Questions tagged [hybridization]

Hybridisation is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals to form new hybrid orbitals suitable for the qualitative description of atomic bonding properties.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
0
votes
1answer
2k views

What is the hybridization of chromium in chromate and dichromate ions?

I was recently reading about the transition metals and some important compounds of them. I came across a rather interesting diagram in my book... a tetrahedral structure for the chromate ion. The only ...
0
votes
1answer
530 views

Hybridization of carbon atoms present in the smallest ester?

I found this question in the Resonance DLPD Organic Chemistry book on Page 55: What is the hybridization of carbon atoms present in the smallest ester? The smallest ester as far as I know is ...
0
votes
1answer
91 views

Hybridization and excitation of electrons, how is it possible?

When studying the structures of molecules by hybridization why we take into consideration of excitation of electron if the excited electron only stays in the upper shell by absorbing for only 10^-8 ...
0
votes
2answers
651 views

Resemblance of molecular orbital formed by mixing of s and p orbitals to hybridised sp orbital

See the following two images. I think that the two orbitals should not resemble each other because s and p orbitals overlap in different fashions in the two cases. In the case of sp hybrid orbital, ...
0
votes
1answer
4k views

Why does NCl3 use sp³ hybrid orbitals?

I have a question regarding the hybridization of $\ce{NCl3}$. From what I've understood, hybridization occurs when electrons belonging to different orbitals mix. For example an electron belonging to ...
0
votes
1answer
66 views

What is the derivation of the formula for finding number of pure and hybrid orbital?

I am studying Organic Chemistry. Recently I came up with the formula for finding number of pure and hybrid orbital that can be present in a organic compound. That is: Number of Hybrid Orbital = ...
0
votes
1answer
2k views

Structure of phosphate ion [duplicate]

I understand that the hybridization in the phosphate ion is $\mathrm{sp^3}$ since phosphorous forms $4$ sigma bonds with $4$ of the oxygens and there are no lone pairs on the phosphorous atom. The ...
0
votes
1answer
355 views

Hybridisation and bond strength

I'm a high school student with minimal mathematical knowledge about the theory of chemical bond. (I just have a bit of theoretical background). I came across a statement which stated that "The more is ...
0
votes
1answer
2k views

Need for hybridization

I have learned hybridisation as a concept created to explain the same $\ce{C-H}$ bond lengths in $\ce{CH4}$. I found it easy to find the type of hybridisation in different molecules, but my problem ...
0
votes
1answer
202 views

Are there any strategies to determine bond order and hybridization rankings without drawing the Lewis Structure?

I'm not Chemist. I'm taking a chemistry class in college, and the test review contains many questions where I'm asked to rank from least to greatest based on bond order, polarity, and bond angles. I ...
0
votes
1answer
870 views

What are the height and width of the large and small nodes of the sp3 hybridized orbitals of carbon and silicon?

I will make an effort to interpret answers based on wave functions, but I am a senior pursuing a bachelor's degree in Biology, so I don't have the background in quantum physics for a purely ...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

Acid and Salt Reaction [closed]

What is the name given to the reaction between an acid and salt? For example, the reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate salt, is there a specific name for these type of reactions.
0
votes
0answers
49 views

What is the hybridisation in HCN molecule?

According to VSEPR theory hybridisation of the central atom should be sp. However, my teacher says that there exists a near-100% s-character in the carbon orbital that bonds with hydrogen due to some ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

Electronegativity of elements on pauling scale

When we say the electronegativity of Nitrogen is 3.04 ( on pauling scale ) what is the hybridisation of Nitrogen? Similarly for other elements?
0
votes
1answer
85 views

Confusion about hybridization terminology

I was just introduced to the concept of orbital hybridization. I believe I understand the idea behind it, but there is some accompanying terminology that prevents me from achieving a greater ...
0
votes
0answers
157 views

Why do the d orbitals contract when pairing of electrons start, because the size should increase due to increase in energy

The energy of an orbital is proportional to its mean radial distance, and since the 3d orbital is much larger it is much higher in energy than the 3s and 3p orbitals All references from JD Lee ...
0
votes
0answers
35 views

Why does hybridization produce a more stable structure? [duplicate]

I am aware of the fact that hybridization does not ALWAYS produce a stable structure (example: PH3) However, my question is, what makes hybrid orbitals so effective in forming stable bonds? Although ...
0
votes
0answers
43 views

Reason behind hybridisation [duplicate]

I have been taught that orbitals can overlap only when all of them are in the same energy state. That is the reason why the orbitals hybridise in a kind of 'mixing up' and give rise to orbitals having ...
0
votes
0answers
137 views

Why are d(xy),d(yz) and d(xz) orbitals involved in d³s hybridisation?

