Questions tagged [hydrocarbons]

Hydrocarbons are compounds containing only hydrogen and carbon atoms. This tag should be applied when a saturated or an unsaturated hydrocarbon is the main focus. For aromatic hydrocarbons, use the tag [aromatic-compounds] instead. For halohydrocarbons or other functional derivatives, use [halides] or other relevant tags instead.

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What should be the product of hydration of 1‐phenyl‐1‐propyne by Kucherov reaction? [closed]

What should be the product of hydration of 1‐phenyl‐1‐propyne by Kucherov reaction? $$\ce{Ph-C#C-CH3 ->[HgSO4][H2SO4]}$$
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What is the difference between Saytzeff rule and Markovnikov's Rule? [closed]

From what I understand the functional group is placed at the more substituted/hyperconjugated carbon bond/atom. So why different names (Saytzeff/Hoffman Rule and Markovnikov's rule)? What am I missing?...
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How does soap help in cleaning clothes and rinsing off oil and grease?

When we say that we agitate clothes so that grease particles get separate out from clothes as ionic part of hydrocarbon chains of soap is attached to water and non polar part of chain is dissolved in ...
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2answers
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How substituted/contaminated can a hydrocarbon be to still be considered a hydrocarbon? [closed]

I have a doubt about any type of hydrocarbon with a Carbon-Heteroatom bond, instead of a C-H bond like oxygenated, nitrogenated, brominated hydrocarbons. My question is: how polluted can they be to ...
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Would a PNG geyser work on biogas?

I am trying to understand if a water heater designed to run on piped natural gas (PNG) could be powered by biogas without any modifications. Typically, these geysers have a battery-powered ignition ...
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1answer
39 views

Reactivity of Alkenes with HBr [closed]

I am new in the Organic Chemistry (World of Reactions). I had got one question in my test. But, when I had seen it, I got no proper logic to tick the correct answer, and then when I saw solution, then ...
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67 views

Given type and number of carbon atoms and degree of unsaturation of a hydrocarbon, write structural formula

Write a structural formula of the hydrocarbon that contains 4 primary carbon atoms, 2 ternary carbon atoms, 3 quaternary carbon atoms, and has degree of unsaturation 3. This has been given at the ...
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Why pyrolysis of C6H10 doesn't give C5H10 + CH4 [closed]

In my book it's given pyrolysis of C6H14 gives C6H12 + H2 Or C4H8 + C2H6 Or C3H6+C2H4+ CH4 ( as it gives atleast one alkene) but there are other possible alkenes as well such as C5H10.
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Boiling and melting points of hydrocarbons [closed]

What happens while boiling and melting hydrocarbons? Which bonds are broken? When we compare the boiling point (b.p.) and melting point (m.p.) of certain hydrocarbons the order is inverted. For ...
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Why do hydrocarbons give out a blue flame on complete combustion? [duplicate]

In complete combustion of hydrocarbons the colour of the flame is blue. But what is the reason behind the flame being blue and not green or black or any other colour? Edit: I've searched the web for ...
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Why is the the temperature change due to the combustion of paraffin wax so high (10000 Kelvin)? [closed]

I'm trying to work out the temperature change (I got something like 10k Kelvin,hotter than the Sun's core...) caused by the combustion of paraffin wax which has a molar enthalpy of combustion $E^{wax}...
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Why does the trend of the enthalpy of reaction per atom of carbon in hydrocarbons approach a near-constant value?

I was looking at trends for enthalpies of hydrocarbons for a high school project and found an interesting paper regarding it, stating that the enthalpy per carbon atom approaches a constant. I'm ...
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Why is carbon tetrachloride more stable than methane?

When a mixture of methane and chlorine is exposed to ultraviolet light – typically sunlight – a substitution reaction occurs and the organic product is chloromethane. However, the reaction doesn't ...
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Branching Cyclic Hydrocarbons and Comparing Boiling Point

I am currently in organic chemistry and working on comparing the boiling and melting points of hydrocarbons. The question, in particular, is drawing a comparison between benzene and toluene's relative ...
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Can sodium metal deprotonate terminal hydrogen atom from propyne to form propynide?

I've read that sodium metal is used to form ethynides but for forming propynide, they have used $\ce{NaNH2}$. Is there some reason for not using sodium metal for propynides as well? Source: Chemistry ...
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Does Phenylacetylene undergo side chain oxidation with hot alkaline Potassium permanganate?

