Questions tagged [hydrolysis]

Hydrolysis refers to any reaction with water. For example, it may be said that ammonia hydrolyzes in water to produce ammonium ion and hydroxide ion.

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Alkaline hydrolysis of imines

In "advanced organic chemistry part (A)" pg:469, the author states that the rate-determining step in alkaline hydrolysis of imines is the hydroxide addition to imines and when pH decreases ...
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Hydrolysis of alkali and alkaline earth metals

Which of the following cations are not hydrolysed in aqueous solution? 1) $\ce{Mg^2+}$ 2) $\ce{Ca^2+}$ 3) $\ce{Na+}$ 4) $\ce{K+}$ I thought nothing would undergo hydrolysis, so all the options would ...
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Unusual hydrolysis of methyl 2,4,6‐trimethylbenzoate

Problem 223 from Conceptual Problems in Organic Chemsitry by Singh [1, p. 367]: The given answer is b and I don't get why. Usual ester hydrolysis would've given a. I somehow managed to know that the ...
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Multiple ways of balancing a reaction [duplicate]

The reaction XeF4 + H2O gives Xe + O2 + HF + XeO3 can be balanced in more than one way and I can not understand why. Please help.
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Mechanism of alkaline hydrolysis of cyclic amide

In this mechanism, I got a pretty different mechanism from the solution. From the model answer, there is an intramolecular proton transfer just before the formation of the carboxylate ion. However, in ...
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Stability of F- Cl- Br- I-? In aqueous state [closed]

If we talk about hydrolysis F- will be more heavily hydrolysed so it should be more stable in aqueous state. But I know that HI is a stronger acid than HF. So the stability of conjugate acid ie I- ...
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Why does CCl4 not undergo hydrolysis while other chlorine-derivatives of methane do?

In one of my textbooks, I came across a question as to why does $\ce{CCl4}$ not undergo hydrolysis. The answer given went along the lines of carbon lacking a vacant d-orbital to accept the lone pair ...
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Hydrolysis of (chloromethyl)cyclopropane: Is but-3-en-1-ol a possible product?

This is from one of the practice papers for the JEE , asks for possible hydrolysis products of (chloromethyl)cyclopropane . Product A happens to be due to stability of cyclopropyl methyl carbocation. ...
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Are glycosides stable to acidic hydrolysis? [closed]

I recently read a fact about glycosides: Strong reagents like $\ce{C6H5NHNH2}$ or $\ce{NH2OH}$ are required to decompose it and acidic hydrolysis fails to do so. Why is it so? What makes it ...
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Why does Sodium Hydrogen Sulfate (Sodium Bisulfate) produce moisture?

In my chemistry lab, I have a vial of Sodium Hydrogen Sulfate (Sodium Bisulfate). I've noticed that when I take a spoonful using a spatula, the spatula gets covered in many tiny droplets, and the lid ...
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Reactions of diborane, silane, methane, aluminium, boron, sodium, phosphorus trichloride, white phosphorus and iron with water at RT [closed]

How many of the following will evolve $\ce{H2}$ gas when dissolved in water under room conditions? $\ce{B2H6},$ $\ce{SiH4},$ $\ce{CH4},$ $\ce{Al},$ $\ce{B},$ $\ce{Na},$ $\ce{PCl3},$ $\ce{P(white)},$ $\...
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What is the easiest way to concentrate a solution without causing it to hydrolyze?

I’ve been working with iron acetate solutions in dilute acetic acid (vinegar) and I’ve been running into a problem. Every time I try to boil off the solvent the solution hydrolyzes to form iron oxides....
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How can I purify Ferric or Ferrous acetate with a very basic lab?

I’ve been trying to make Ferric acetate by mixing vinegar with steel wool and allowing it to react. The result is successful in dying leather or wood black and acting as a mordant. Theoretically there ...
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Why does aluminium chloride react with water in 2 different ways?

Aluminium chloride has 2 different reactions with water, depending on whether a small amount or an excess of water is added. One produces a solution of hexaaquaaluminium ions whereas the other ...
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Conditions for Complete hydrolysis of salt [closed]

My text book says that the cations (or anions) which are stronger than hydronium ion(or OH-) and their conjugate base (or acid) being very much weaker than water show complete hydrolysis. While the ...
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Efficiency of H production from FeOOH catalyst?

