared by dissolving hematite in hydrochloric acid: $$\ce{Fe2O3 + 6HCl -> 2FeCl3 + 3H2O }\tag{1}$$ But the resulting ferric chloride will be exposed from its formation to ...
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n-Factor of P4O6 [closed]

I had a question in my exam: Which of the following can be the $n$-factor of $\ce{P4O6}?$ A. 8 B. 9 C. 10 D. 12 I went for options A and B as in cold water $1$ mole of $\ce{P4O6}$ on ...
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Does salt hydrolysis takes place in buffer solution? [closed]

I am a bit confused whether hydrolysis of salt takes place in buffer solutions because the books which I read doesnt consider them.But I think since weak base or weak acid salt is present hydrolysis ...
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How does sodium carbonate reduce pH?

Sodium carbonate is used in pools to raise pH. From my understanding, it would dissociate in water like so: $$\ce{Na2CO3 <=> 2 Na+ + CO3^2-}$$ To raise pH, doesn't it have to absorb hydrogen ...
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Why isn't the base reformed in base-catalyzed hydrolysis of esters?

In acid-catalyzed hydrolysis, the hydronium ion is clearly reformed; however, in the base-catalyzed hydrolysis, an alcohol is formed as a by-product, but the strong base isn't reformed. Is it a ...
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APTES GOPTES (silane lenkers) hydrolysis and storage?

The problem of usage epoxy/amino silanes is that they are subjected to hydrolysis of their ether sites by the water contained in the air. How fast is this hydrolysis and how to store those silanes ...
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Hydrolysis of an amidine derivative under acidic conditions

I know that an imine can undergo acid hydrolysis to yield a corresponding amide: https://chem.libretexts.org/@api/deki/files/13283/10.jpg?revision=1 But I am looking at a mechanism for acid ...
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How long would it take for sucrose to undergo hydrolysis in boiling water?

I was reading the book Cocktail Codex and there was a snippet on avoiding boiling sugar and water to make simple syrup that made me a bit skeptical. Here it is: Heat also affects the molecular ...
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Mechanism of Acid Hydrolysis

I wanted to ask a question about acid catalysed hydrolysis. I learnt in an introductory course to Physical Organic Chemistry that there are different ways that an ester can be hydrolysed acidically: ...
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Ammonium chloride in aqueous solution

When Ammonium chloride is in an aqueous medium its cation part ammonium undergo hydrolysis. Since ammonium is conjugate acid of a weak base it readily release one $\ce{H+}$ and converts back to $\ce{...
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What acids will Sodium Lauroyl Methyl Isethionate yield after hydrolysis? [closed]

As far as I understand, after hydrolysis Sodium Lauroyl Methyl Isethionate will yield sodium, lauroyl and methyl alcohols, and isethionic acid. Meaning lauroyl is referring to the fatty acid alcohol ...
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How does HCl break down amylopectin in starch into amylose?

I'm currently researching on manufacturing bioplastics. During one of the steps, HCl is added to break down amylopectin into amylose, but I don't understand how exactly this happens. It would really ...
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876 views

Rate of hydrolysis of ester in presence of an acidic medium

Does the rate of hydrolysis of an ester depend on the concentration of both the ester and the acid, or only the ester? I was told by my professor that hydrolysis of ester follows a pseudo-first order ...
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1answer
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How do I calculate the hydronium ion concentration if I know the strontium hydroxide concentration?

This is my first question so I would appreciate feedback on how to ask better questions. Forgive me if I don't know how to properly format math/chem. The guide is confusing. I was taking a practice ...
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Saponification side reactions

When soap is made from triglycerides and NaOH reacting, is saponification the only reaction that occurs or are there other side reactions. Information concerning this issue seems slim online
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Alkoxide as a leaving group in hydrolysis of ester

In the base catalysed hydrolysis the hydroxide ion adds to the ester to form a tetrahedral intermediate, after which the alkoxide ions leave and forms carboxylate ion and alcohol. Also we find the ...
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Rate of hydrolysis of silicon tetrahalides

Concise Inorganic Chemistry for JEE(Main and Advanced) by JD Lee(Third Edition) writes If we compare the rate of hydrolysis for $\ce{SiX4}$(where X= F,Cl,Br,I), it is in the same order as that of ...
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Steric Factors on reaction with grignard reagent

I was asked to find the products X and Y. For the product X,Here the grignard reagent and even the carbonyl substrate was too sterically hindered to approach the carbonyl center so no reaction would ...
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How does pyrosulfate compare to pyrophosphate?

