Questions tagged [hybridization]

Hybridisation is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals to form new hybrid orbitals suitable for the qualitative description of atomic bonding properties.

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Doesn't the fact that the lone pair on the nitrogen in amides occupy a p orbital contradict Hund's rules?

Since the $\ce{sp^2}$ hybridized orbitals are lower in energy than the p orbital shouldn't the $\ce{sp^2}$ orbitals fill first? Why is this not the case - two electrons fill the p orbitals while all ...
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Magnetic nature of tetraamminedichlorocobalt(III) chloride

I know how to predict magnetic nature when the compound contains only strong field or only weak field ligands. But in $\ce{[Co(NH3)4Cl2]Cl},$ $\ce{NH3}$ is a strong ligand whereas $\ce{Cl-}$ is a weak ...
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Do all sigma bonds are stronger than pi bonds? [closed]

Many textbooks refer that sigma bonds are stronger than pi bonds . But each individual bond ( between different atoms) have different bond energy. So how we know for sure that every possible sigma ...
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508 views

How does hybridisation affect an otherwise chiral centre? [closed]

In basic theory, a carbon atom with four nonidentical substituents attached, makes a chiral centre. Thus any molecule is chiral as long as it has a chiral centre (except meso compounds). I thought ...
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Polarity of xenon fluoride

The structure of xenon fluoride is a capped octahedron. The lone pair is stereochemically active, i.e. it will rotate about. The dipole moments of the axial fluorides will get cancelled, and so will ...
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Can Carbon Form bonds without Hybridization?

Carbon has two electrons in its p orbital which should be able to form bonds, are there any examples in which this occurs instead of carbon hybridizing before bonding?
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Structure of OSF4

Recently I had given a test where I was asked to specify the hybridisation of $\ce{OSF4}$ and its structure. I guessed that the structure would be trigonal bipyramidal, but I was unsure since I hadn't ...
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Why does basicity go down along the group 15 hydrides? [duplicate]

As we go down Group 15, the sizes of atoms increase and these are the central atoms in their corresponding hydrides. Shouldn't the large size of central atom (in case of $\ce{Bi}$) actually help the ...
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Are sp, sp2, and sp3 hybridisation only relevant to the carbon atom?

When we are talking about $\mathrm{sp, sp^2}$ and $\mathrm{sp^3}$ hybridisation, is it only relevant to the carbon atom only? For the following molecules: Acetone (propanone), acetic acid (ethanoic ...
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Geometry of tetrabromidomanganate(II)

What is geometry and hybridization of $\ce{[MnBr4]^2-}$ for $\ce{Mn}$ ($Z = 25$)? I am not sure if it is tetrahedral or square planar. I assumed $\ce{Br}$ is a weak ligand and got its geometry to be ...
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Bond lengths in hydrocarbons

It seems like the first molecule has a bond order of $1$, the second and third have a bond order of $7/6$ and the fourth molecule has a bond order of $3/2$. Why is the answer not $4 < 2 = 3 < 1$?...
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Comparing C=O bond length in CO2 and CH2O

Why is the C=O bond in $\ce{CO2}$ shorter than that in $\ce{CH2O}$? How can I use hybridisation theory to explain this?
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Why do we excite electrons before hybridisation?

In case of hybridisation like $\mathrm{sp^3}$ hybridisation of carbon or nitrogen why do we excite electrons before hybridisation? Why couldn't we just mix orbitals without exciting electrons?
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Hybridization of oxygen in Nitrate ion and the location/bond of nitrogen's lone pair

I have tried to apply the rules and basics that I learnt so far. But I am confused about the hybridization of oxygen atoms which are making the single bond in nitrate ion. Following are the steps I ...
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Order of priority in hybridization of d-orbitals

During hybridization of d-orbitals why the $d_{z^2}$ and $d_{x^2-y^2}$ orbitals are used up before the $d_{xy}$, $d_{yz}$ and $d_{zx}$ ?
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Mechanism of R-OH to R-X using SOCl2 [duplicate]

https://youtu.be/ANlXQdpv6cc?t=1006 In this lecture, I am learning on the reaction of alcohol to alkyl halide using SOCl2 and pyridine. However, there are 2 different approaches on the first step. ...
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What is the exact statement of Drago's rule? [duplicate]

While studying the topic of chemical bonding, I came across a statement given by my teacher: Elements of the third period and above do not show hybridisation. An example, in the case of $\ce{PH_3}$, $...
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Hybridization theory (orbitals used in different hybridizations)

Why is $d_{x²-y²}$ orbital used in $sp^3d$ (square pyramidal geometry) while $d_{z^2}$ orbital in $sp^3d$ (trigonal bipyramidal geometry)? I came across this information while reading J.D.Lee Concise ...
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If all bond angles in AX₃ are the same, then which of the following are correct conclusions about AX₃?