Research has recently found that FeOOH is 25 times better at hydrogen production than titanium dioxide. Today, a new electrolysis plant delivers energy efficiency of around 80%. Is 25x the Honda-...
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Is it necessary that hydrolysis of ester will only take place in excess of water?

I was given a question on chemical kinetics in which the statement was given- "The Concentration of water in hydrolysis of ester does not change to much extent" I marked the statement to be false ...
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Do tetrachloroaluminate salts hydrolyse?

Tetrafluoroborate salts, such as lithium tetrafluoroborate, are reasonably stable in aqueous solutions. Does the same hold for sodium tetrachloroaluminate as well or does it end up as $$\ce{NaAlCl4 + ...
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446 views

Hydrolysis of sodium carbonate [closed]

This is the equation given by my textbook for hydrolysis of sodium carbonate: $$\ce{Na2CO3 + 2 H2O -> H2CO3 + 2 Na+ + 2 OH-}$$ and it mentions that sodium ion $(\ce{Na+})$ does not tend to ...
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What happens when ferric chloride is dissolved in water?

Ferric chloride can be prepared by dissolving hematite in hydrochloric acid: $$\ce{Fe2O3 + 6HCl -> 2FeCl3 + 3H2O }\tag{1}$$ But the resulting ferric chloride will be exposed from its formation to ...
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286 views

n-Factor of P4O6 [closed]

I had a question in my exam: Which of the following can be the $n$-factor of $\ce{P4O6}?$ A. 8 B. 9 C. 10 D. 12 I went for options A and B as in cold water $1$ mole of $\ce{P4O6}$ on hydrolysis give ...
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Does salt hydrolysis takes place in buffer solution? [closed]

I am a bit confused whether hydrolysis of salt takes place in buffer solutions because the books which I read doesnt consider them.But I think since weak base or weak acid salt is present hydrolysis ...
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How does sodium carbonate raise pH?

Sodium carbonate is used in pools to raise pH. From my understanding, it would dissociate in water like so: $$\ce{Na2CO3 <=> 2 Na+ + CO3^2-}$$ To raise pH, doesn't it have to absorb hydrogen ...
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Why isn't the base reformed in base-catalyzed hydrolysis of esters?

In acid-catalyzed hydrolysis, the hydronium ion is clearly reformed; however, in the base-catalyzed hydrolysis, an alcohol is formed as a by-product, but the strong base isn't reformed. Is it a ...
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Hydrolysis of an amidine derivative under acidic conditions

I know that an imine can undergo acid hydrolysis to yield a corresponding amide: https://chem.libretexts.org/@api/deki/files/13283/10.jpg?revision=1 But I am looking at a mechanism for acid ...
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How long would it take for sucrose to undergo hydrolysis in boiling water?

I was reading the book Cocktail Codex and there was a snippet on avoiding boiling sugar and water to make simple syrup that made me a bit skeptical. Here it is: Heat also affects the molecular ...
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Mechanism of Acid Hydrolysis

I wanted to ask a question about acid catalysed hydrolysis. I learnt in an introductory course to Physical Organic Chemistry that there are different ways that an ester can be hydrolysed acidically: ...
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Ammonium chloride in aqueous solution

When Ammonium chloride is in an aqueous medium its cation part ammonium undergo hydrolysis. Since ammonium is conjugate acid of a weak base it readily release one $\ce{H+}$ and converts back to $\ce{...
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What acids will Sodium Lauroyl Methyl Isethionate yield after hydrolysis? [closed]

As far as I understand, after hydrolysis Sodium Lauroyl Methyl Isethionate will yield sodium, lauroyl and methyl alcohols, and isethionic acid. Meaning lauroyl is referring to the fatty acid alcohol ...
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How does HCl break down amylopectin in starch into amylose?

I'm currently researching on manufacturing bioplastics. During one of the steps, HCl is added to break down amylopectin into amylose, but I don't understand how exactly this happens. It would really ...
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Rate of hydrolysis of ester in presence of an acidic medium

Does the rate of hydrolysis of an ester depend on the concentration of both the ester and the acid, or only the ester? I was told by my professor that hydrolysis of ester follows a pseudo-first order ...
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How do I calculate the hydronium ion concentration if I know the strontium hydroxide concentration?

