Questions tagged [hydrolysis]

Hydrolysis refers to any reaction with water. For example, it may be said that ammonia hydrolyzes in water to produce ammonium ion and hydroxide ion.

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what happens if i mix caustic soda with a sugar solution (made of coconut sugar and water) [closed]

what happens if i mix caustic soda with a sugar solution (made of coconut sugar and water). I read that caustic soda and sugar mixed together produces carbon monoxide. Is it different if it is mixed ...
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Why doesn't an acid-base reaction occur in basic amide hydrolysis instead of nucleophilic acyl substitution?

In the reaction of Grignard reagent with a primary and secondary amide, nucleophilic acyl substiution doesn't happen. The reason given is that R- is a strong base as well as strong nucleophile, an ...
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How does the second hydrolysis of phthalimide work (hydrolysis of amide)?

In the hydrolysis of Phthalimides we can see two successive hydrolysis of "amides" see ChemLibre for a nice mechanism This is interesting because normally (also according to ChemLibre) ...
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Is hydrolysis of acid chlorides still favored when the resulting acids cannot donate their protons?

For example, take the reaction: MeCOCl + H₂O -> MeCOOH + HCl Bonds broken: C-Cl + H-O -> 330 + 460 = 790 kJ/mol Bonds formed: C-O + H-Cl -> 350 + 432 = 782 kJ/mol I realize that BDE is only ...
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Deviation from (pseudo-) first-order kinetics during hydrolysis of sucrose

In an experiment we conducted at university, we studied the reaction kinetics of the acid catalyzed (with HCl) hydrolysis of sucrose to glucose and fructose (via the measurement of the polarization ...
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What makes a molecule lipopholic? [closed]

I know that non polar (Hydrophobic) molecules are usually lipophilic. Is there a general explanation for this phenomenon, or does the explanation differ depending on the molecule itself?
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Why doesn't XeF6 displace oxygen from water?

Consider the following reactions (unbalanced): $$ \begin{align} \ce{XeF2 + H2O &→ Xe + HF + O2} \tag{a} \\ \ce{XeF4 + H2O &→ XeO3 + Xe + O2 + HF} \tag{b} \\ \ce{XeF6 + H2O &→ XeO3 + HF} \...
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Old sodium hydroxide based drain cleaner become stony and brown, not hydrosoluble anymore

My drain was clogged and I used an old sodium hydroxide based drain cleaner to free it. The cleaner was quite old and inside it was brownish and monolithic, not a bunch of small white spheres anymore. ...
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Can I degrade PLA into something usable?

I have a lot of 3D printer waste and don't have a recycling machine for it. As a side project, I was wondering if there is any way to degrade/compost/recycle it meaningfully. I have my Uni's chemistry ...
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Tetrachlorophosphonium

I am aware that PCl3 and PCl5 both react with water. In these reactions, water breaks the chlorine atoms off of the phosphorus atom and hydroxyl groups take their place: $\ce{PCl3 + 3H2O -> H3PO3 + ...
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Mechanism for hydrolysis of cyanohydrin [closed]

I know that acetals can be hydrolyzed with H2SO4 but I am not sure how benzaldehyde would be formed following hydrolysis of the cyanohydrin. When I searched online it I found answers suggesting that a ...
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Alkaline hydrolysis with KOH instead of NaOH. Why?

I really loved the series breaking bad. So I started reading about the science behind. I found this paper: Harnisch, F., & Salthammer, T. (2013). Die Chemie bei Breaking Bad. In Chemie in unserer ...
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Comparing Rate of Hydrolysis of Acyl halides

In this particular question, my answer is (D) as steric hinderance is minimum there, but answer (B) was given due to the electron withdrawing (-M) effect of the nitro group. Isn't steric hinderance ...
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How to remove starch from silicone ("Oogoo")?

Oogoo is an easy and cheap way of creating silicone rubber objects from a hand-formable putty. Basically: just mix silicone caulk with starch (I'm using acetate moisture absorbing silicone caulking ...
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Solubility of lead(II,IV) oxide

I was solving a question: Which of the following liberate $\ce{O2}$ upon hydrolysis? $\ce{Pb3O4}$ $\ce{KO2}$ $\ce{Na2O2}$ $\ce{Li2O2}$ The answer is no doubt $\ce{KO2}$ but if I am not wrong $\ce{...
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Grignard Reagent Facilitates Epoxide Opening

I have read from my textbook, that the opening of an epoxide ring with a strong nucleophile like a Grignard reagent, takes place from a less substituted side, with a higher SN2 character. The acidic ...
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Why is the rate of solvolysis of t-butyl chloride lesser than that of 1-chloro-1-methylcyclohexane?