That is, in terms of stability in aqueous solution and the energy released by the hydrolysis of the S-O-S bond compared with pyrophosphate hydrolysis. More specifically, could sulfates substitute ...
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Hydrolysis under basic medium

The first compound is said to be hydrolyzed more easily than the 2nd compound below under Alkaline medium . How is this possible ? I thought due to resonance, -NO2 acquires negative charge which ...
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How is the hydrolysis of amides done in a lab?

I have seen this video about the hydrolysis of amides in order to convert them to a carboxylic acid. I understood how it works but I want to know how would someone physically do it in a lab. I need ...
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Acid hydrolysis of ethyl acetate uses

I was wondering if the above mentioned reaction has any uses? I looked up applications and significance and couldnt find anything. I came across Saponification but that involves a base and is a ...
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116 views

Acid hydrolysis of ethyl acetate [closed]

For my chemistry IA, I am planning to determine the reaction rate and activation energy of the acid catalyzed hydrolysis of ethyl acetate. Where can I find literature values for these, so i can ...
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Will PAEK polymers hydrolyze in concentrated sulfuric acid?

One of my duties at the company where I work is to perform intrinsic viscosity (IV) experiments on PAEK (poly(aryl ether ketone)) polymers. These polymers don't dissolve well in most solvents, so the ...
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Why is SF6 inert towards hydrolysis? [duplicate]

Why is $\ce{SF6}$ inert towards hydrolysis? Would not $\ce{H - F}$ bonds be created in water which is much stable and has a high negative enthalpy of formation. This hydrogen bond making must ...
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Why does hydrolysis of OF2 give a neutral solution?

I found this equation on the internet for the hydrolysis of $\ce{OF2}$: $\ce{OF2 + H2O -> HF + O2}$. So, according to me, $\ce{HF}$ must make generate an acidic instead of neutral solution. But ...
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Phosphonate reaction with oxides and their stability?

I have read some papers stating that $\ce{SiO2}$ surfaces can bind phosphonates, but in water they hydrolyse. However, for $\ce{Si}$ surfaces, they are stable in water. In both cases, the reaction ...
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How to synthesize tetrabutyl titanate from titanium dioxide powder?

How do you synthesize tetrabutyl titanate $(\ce{[CH3(CH2)3O]4Ti})$ from titanium dioxide ($\ce{TiO2}$) powder? As I know, we can get $\ce{TiO2}$ from tetrabutyl titanate, but how can we do the ...
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With which group does the middle oxygen atom of an anhydride remain, on hydrolysis?

With which group does the middle oxygen atom of an anhydride remain, on hydrolysis? As an example, let us say we have the following modification of ethanoic methanoic anhydride, with the middle oxygen ...
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Why should hydrolysis break down fat into fatty acid and glycerol?

Fats and lipids are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Both esters form different structures at different room temperatures. Now fats and lipids are generally insoluble in polar solvents(water)...
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What are the optimal conditions for the complete acid hydrolysis (using HCl) of potato starch? [closed]

I'm hoping someone can provide the specifics on the optimal conditions required for the complete acid hydrolysis (using $\ce{HCl}$) of potato starch? I will be using an autoclave (~$\pu{15 psi}$ @ $\...
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Can a molecular sieve be used increase the saturation of a fructose solution?

The Problem: Let's say we have an experiment where we are attempting to grow rock candy crystals by letting a solution of sugar crystalize on a wooden dowel. However, an error may have been made in ...
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How can I attempt to inhibit the hydrolysis/degeneration of aspartame? [closed]

I've surfed the internet, looking for some possible inhibitors for the hydrolysis process of aspartame, but couldn't find any. I'm wondering if such a thing is possible and if yes, how should I ...
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Why does water electrolysis use direct current?