This is my first question so I would appreciate feedback on how to ask better questions. Forgive me if I don't know how to properly format math/chem. The guide is confusing. I was taking a practice ...
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Saponification side reactions

When soap is made from triglycerides and NaOH reacting, is saponification the only reaction that occurs or are there other side reactions. Information concerning this issue seems slim online
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Alkoxide as a leaving group in hydrolysis of ester

In the base catalysed hydrolysis the hydroxide ion adds to the ester to form a tetrahedral intermediate, after which the alkoxide ions leave and forms carboxylate ion and alcohol. Also we find the ...
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Rate of hydrolysis of silicon tetrahalides

Concise Inorganic Chemistry for JEE(Main and Advanced) by JD Lee(Third Edition) writes If we compare the rate of hydrolysis for $\ce{SiX4}$(where X= F,Cl,Br,I), it is in the same order as that of ...
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Steric Factors on reaction with grignard reagent

I was asked to find the products X and Y. For the product X,Here the grignard reagent and even the carbonyl substrate was too sterically hindered to approach the carbonyl center so no reaction would ...
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How does pyrosulfate compare to pyrophosphate?

That is, in terms of stability in aqueous solution and the energy released by the hydrolysis of the S-O-S bond compared with pyrophosphate hydrolysis. More specifically, could sulfates substitute ...
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Hydrolysis under basic medium

The first compound is said to be hydrolyzed more easily than the 2nd compound below under Alkaline medium . How is this possible ? I thought due to resonance, -NO2 acquires negative charge which ...
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How is the hydrolysis of amides done in a lab?

I have seen this video about the hydrolysis of amides in order to convert them to a carboxylic acid. I understood how it works but I want to know how would someone physically do it in a lab. I need ...
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Acid hydrolysis of ethyl acetate uses

I was wondering if the above mentioned reaction has any uses? I looked up applications and significance and couldnt find anything. I came across Saponification but that involves a base and is a ...
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Acid hydrolysis of ethyl acetate [closed]

For my chemistry IA, I am planning to determine the reaction rate and activation energy of the acid catalyzed hydrolysis of ethyl acetate. Where can I find literature values for these, so i can ...
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Will PAEK polymers hydrolyze in concentrated sulfuric acid?

One of my duties at the company where I work is to perform intrinsic viscosity (IV) experiments on PAEK (poly(aryl ether ketone)) polymers. These polymers don't dissolve well in most solvents, so the ...
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Why is SF6 inert towards hydrolysis? [duplicate]

Why is $\ce{SF6}$ inert towards hydrolysis? Would not $\ce{H - F}$ bonds be created in water which is much stable and has a high negative enthalpy of formation. This hydrogen bond making must ...
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Why does hydrolysis of OF2 give a neutral solution?

I found this equation on the internet for the hydrolysis of $\ce{OF2}$: $\ce{OF2 + H2O -> HF + O2}$. So, according to me, $\ce{HF}$ must make generate an acidic instead of neutral solution. But ...
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Phosphonate reaction with oxides and their stability?

I have read some papers stating that $\ce{SiO2}$ surfaces can bind phosphonates, but in water they hydrolyse. However, for $\ce{Si}$ surfaces, they are stable in water. In both cases, the reaction ...
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How to synthesize tetrabutyl titanate from titanium dioxide powder?

How do you synthesize tetrabutyl titanate $(\ce{[CH3(CH2)3O]4Ti})$ from titanium dioxide ($\ce{TiO2}$) powder? As I know, we can get $\ce{TiO2}$ from tetrabutyl titanate, but how can we do the ...
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With which group does the middle oxygen atom of an anhydride remain, on hydrolysis?

With which group does the middle oxygen atom of an anhydride remain, on hydrolysis? As an example, let us say we have the following modification of ethanoic methanoic anhydride, with the middle oxygen ...
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Why should hydrolysis break down fat into fatty acid and glycerol?

Fats and lipids are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Both esters form different structures at different room temperatures. Now fats and lipids are generally insoluble in polar solvents(water)...
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What are the optimal conditions for the complete acid hydrolysis (using HCl) of potato starch? [closed]

I'm hoping someone can provide the specifics on the optimal conditions required for the complete acid hydrolysis (using $\ce{HCl}$) of potato starch? I will be using an autoclave (~$\pu{15 psi}$ @ $\...
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Can a molecular sieve be used increase the saturation of a fructose solution?

The Problem: Let's say we have an experiment where we are attempting to grow rock candy crystals by letting a solution of sugar crystalize on a wooden dowel. However, an error may have been made in ...