I came across a question regarding relative rate of solvolysis. According to the answer key: My analysis: As in all the three cases, the Cl atom is bounded to a tertiary carbon, hence, all of them ...
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Why is it advised to use neutral ferric chloride solution while performing confirmatory test for acetate ions? [duplicate]

The reaction of $\ce{FeCl3}$ with $\ce{CH3COO-}$ is $$\ce{3Fe^{+3} +6CH3COO- +H2O<=> [Fe3(OH)2(CH3COO)6]^{+} +2H^{+}}$$ Recently I read that a solution of $\ce{FeCl3}$ hydrolyses very quickly to ...
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How is this reaction not a decomposition reaction? And are all disproportionation reactions decomposition reactions?

When I asked my teacher whether all disproportionation reactions are decomposition reactions, he stated the following reaction: $$ \ce{4 KClO3 -> 3 KClO4 + KCl} $$ and said that this isn't a ...
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Are all hydrolysis reactions non-redox reactions? [closed]

Are all hydrolysis reactions always non redox reactions? For example: $$\ce{N2O3 + 2H2O -> 2HNO2}$$ The main reason I say that this statement is correct is because oxygen and hydrogen generally ...
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What are the gaseous outputs of electrolysis of Water along with NaOH or KOH?

Theoretically electrolysis of water yields Hydrogen and Oxygen in gaseous form. But to enhance conductivity we have to add an electrolyte like $\ce{NaOH}$ or $\ce{KOH}$. Does this produce any other ...
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Cyanide hydrolysis; could it yield an oxime?

The mechanisms for both acid and base catalyzed hydrolysis of nitriles are clear; (With the subsequent deprotonation from the hydroxyl) and (Source) In both cases, the hydroxyl adds to the carbon ...
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On the stabler tautomer in amide-imidic acid tautomerism

In the section on acid-catalysed hydrolysis of nitriles, this webpage has the following line of reasoning; ...the more stable amide tautomer predominates the (following) equilibrium. (credit) How ...
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Why does ester hydrolysis occur in basic medium

Ester hydrolysis occurs in basic medium and this is the medium which is usually preferred for the same. But I am facing a very fundamental doubt and not able to understand the reason. Ester Hydrolysis ...
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Mechanism of hydrolysis of acyl chlorides

The following mechanism for acyl chloride hydrolysis was given by my professor : However I do not understand why in the second step, oxygen has a partially negative charge, should it not gain a ...
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Why is the hydrolysis of ATP to AMP more energetic than the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP?

I am confused as to why the hydrolysis of ATP to AMP and pyrophosphate is more energetic than hydrolysis to ADP and inorganic phosphate, especially since pyrophosphates are more unstable than ...
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Possibility of removing two water molecules from glycerol

Not a chemist, but from a chemical formula perspective, how hard would it be to create acetone by acidifying glycerol? $$\ce{C3H8O3 + 2 H+ <=> C3H6O + 2 H2O}$$ Has anyone ever heard of this ...
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Why is Ag+ not hydrolysed?

Usually, strong acid anions and strong base cations don't get hydrolysed. But I've noticed through some questions that $\ce{Ag^+}$ doesn't seem to get hydrolysed, why is that? Is there any concept ...
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What exactly is hydrolysis? What are the products of hydrolysis of aluminium?

I came across three reactions while studying p-block compounds in inorganic chemistry. $$\ce{2Al + 2NaOH + 6H2O -> 2 Na[Al(OH)4] + 3H2} \label{eq:1} \tag{1}$$ $$\ce{Al2O3 + 2NaOH + 3H2O -> 2 Na[...
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Hydrolysis of one mole of peroxydisulphuric acid with one mol. of water produces?

I am having trouble in this question: Hydrolysis of one mole of peroxy disulphuric acid with one mole of water produces : a)two moles of sulphuric acid only b)two moles of peroxymonosulphuric acid c)...
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2 votes
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salt hydrolysis and pH calculations

I am a high school student and I am very confused in salt hydrolysis My confusion is that: when we talk of hydrolysis of salt of weak base and weak acid, we internally assume the degree of hydrolysis ...
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What would be the product of this reaction?

A 3 membered carbon ring with a double bond to oxygen from one carbon and a double bond between the remaining carbon with a methyl group attached to one of the carbon is made to undergo acid catalyzed ...
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Why does acid hydrolysis of glucose-1,6-bisphosphate produce glucose-6-phosphate and not glucose-1-phosphate?