This question was asked in my book: To my knowledge, side chain oxidation with KMnO4 occurs only when a benzylic hydrogen is present. However this doesn't contain a benzylic hydrogen and hence ...
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Mission: Impossible? Hydrocarbons in an aqueous liquid (e.g. humulene in beer)

Your mission, should you decide to accept it, is to describe how hydrocarbons can be stably mixed into a water-based liquid such as beer, as in this question. According to the usual textbook wisdom, ...
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Conversion of allyl alcohol to 2-chloro propanediol with HOCl [duplicate]

going through the preparation of tri hydric alcohol(glycerol), i came across this reaction i.e. preparation of glycerol from propene. In the first step of this reaction, we did allyl substitution with ...
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Why do alkenes (olefins) burn hotter than alkanes (paraffins), even though alkanes are denser and more hydrogen-rich?

Burning hydrogen releases more total energy than combusting carbon, and all alkanes are denser as well, so why are flame temperatures for alkene molecules higher than their equivalent alkanes? P.S.: ...
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1answer
625 views

How much CO2 is produced when burning 1GJ of Natural Gas

Background I am trying to determine how many kg of $\ce{CO2}$ are released when burning 1 GJ of natural gas. What I've tried I have very little chemistry knowledge, but google led me to these two ...
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IUPAC naming for a ring system containing different ring structures

Regarding the IUPAC naming convention for compounds in which one ring is more highly $\pi$-conjugated than the other ring but contains fewer carbon atoms: I can name this compound as either: (a) 1-[...
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Why is the enthalpy of formation of 2,2-dimethylpentane larger than that of 2,2,3-trimethylbutane?

Firstly, it is commonly known and taught that branched alkanes are more stable than linear ones, and so have larger enthalpies of formation. But why is that the case? Are there some steric ...
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What is the isomeric relation between bicyclo and spiro hydrocarbons?

Take for example octahydropentalene (bicyclo[3,3,0]octane) and spiro(3.4)octane: I would think that they are chain isomers of sort but according to nomenclature counting rules, they are both 8-carbon ...
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Is a hydrocarbon necessary for combustion? [closed]

Oxygen, heat and fuel are essential for combustion. What counts as a fuel? Is a hydrocarbon essential for combustion? Is combustion, say, of magnesium really combustion? And what's the difference ...
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dehydration of an alcohol (3-methyl-1-phenylbutan-2-ol)

I was thinking of dehydrating this alcohol: 3-methyl-1-phenylbutan-2-ol Its structure is: My concern is which of the following would it form: The problem is that the first one comes from a stable ...
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Photobromination of cyclohexene

During bromination of cyclohexene in the presence of hv via free radical mechanism, there are two allylic carbons. Why does the major product have only one Br an not a Br on either side of double bond....
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Isomers of a Cycloalkane [closed]

What I know: All alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons with the general formula, $C_nH_{2n+2}$ All alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons with the general formula, $C_nH_{2n}$ What's Confusing Me: This ...
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1answer
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Is diethyl and methyl preferred over an ethyl and an isopropyl group as substituents when both give the same longest chain? [duplicate]

According to what I took (look for the longest chain, start close to the branches, etc etc) I see two paths I could follow to give me a hexane. One where you go through the carbon in the methyl, and ...
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Why is cyclopropyl carbanion more stable than propyl carbanion [duplicate]

A problem was given in which the order of rate of decarboxylation was asked for the compounds cyclopropane carboxylic acid and and butanoic acid. It's known that the rate here depends on the stability ...
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What happens to the 2s orbital in carbon-hydrogen bonds? [closed]

I was taught in high school that carbon atoms by themselves are capable of establishing covalent bonds with with as far as four hydrogens atoms. Nowadays, trying to understand the topic in-depth, I ...
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Does incomplete combustion produce carbon dioxide at first? [duplicate]

I know that the incomplete combustion of a hydrocarbon produces $\ce{CO}$ or sometimes $\ce{C}$ if the amount of oxygen is very limited, but I was wondering if at first $\ce{CO2}$ is produced and only ...
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Does the largest known cycloalkane contain 288 carbon atoms?

If you Google "largest known cycloalkane", you will find this result: For context, there has been discussions on "largest known alkane". There is a related chem.SE question. There ...
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What product will be formed from the side chain oxidation of 4‐ethyl‐1,1‐dimethyl‐3,4‐dihydro‐2H‐naphthalene?

