Questions tagged [hybridization]

Hybridisation is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals to form new hybrid orbitals suitable for the qualitative description of atomic bonding properties.

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Why does the orbital occupying more space around the central atom have higher s character?

Originally I had thought that Bents Rule stated that more electronegative atoms prefer to stay in the axial position. But later I came to know that this works only for Trigonal Bipyramidal Geometry. ...
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Are sp, sp2, and sp3 hybridisation only relevant to the carbon atom?

When we are talking about $\mathrm{sp, sp^2}$ and $\mathrm{sp^3}$ hybridisation, is it only relevant to the carbon atom only? For the following molecules: Acetone (propanone), Acetic acid (ethanoic ...
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Why Bond Angle is different? [duplicate]

H2O has two lone pair electron and H2S also have two lone pair electron but Bond Angle in H2O is 104.5° but H2S has 92.12°bond Angle . Both H2O and H2S has same hybridization ,which is sp3 and i know ...
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Deciding if a molecule is polar and non-polar in cyclic carbon compounds

While discussing about dipole moment of the compounds, our chemistry teacher told that the dipole moment will be 0 for 1,4-Dichlorobenzen, and for those compounds where same atoms or group of atoms ...
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Why is the hydbridization of the N atom (rightmost) in diazomethane sp and not sp2? [duplicate]

Why is the hydbridization of the $N$ atom (rightmost) in diazomethane $sp$ and not $sp^2$ ? Most books claim that the negative charge (electron pair) of nitrogen can participate in resonance and is ...
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Why is an alkenyl hydrogen more acidic than the alkyl analog?

For example, in ethene the sigma bonds are stronger overall than in ethane. ...
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What is the hybridisation in BrF5 [duplicate]

What is the hybridisation of $\ce{BrF5}$ ? I find different sources giving different answers. When I approach this problem , I don't find any exceptional case like $\ce{SH6}$ (in which hybridisation ...
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How to explain shape of molecules in penta and hexa coordination if hybridization involving d-orbitals (in main block) is considered incorrect?

In this answer @Jan says: penta- and hexacoordination; tetracoordination with additional lone pairs and related: attempt to form as many normal bonds with p orbitals as possible; keep one lone ...
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Band gap difference in different allotropes of Group4 materials

Diamond and bulk Si are both Group 4 elements found in their $sp^3$ hybridized states, having bandgaps of around 5.3eV and 1.1eV respectively, but Graphene and Silicene are both $sp^2$ hybridized ...
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Which d orbitals are used in sp3d3 hybridisation? [duplicate]

What d orbitals are used in the hybridisation of the molecule $\ce{IF7}$. I know the hybrid state of Iodine is $sp^3d^3$ i.e. 3d orbitals are involved in hybridisation. Some say they are $d_{(xy)}, ...
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Hybrid orbitals in molecular orbitals

In our textbook there are two topics that I can't make connection between: hybrid orbitals which (as I understand) are used to demonstrate the spacial shape of molecules like CH4 with VSEPR while ...
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If I have an alloy of two materials, will I have a chemical reaction between the two materials

I have always been told that an alloy is a mixture without chemical interference between the materials, but if I look at highly doped silicon (doped with Aluminum via ion implantation and then lattice ...
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Finding Hybridization of Certain Atoms in Lewis Structure [duplicate]

So, I'm having trouble with this problem. We're given this incomplete lewis structure and asked to find the hybridization of 3 of the atoms. I figured that the labelled Cl would be sp3 because of it'...
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What type of hybridization does phosphorus have in P2O5?

I'm inclined to think that P has a $dsp$ hybridization in that compound, because it makes 5 bonds and 2 of them are $\pi$ bonds - with oxygen. However, I found in some websites that it may have $sp^2$ ...
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Explanation of Bent's Rule [duplicate]

Why does the %s character increase on the orbital with electropositive atom? I do not seem to properly grasp this concept. Is this rule based on observation or is there any proof to it? If there is a ...
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Why is sulfur unhybridized in dimethyl sulfide?