Question If all bond angles in $\ce{AX3}$ are the same, then which of the following are correct conclusions about $\ce{AX3}?$ (A) $\ce{AX3}$ must be polar. (B) $\ce{AX3}$ must be planar. (C) $\ce{AX3}...
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Reconciling electron configuration and valence electron distribution over separate energy levels in energy band theory [duplicate]

The electron configuration of a Silicon atom in its ground state is $\ce{1s^2 2s^2 2p^2 3s^2 3p^2}$, or equivalently, $\ce{[Ne] 3s^2 3p^2}$. When looking at the energy-level scheme of a silicon atom, ...
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Bond length comparison in substituted phosphorus pentahalide

What would be the comparison between $\ce{P-F}$ and $\ce{P-Cl}$ bond length in phosphorus tetrafluoride chloride $\ce{PF4Cl}$ and phosphorus trifluoride dichloride $\ce{PF3Cl2}$ in the equitorial ...
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Bent's rule: electronegativity and s character

I'm very much confused about Bent's rule. What I perceive from it is that more electronegative element occupies a position which has less s character. What I can infer from here is that s character ...
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Is Br sp³-hybridised in HBr?

$\ce{HBr}$ formation can be explained by simple orbital overlap as well as by $\mathrm{sp^3}$ hybridisation of $\ce{Br}.$ Can't we use dipole moment to find if the lone pairs on $\ce{Br}$ are mutually ...
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Are the dsp3 hybrid orbitals degenerate? [duplicate]

I learned in general chemistry that hybridization of n orbitals produces n hybrid orbitals with the same energy (degenerate). However, in Housecroft and Sharpe inorganic chemistry, I read the ...
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Dichlorine monoxide molecular geometry

I need to predict the geometry of Dichlorine monoxide, using the main link theory: Lewis model, VSEPR and hybridization of molecular orbitals. First, the Lewis structure is a graphical representation ...
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676 views

Why do transition metals make colored compounds despite the remaining d orbitals being hybridized? [closed]

I know that transition metals make colored compounds when they forms a bond with a ligand, as the ligand increases the energy level of $\ce{d_{x^2-y^2}}$ and $\ce{d_{z^2}}$ orbital by repelling these ...
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Molecule where an sp3 chalcogen is connected to an sp2 atom

I am looking for a small molecule where an $\mathrm{sp^3}$ atom from Group 16 (O, S, Se,...) is connected to an $\mathrm{sp^2}$ or resonant atom of another column? Background: The universal force ...
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Why does the size of hybrid orbitals vary as sp³>sp²>sp?

In my text book it said that Size of hybrid orbitals vary as sp³>sp²>sp Does this size variation in hybid orbitals means that S orbitals are smaller than P orbitals? But we know that larger the ...
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How to calculate steric number of methyl free radical?

According to the definition, steric number = number of atoms it is attached + lone pair. In that way, I get 4 for methyl free radical which means sp3 hybridization . But that's wrong ! Why is this ...
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Hybridisation in phosphorus allotropes

The white phosphorus has a tetrahedral structure, like this: [Image source: Wikipedia] The red phosphorus, on the other hand, has a polymeric structure: [Image source: google images] Then what ...
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The affect of effective nuclear charge on energy gap between subshells

A few days ago my teacher taught me about $\mathrm{d}$ orbital contraction. He said that in $\ce{SF6}$ the hybridization of sulphur is $\mathrm{sp^3d^2}$. He said that although the $\mathrm{d}$ ...
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Hybridisation of POCl3 [duplicate]

I was doing lewis structures and i came across a question asking the structure of POCl3. Here, the answer is a tetrahedral shape with P as central atom connected to 3Cl atoms by a single bond and 1 ...
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Why Don't Sulfur Atoms Hybridize?