Every source I've found regarding water electrolysis says that it's done using direct current (rather than alternating current), but I haven't found a single source that mentions why. Obviously, ...
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461 views

Hydrolysis of transition metals' halides?

So, it's a relatively common known solubility rule that any hydroxide with a cation not in the first two groups is basically insoluble. So supposing we have a transition or post-transition metal $M$ ...
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Why are polysaccharides not sweet in taste?

Polysaccharides are defined as polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketone which on hydrolysis yield many units of monosaccharides. I got one answer(to my question above) as: On our tongue, we have things ...
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USNCO question - Finding pH of salt solution from pKa of its parent acid

The question from 2017 USNCO is as below: What is the $\mathrm{pH}$ of a $\pu{0.25 M}$ solution of $\ce{NaCN}$? (The $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a}$ of $\ce{HCN}$ is $9.21$.) (A) $4.91$ (B) $8.61$ ...
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A problem in solubility of salts with multistep hydrolysis of an ion possible

Calculate the solubility of $\ce{MnS}$ in pure water, $K_\mathrm{sp}(\ce{MnS}) = \pu{2.5e-10}$. Assume hydrolysis of $\ce{S^2-}$ ion. $K_1$ and $K_2$ for $\ce{H2S}$ are $10^{-7}$ and $10^{-14}$, ...
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Weak acid and weak base salt hydrolysis [closed]

While solving for weak acid and weak base salt hydrolysis, why do we take the degree of hydrolysis for both the anion and cation to be the same? If we assume they are the same, when solving for $K_\...
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Why is the hydrolysis of the conjugate base of a weak acid neglected in buffer solutions?

Consider a solution which contains a weak acid and the salt of its conjugate base with a strong base. e.g. $$\ce{CH3COOH + H2O <=>[$K_\rm{a}$] CH3COO- + H3O+}\tag1$$ $$\ce{CH3COO- + H2O <=&...
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Reasons for solid or liquid soap

Soap is made by a saponification reaction, where a fat reacts with hydroxide ions to form a surfactant and glycerol. To make a solid soap $\ce{NaOH}$ is used, while $\ce{KOH}$ is used for liquid ...
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Why doesn't NF₃ undergo hydrolysis?

I was reading Jan's answer to the following question-: Why can NCl3 be hydrolyzed but CCl4 cannot? Since nitrogen is less electronegative than fluorine, in NF3 the electrophilic site is the Nitrogen ...
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Hydrolysis of an ester

An organic compound X of formula $\ce{C5H10O2}$ forms two compounds when boiled in aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. One of these compounds forms a ketone when treated with acidified potassium ...
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683 views

What happens during oxidative and hydrolytic rancidity of fats?

I understand that when lipid molecules - triacylglycerol - are hydrolysed, the fatty acids 'break' off from the glycerol backbone. And when fatty acids oxidise, these in turn can break into smaller ...
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Hydrolysis of β-1,2 glycosidic bond

Are there any easy, not enzymatic, ways to hydrolyse $\beta$-1,2 glycosidic bonds like they occur in steviosids? I thought of something like vinegar, which is commonly used to cleave the $\alpha$-1,...
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What are the products of the hydrolysis of ICl3?

I have learnt that interhalogens on hydrolysis give a halic acid derived from the smaller atom and an oxoacid derived from the larger atom. For example hydrolysis of $\ce{BrF5}$ would give me $\ce{HF}$...
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proteolysis - how to determine the partial or completeness of the cleavage reaction?

Though the question is about biomolecules, we agree the underlying functions, formation, degradation etc come down to chemistry, (then physics and maths). I am posting it here to receive an ...
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Which side of the C-o-C bond breaks in esters?

When an ester undergoes hydrolysis which side of the C-O-C breaks for instance in the following example: I believe the first is correct but is it a rule that the salt of a carboxylic acid is formed (...
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Mechanism for basic hydrolysis of α-chloronitrile to ketone?

In Corey's 1969 prostaglandin synthesis,1 compound 2 is formed from compound 1 by: [...] treatment with 2.5 equiv of potassium hydroxide (added as a hot saturated aqueous solution) in dimethyl ...