Shouldn't d(x²-y²) dxy and dz² orbitals participate? Since this corressponds to the best case overlap? What factors decide the participating orbitals in hybridisation? P.S I am well versed with the ...
0
votes
0answers
197 views

What is the electronic structure of Mn in KMnO4 and K2MnO4?

I know that is is d3s hybrid. But in my book it is unclear which orbitals participate in pi bond with O. I think it should be both p and d orbitals of Mn that do.
0
votes
0answers
113 views

How to Choose Orbitals for Hybridization

Recently, I was reviewing my textbook regarding orbital hybridization, and one of the problems was to determine the hybridization of each of the atoms in $\text{CO}_2$. I understand why the ...
0
votes
1answer
681 views

Why Bond Angle is different? [duplicate]

H2O has two lone pair electron and H2S also have two lone pair electron but Bond Angle in H2O is 104.5° but H2S has 92.12°bond Angle . Both H2O and H2S has same hybridization ,which is sp3 and i know ...
0
votes
0answers
831 views

Deciding if a molecule is polar and non-polar in cyclic carbon compounds

While discussing about dipole moment of the compounds, our chemistry teacher told that the dipole moment will be 0 for 1,4-Dichlorobenzen, and for those compounds where same atoms or group of atoms ...
0
votes
0answers
76 views

Why is the hydbridization of the N atom (rightmost) in diazomethane sp and not sp2? [duplicate]

Why is the hydbridization of the $N$ atom (rightmost) in diazomethane $sp$ and not $sp^2$ ? Most books claim that the negative charge (electron pair) of nitrogen can participate in resonance and is ...
0
votes
0answers
103 views

Why is an alkenyl hydrogen more acidic than the alkyl analog?

For example, in ethene the sigma bonds are stronger overall than in ethane. ...
0
votes
1answer
17k views

What is the hybridisation in BrF5 [duplicate]

What is the hybridisation of $\ce{BrF5}$ ? I find different sources giving different answers. When I approach this problem , I don't find any exceptional case like $\ce{SH6}$ (in which hybridisation ...
0
votes
0answers
543 views

How to explain shape of molecules in penta and hexa coordination if hybridization involving d-orbitals (in main block) is considered incorrect?

In this answer @Jan says: penta- and hexacoordination; tetracoordination with additional lone pairs and related: attempt to form as many normal bonds with p orbitals as possible; keep one lone ...
0
votes
0answers
31 views

Band gap difference in different allotropes of Group4 materials

Diamond and bulk Si are both Group 4 elements found in their $sp^3$ hybridized states, having bandgaps of around 5.3eV and 1.1eV respectively, but Graphene and Silicene are both $sp^2$ hybridized ...
0
votes
0answers
2k views

Which d orbitals are used in sp3d3 hybridisation? [duplicate]

What d orbitals are used in the hybridisation of the molecule $\ce{IF7}$. I know the hybrid state of Iodine is $sp^3d^3$ i.e. 3d orbitals are involved in hybridisation. Some say they are $d_{(xy)}, ...
0
votes
0answers
127 views

Hybrid orbitals in molecular orbitals

In our textbook there are two topics that I can't make connection between: hybrid orbitals which (as I understand) are used to demonstrate the spacial shape of molecules like CH4 with VSEPR while ...
0
votes
0answers
53 views

If I have an alloy of two materials, will I have a chemical reaction between the two materials

I have always been told that an alloy is a mixture without chemical interference between the materials, but if I look at highly doped silicon (doped with Aluminum via ion implantation and then lattice ...
0
votes
0answers
211 views

Finding Hybridization of Certain Atoms in Lewis Structure [duplicate]

So, I'm having trouble with this problem. We're given this incomplete lewis structure and asked to find the hybridization of 3 of the atoms. I figured that the labelled Cl would be sp3 because of it'...
0
votes
0answers
1k views

What type of hybridization does phosphorus have in P2O5?

I'm inclined to think that P has a $dsp$ hybridization in that compound, because it makes 5 bonds and 2 of them are $\pi$ bonds - with oxygen. However, I found in some websites that it may have $sp^2$ ...
0
votes
0answers
91 views

Explanation of Bent's Rule [duplicate]

Why does the %s character increase on the orbital with electropositive atom? I do not seem to properly grasp this concept. Is this rule based on observation or is there any proof to it? If there is a ...
-1
votes
1answer
2k views

Why is sulfur unhybridized in dimethyl sulfide?