I am doing some chemistry problems with given answers, and supposedly the $107^{\circ}$ and $92^{\circ}$ bond angles in $\ce{H_2O}$ and $\ce{H_2S}$, respectively, is due to the fact that"$\ce{O}$ uses ...
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Bond strength by Similar size or Overlap? [duplicate]

Which of the sp³-sp³ or sp³-sp² forms a more stronger bond.. As we know that former one will make weaker bond as both are larger orbitals but in latter one.. One is bigger and other smaller.. So ...
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How to tell which atoms are sp3 hybridized given the structure of a molecule? Confused specifically about given diagram

So this problem has me completely stumped. I get the general concept of hybridization but I have no clue how to apply it to this diagram. What are the atoms in the unlabelled areas such as f and h? ...
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Hybridization of Ester Oxygen [duplicate]

I'm on the email list of an Organic Chemistry help website, and they sent out this problem: http://orgomadesimple.com/june-9-email-practice-problem/ This got me thinking: What if the nitrogen here ...
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Determine which orbitals will form hybrids with one another

I've been teaching myself chemistry, so any help is greatly appreciated. I've been reading an online tutorial that claims the two orbitals that merge in Aluminum trihydride are 1 orbital of 2s and 2 ...
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Type of hybridisation

State the hybridisation of asterisked carbon in $\ce{CH3-CH=C^{✪}=CH2}$ I am not sure between $sp^2$ and $sp$ hybridization. Because of double bond I think it should be $sp^2$ but because of 2 $\pi$ ...
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Why is this PH3 considered to be an unhybridized molecule? [duplicate]

Also, don't hybrid orbitals appear in all molecules? The answer by "ron" says "the molecule can be viewed as being unhybridized": How does lone pair of a central atom affect the dipole moment?
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Why can't oxygen in furan be sp-hybridized?

From the Chem LibreTexts article on Aromaticity and the Huckel $4n + 2$ Rule: So far, you have encountered many carbon homocyclic rings, but compounds with elements other than carbon in the ring can ...
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sp2 hybridisation of alkyl radicals causing formation of racemic mixture

What I know about $\ce{^{.}CR3}$ radical is that it has both $\ce{sp^2}$ and $\ce{sp^3}$ character but the $\ce{sp^2}$ character dominates and so the radical is $\ce{sp^2}$ in nature. So, suppose we ...
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When finding hybridisation of atoms, why are double bonds and triple bonds only considered once?

To figure out what hybridization an atom has is to just count the number of atoms bonded to it and the number of lone pairs. Double and triple bonds still count as being only bonded to one atom. (...
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Determine the bond angle in a compound [closed]

How can we find the bond angle between 3 atoms in a compound? Please specify an equation which can be used for all compounds.
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Hybridization in ethene [closed]

I recently learned that there is such thing as a hybridization in chemistry, but I don't really get it. For example, in $\ce{C2H2}$ (Ethene), they say the there are 3 electrons in three ${sp^2}$ and ...
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VSEPR theory and hybridization in determining the shape of a molecule

Our chemistry teacher told us that both VSEPR theory (which says that the electron pairs in the valence shell of an atom arrange themselves in such a way that repulsions among them are minimized and ...
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Predicting electronic geometry, observable geometry, and hybridization for any atom in a molecule

Can someone please explain the intuition around the answers to this problem: I'm finding it very confusing because it seems like you have to nitpick between two resonance structures to get the ...
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Hybridisation of terminal nitrogen in diazomethane

I have a few questions about the terminal nitrogen (highlighted in red) in diazomethane, $\ce{CH2N2}$. Is that nitrogen $\mathrm{sp}$ or $\mathrm{sp^2}$ hybridised? What type of orbitals do the lone ...
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Backbonding in phosphorous pentoxide

I read this today in a book that $\ce{P=O}$ in $\ce{P4O10}$ consists of a coordinate bond and pπ-dπ backbonding, but why does this happen? Can't phosphorus share its lone pair with one of the lone ...
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Ethylene hybridization [duplicate]

In the carbon atom, there are electrons in 2s, 2Px, 2Py, and 2Pz. Out of these orbitals, only 2Px, 2Py, and 2s are hybridized. The 2Pz orbital is left. When making a bond there is a pi bond between ...
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Where does the energy required for excitation of electrons in hybridization come from?

We're commonly taught that when atoms want to hybridize in for instance methane, an electron is excited from $2s$ to $2p$ to allow for four unpaired electrons, which is necessary for bonding. Where ...

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