A paper I found details treating glucose-1,6-bisphosphate with 6M HCl to produce glucose-6-phosphate. I'm curious why glucose-1-phosphate (and then even plain glucose) isn't formed instead?
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Aspirin Hydrolysis at pH 2

Conducting an experiment, I found that very little salicylic acid was evolved performing hydrolysis at $\mathrm{pH \ 2}$ and at $\pu{45 ^\circ C}$. In fact, far more salicylic acid was evolved at $\...
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Hydrolysis of Magnesium Carbide

I came across a question in which the following reaction was taking place: $$ \ce{Mg4C3 + H2O -> CH3CH \bond{#} CH} $$ Each $\ce{Mg}$ atom must be present in a +2 oxidation state, thus the total ...
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What are the properties of water in glaciers? [closed]

Does water from glaciers have many minerals (hard water) or would it be considered pure or distilled water?
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Sodium Sulfate or Sodium Carbonate for electrolysis in water

I am not a chemist but I have a question regarding electrolytes in electrolysis. I have done a lot of reading but cannot find the answer I'm looking for regarding Sodium Sulfate (or Sulfide) I intend ...
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Does cellulase catalyze the hydrolysis (or break down) of soluble starch?

I’m attempting to perform an Iodometric redox titration to evaluate the vitamin c concentration in a particular solution. These solution have dissolved within them up to 2% cellulase enzyme. In an ...
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How can you tell if a metal ion will hydrolyze to form an acidic solution?

I saw somewhere that all metal ions except for the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals will hydrolyze to increase acidity. If I'm interpreting things correctly, sodium ions, for example, will not ...
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Calcium chloride hydrolysis

I was wondering about $ \ce{CaCl2} $ hydrolysis. The most primitive answer would have been: $ \ce{Ca(OH)2} $ does not dilute that great, therefore it is not strong enough to have the $ \ce{Ca^2+} $s ...
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5 votes
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Why does hydrolysis of ADP to AMP yield the same amount of energy as ATP to ADP, if ADP is more stable?

I learned about the resonance stability of ADP and the fact that ATP is less stable due to intramolecular instability. I was surprised to see that the energy net of conversion of ADP to AMP is the ...
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Why isn't auto ionisation of water considered when we find the pH during salt hydrolysis?

$\ce{H+}$ concentration from the auto-ionisation of water is $10^{-7}$ If we have $\ce{HA}$ as weak acid and $\ce{BOH}$ as weak base having $\mathrm pK_\mathrm{a} = 3.2$ and $\mathrm pK_\mathrm{b} =3....
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3 votes
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Dissolution of SO2 in water

Majority of texts (at high school level) say that when $\ce{SO2}$ is dissolved in water sulphurous acid $\ce{H2SO3}$ is formed. However my text book states that it forms clathrate $\ce{SO2.6H2O}$ when ...
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Hydrolysis of alkali and alkaline earth metals

Which of the following cations are not hydrolysed in aqueous solution? 1) $\ce{Mg^2+}$ 2) $\ce{Ca^2+}$ 3) $\ce{Na+}$ 4) $\ce{K+}$ I thought nothing would undergo hydrolysis, so all the options would ...
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Unusual hydrolysis of methyl 2,4,6‐trimethylbenzoate

Problem 223 from Conceptual Problems in Organic Chemsitry by Singh [1, p. 367]: The given answer is b and I don't get why. Usual ester hydrolysis would've given a. I somehow managed to know that the ...
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Multiple ways of balancing a reaction [duplicate]

The reaction XeF4 + H2O gives Xe + O2 + HF + XeO3 can be balanced in more than one way and I can not understand why. Please help.
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Mechanism of alkaline hydrolysis of cyclic amide

In this mechanism, I got a pretty different mechanism from the solution. From the model answer, there is an intramolecular proton transfer just before the formation of the carboxylate ion. However, in ...
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Stability of F- Cl- Br- I-? In aqueous state [closed]

If we talk about hydrolysis F- will be more heavily hydrolysed so it should be more stable in aqueous state. But I know that HI is a stronger acid than HF. So the stability of conjugate acid ie I- ...
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Why does CCl4 not undergo hydrolysis while other chlorine-derivatives of methane do?

In one of my textbooks, I came across a question as to why does $\ce{CCl4}$ not undergo hydrolysis. The answer given went along the lines of carbon lacking a vacant d-orbital to accept the lone pair ...
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7 votes
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Hydrolysis of (chloromethyl)cyclopropane: Is but-3-en-1-ol a possible product?

This is from one of the practice papers for the JEE , asks for possible hydrolysis products of (chloromethyl)cyclopropane . Product A happens to be due to stability of cyclopropyl methyl carbocation. ...
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