In which of the following molecules is the central atom unhybridized: (a) $\ce{S(CH3)2}$ (b) $\ce{SO2}$ (c) $\ce{SiH4}$ (b) $\ce{PCl3}$ The answer given is (a), but I can't figure out ...
-1
votes
1answer
245 views

Hybridised orbitals

What determines which type of hybridisation (sp3/sp2/sp) a molecule will take? Methane/ethylene/acetylene all have the same electron configuration but undergo different different types of ...
-1
votes
2answers
478 views

T-shaped and Seesaw geometry hybridization

Why are the filled orbitals s and px (in the T-shaped case) also part of the hybrid orbitals of the central atom in sp3d hybridization? In other words, why should the hybrid orbital not be a p3d, for ...
-1
votes
1answer
209 views

How many equal Xe–O bond length are present in (XeO_6)-3? [closed]

I tried to solve this problem by drawing a structure but the structure did not give me any answer and I was not able to draw the proper structure please help me out.
-1
votes
1answer
49 views

What is the maximum number of hybrid orbitals an atom can have? [closed]

What is the maximum number of hybrid orbitals and atom can have? It is usually seen that an atom does not have more than 6 hybrid orbitals. Why is it so?
-1
votes
1answer
44 views

Acidity order checking

Why is Methanol more acidic than Ethanol eventhough the conjugate base of Ethanol is stabilised by hyperconjugation?
-1
votes
2answers
55 views

Why does a substance such as methane have 4 sp3 orbitals rather than 3 orbitals [closed]

I have been learning about SP3 hybridisation and slightly confused why it it results in 4 sp3 orbitals. My understanding is this... The S orbital is spherical and uniform whilst the p orbitals are ...
-1
votes
1answer
527 views

Resonance in Organic Compound

Is the pi bond of a $\ce{sp}$ hybridised carbon in conjugation with another π-bond capable of resonance? Examples: $\ce{={C}=C-C=}$ $\ce{#{C}-C=}$ Is resonance possible?
-1
votes
1answer
8k views

Number of F-Br-F angle of 90 degree in BrF5?

I faced a question like this: The number of $90$ degree $\ce{F-Br-F}$ angle in $\ce{BrF5}$ according to VSEPR theory is: The answer is given $0$ or $8$. I know $\ce{BrF5}$ has $\pu{sp3d2}$ ...
-1
votes
1answer
832 views

Hybridization and excitation of electrons

In case of hybridization of PCl5 why does the electron move to 3d orbital though 4s orbital has a lower energy?
-1
votes
1answer
1k views

Hybridization in Oxygen and Nitrogen

What is the proper orbital hybridization O and N in $\ce{H_2O}$ and $\ce{NH_3}$? The rules say that they are sp and sp2 hybridized, respectively, but some sources say both are sp3. I have problems ...
-1
votes
2answers
10k views

Energy required to break single bond vs double bond vs triple bond of a carbon atom in an organic molecule

Assuming every other conditions are the same, what would be the comparison of energy required to break single bond, double bond and triple bond of a carbon atom in an organic molecule?
-1
votes
1answer
144 views

Can buta-1,3-diyne show conjugation in both the unhybridised p orbitals?

As 2nd carbon and 3rd carbon of butadiyne are sp hybridized so there are two unhybridised p orbital mutually perpendicular to each other in each of carbon atom also these two orbitals are separated ...
-1
votes
1answer
183 views

What is the difference between carbon in an excited state and with sp³ hybridization?

What is the difference between the carbon in the excited state, $\ce{[(1s)^2] (2s)^1 (2p)^3}$, and $\pu{sp^3}$ hybridization?
-1
votes
1answer
611 views

Question about hybridization

So, I was wondering that how can a methane molecule form 4 sp3 hybrid orbitals, with each hybrid orbital containing one s and three p orbitals. In four of such sp3 hybrid orbitals, it makes a total of ...
-1
votes
2answers
2k views

sp3 hybridisation in carbon

Before $\ce{sp^3}$ hybridisation, does the $\ce{C}$ -atom get excited to $\ce{1s^2~2s^1~2p^3}$ state, as it happens before $\ce{sp^2}$ hybridisation? What is the energy of the $\ce{sp^3}$ hybridised ...

1
3 4 5
6
7