In which of the following molecules is the central atom unhybridized: (a) $\ce{S(CH3)2}$ (b) $\ce{SO2}$ (c) $\ce{SiH4}$ (b) $\ce{PCl3}$ The answer given is (a), but I can't figure out ...
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Determine the bond angle in a compound [closed]

How can we find the bond angle between 3 atoms in a compound? Please specify an equation which can be used for all compounds.
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Hybridised orbitals

What determines which type of hybridisation (sp3/sp2/sp) a molecule will take? Methane/ethylene/acetylene all have the same electron configuration but undergo different different types of ...
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T-shaped and Seesaw geometry hybridization

Why are the filled orbitals s and px (in the T-shaped case) also part of the hybrid orbitals of the central atom in sp3d hybridization? In other words, why should the hybrid orbital not be a p3d, for ...
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How many equal Xe–O bond length are present in (XeO_6)-3? [closed]

I tried to solve this problem by drawing a structure but the structure did not give me any answer and I was not able to draw the proper structure please help me out.
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Resonance in Organic Compound

Is the pi bond of a $\ce{sp}$ hybridised carbon in conjugation with another π-bond capable of resonance? Examples: $\ce{={C}=C-C=}$ $\ce{#{C}-C=}$ Is resonance possible?
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Hybridization in Oxygen and Nitrogen

What is the proper orbital hybridization O and N in $\ce{H_2O}$ and $\ce{NH_3}$? The rules say that they are sp and sp2 hybridized, respectively, but some sources say both are sp3. I have problems ...
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Energy required to break single bond vs double bond vs triple bond of a carbon atom in an organic molecule

Assuming every other conditions are the same, what would be the comparison of energy required to break single bond, double bond and triple bond of a carbon atom in an organic molecule?
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What is the difference between carbon in an excited state and with sp³ hybridization?

What is the difference between the carbon in the excited state, $\ce{[(1s)^2] (2s)^1 (2p)^3}$, and $\pu{sp^3}$ hybridization?
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Question about hybridization

So, I was wondering that how can a methane molecule form 4 sp3 hybrid orbitals, with each hybrid orbital containing one s and three p orbitals. In four of such sp3 hybrid orbitals, it makes a total of ...
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Number of F-Br-F angle of 90 degree in BrF5?

I faced a question like this: The number of $90$ degree $\ce{F-Br-F}$ angle in $\ce{BrF5}$ according to VSEPR theory is: The answer is given $0$ or $8$. I know $\ce{BrF5}$ has $\pu{sp3d2}$ ...
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736 views

Hybridization and excitation of electrons

In case of hybridization of PCl5 why does the electron move to 3d orbital though 4s orbital has a lower energy?
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sp3 hybridisation in carbon

Before $\ce{sp^3}$ hybridisation, does the $\ce{C}$ -atom get excited to $\ce{1s^2~2s^1~2p^3}$ state, as it happens before $\ce{sp^2}$ hybridisation? What is the energy of the $\ce{sp^3}$ hybridised ...
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Perpendicular orbitals in aryl and vinyl carbocations? [duplicate]

This point (iv) has been given under reasons for extremely low reactivity of aryl and vinyl halides. I cannot understand it. First of all, isn't the positive carbon atom in phenyl as well as vinyl ...
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100 views

Stability of Arsenic Pentafluoride [closed]

How is the above mentioned compound stable enough to occur naturally? Also, I've read that it's a covalent compound with a Trigonal Bipyramidal Structure. The Arsenic atom is $sp^3d$ hybridized. ...
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514 views

Molecular geometry of acetylene

I need to determine the molecular geometry of acetylene, for this I have performed the following procedure: First, we represent the correct Lewis structure. Remember that the Lewis structure is a ...
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58 views

Is fluorine also hybridised in carbon tetrafluoride?

I had read that when an atom forms multiple bonds, it hybridises it's orbitals to minimise the repulsion and decrease the overall energy. But do the terminal atoms also exist in hybridised form? E.g. ...
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407 views

Why does NH3 hybridize at all?

So in Chemistry class I've been taught that hybridization is a way we can explain things such as how $\ce{CH4}$, for example, forms four, equally strong bonds. However at the same time I'm told that ...
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Meaning of carbon hybridization [closed]

What do we mean when we talk about carbon hybridization? I'm trying to understand how it works, what is the difference between non-hybridized and hybridized carbon?