Benzylic hydrogen is required for the side chain oxidation of benzene. But for this compound the top branch connected to the benzene ring does not have a benzylic hydrogen. So, will the top branch be ...
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Treating acetylene with excess HCl [duplicate]

Say we have been given acetylene with an excess of $\ce{HCl}$. In the first step of the reaction, $\ce{H2C=CHCl}$ is formed. But in the second step, there are two possibilities - gem-dihalide and a ...
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1answer
158 views

Why is the tropylium anion non-aromatic? [duplicate]

Recently I came across a question asking which compounds are anti-aromatic. This was one of the options: I’m confused as this is not an answer. I think the lone pair electrons on the carbanion ...
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Mechanism of combustion of hydrocarbons [duplicate]

While this question comes close, it doesn't quite answer my question. Adding heat to oxygen & a hydrocarbon breaks the atoms apart and they reform into carbon dioxide and water. I get that. I want ...
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Is a hydrocarbon bio-battery feasible?

Hydrocarbons have some of the highest energy densities and specific energies of any chemical fuel. Unfortunately, our primary use of them is in thermal engines, whose efficiency is limited by Carnot'...
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Synthesis of diethyloxalate from ethene

Outline the steps involved in the following transformation: $\ce{C2H4}$ to $\ce{(COOC2H5)2}$ (diethyl oxalate). I am familiar with the transformation of $\ce{C2H4}$ to ethyl acetate $\ce{CH3COOC2H5}$ ...
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Comparing the boiling points of common organic molecules

The order I was provided with is(comparing molecules of similar molecular mass from each); alkanes< ethers< esters< aldehydes< ketones<< alcohols<< carboxylic acids<< ...
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1answer
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Why do terminal alkynes have lower pKa values than non-terminal alkynes?

We were asked in class which have the lower $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a}$ values: terminal alkynes or non-terminal alkynes. The teacher told that terminal alkynes have the lowest $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a}$ ...
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1answer
81 views

Epoxidation for dienes [duplicate]

I have been asked to determine the major product for the reaction: From the reagent given, one can tell that this is an epoxidation reaction. But, as only one mole of the peroxyacid is given, ...
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Does syn-dihydroxylation form racemic mixture?

I have been asked to determine the nature of the product for the following reaction: And as I recognized this reaction to be a case of syn-dihydroxylation, my obvious response was that the product ...
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Does optical isomerism fall under the category of stereoisomerism?

I have been asked to find the total number of dichlorination products (including stereoisomers) for the following reaction: I have figured out nine possible structures out of which two are optically ...
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What happens when tran-2-butene reacts with aqueous bromine in the presence of chloride?

$\ce{Br2-H2O}$, containing some $\ce{NaCl,AlCl3}$ ? I initially though that there would be anti addition of Br and OH to give 3-Bromobutan-2-ol but then I also got the intuition that NaCl might ...
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Alkyl halides that do not undergo Wurtz reaction [duplicate]

I am aware that there are many limitations to the Wurtz reaction, notably the inability of 3° Halides to undergo SN² substitution. Instead, they undergo elimination. I came across a compound, 4-...
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How would we arrange these in the increasing order of stability? [duplicate]

Here we have three isomers of butene there structure of who I have attached: cis-butene trans-butene iso-butene I was able to figure out that the trans isomer would obviously be more stable than the ...
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1answer
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Why are functional groups a part of hydrocarbons? [closed]

So, I was asked a very innocent question by my friend that all hydrocarbons are defined as compounds made up entirely of hydrogen and carbon(which can be confirmed by going to any educational site ...
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Stability of a carbanion that is attached to three phenyl groups

I had come across a question - which asked me to predict the stability of a carbanion attached to 3 phenyl rings, in opposed to one in which the same 3 phenyl rings that are attached to the carbanion ...
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1answer
289 views

What is the carbon content, by weight, of vegetable oil?

I have only a high school understanding of chemistry, so please bear with me and my ham-fisted question. I’m trying to understand the carbon content in vegetable oil. I get that various oils have ...
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Why there is no sp2s hybridization in hydrocarbons? [closed]

If carbon's $\mathrm{sp^2}$ orbital is overlapped with hydrogen's $\mathrm{s},$ then why it is $\mathrm{sp^2}$ and why not $\mathrm{sp^2s}?$

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