Questions tagged [hybridization]

Hybridisation is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals to form new hybrid orbitals suitable for the qualitative description of atomic bonding properties.

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Geometry of tetrabromidomanganate(II)

What is geometry and hybridization of $\ce{[MnBr4]^2-}$ for $\ce{Mn}$ ($Z = 25$)? I am not sure if it is tetrahedral or square planar. I assumed $\ce{Br}$ is a weak ligand and got its geometry to be ...
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Bond lengths in hydrocarbons

It seems like the first molecule has a bond order of $1$, the second and third have a bond order of $7/6$ and the fourth molecule has a bond order of $3/2$. Why is the answer not $4 < 2 = 3 < 1$?...
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Comparing C=O bond length in CO2 and CH2O

Why is the C=O bond in $\ce{CO2}$ shorter than that in $\ce{CH2O}$? How can I use hybridisation theory to explain this?
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Why do we excite electrons before hybridisation?

In case of hybridisation like $\mathrm{sp^3}$ hybridisation of carbon or nitrogen why do we excite electrons before hybridisation? Why couldn't we just mix orbitals without exciting electrons?
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Hybridization of oxygen in Nitrate ion and the location/bond of nitrogen's lone pair

I have tried to apply the rules and basics that I learnt so far. But I am confused about the hybridization of oxygen atoms which are making the single bond in nitrate ion. Following are the steps I ...
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Order of priority in hybridization of d-orbitals

During hybridization of d-orbitals why the $d_{z^2}$ and $d_{x^2-y^2}$ orbitals are used up before the $d_{xy}$, $d_{yz}$ and $d_{zx}$ ?
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Which substitutent should be placed on axial position in SCl2(OCH3)2?

According to Bent's rule, in $\mathrm{sp^3d}$ more electronegative element is placed on the axial position, so between $\ce{Cl}$ and $\ce{OCH3}$ in $\ce{SCl2(OCH3)2}$ which should be placed on axial ...
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Why do the d orbitals contract when pairing of electrons start, because the size should increase due to increase in energy

The energy of an orbital is proportional to its mean radial distance, and since the 3d orbital is much larger it is much higher in energy than the 3s and 3p orbitals All references from JD Lee ...
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Confusion Regarding Nitrogen Inversion

In nitrogen inversion, the lone pair changes its direction continuously. Does this in any way delocalize the charge density on the nitrogen making it less nucleophilic and less basic than another ...
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Are the dsp3 hybrid orbitals degenerate? [duplicate]

I learned in general chemistry that hybridization of n orbitals produces n hybrid orbitals with the same energy (degenerate). However, in Housecroft and Sharpe inorganic chemistry, I read the ...
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How do we recognise a Hybridised Sp3 orbital? [closed]

As far as i know the sp3 orbital is a combination of orbitals. But how do we know if we have a hybridised orbital or not?
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Dichlorine monoxide molecular geometry

I need to predict the geometry of Dichlorine monoxide, using the main link theory: Lewis model, VSEPR and hybridization of molecular orbitals. First, the Lewis structure is a graphical representation ...
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Why do transition metals make colored compounds despite the remaining d orbitals being hybridized? [closed]

I know that transition metals make colored compounds when they forms a bond with a ligand, as the ligand increases the energy level of $\ce{d_{x^2-y^2}}$ and $\ce{d_{z^2}}$ orbital by repelling these ...
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Molecule where an sp3 chalcogen is connected to an sp2 atom

I am looking for a small molecule where an $\mathrm{sp^3}$ atom from Group 16 (O, S, Se,...) is connected to an $\mathrm{sp^2}$ or resonant atom of another column? Background: The universal force ...
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How to calculate steric number of methyl free radical?

According to the definition, steric number = number of atoms it is attached + lone pair. In that way, I get 4 for methyl free radical which means sp3 hybridization . But that's wrong ! Why is this ...
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Hybridisation in phosphorus allotropes

The white phosphorus has a tetrahedral structure, like this: [Image source: Wikipedia] The red phosphorus, on the other hand, has a polymeric structure: [Image source: google images] Then what ...
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The affect of effective nuclear charge on energy gap between subshells

A few days ago my teacher taught me about $\mathrm{d}$ orbital contraction. He said that in $\ce{SF6}$ the hybridization of sulphur is $\mathrm{sp^3d^2}$. He said that although the $\mathrm{d}$ ...
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Hybridisation of POCl3 [duplicate]

I was doing lewis structures and i came across a question asking the structure of POCl3. Here, the answer is a tetrahedral shape with P as central atom connected to 3Cl atoms by a single bond and 1 ...
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Why Don't Sulfur Atoms Hybridize?

I am doing some chemistry problems with given answers, and supposedly the $107^{\circ}$ and $92^{\circ}$ bond angles in $\ce{H_2O}$ and $\ce{H_2S}$, respectively, is due to the fact that"$\ce{O}$ uses ...
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Bond strength by Similar size or Overlap? [duplicate]

Which of the sp³-sp³ or sp³-sp² forms a more stronger bond.. As we know that former one will make weaker bond as both are larger orbitals but in latter one.. One is bigger and other smaller.. So ...
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How to tell which atoms are sp3 hybridized given the structure of a molecule? Confused specifically about given diagram

So this problem has me completely stumped. I get the general concept of hybridization but I have no clue how to apply it to this diagram. What are the atoms in the unlabelled areas such as f and h? ...
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Hybridization of Ester Oxygen [duplicate]

I'm on the email list of an Organic Chemistry help website, and they sent out this problem: http://orgomadesimple.com/june-9-email-practice-problem/ This got me thinking: What if the nitrogen here ...
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Determine which orbitals will form hybrids with one another

I've been teaching myself chemistry, so any help is greatly appreciated. I've been reading an online tutorial that claims the two orbitals that merge in Aluminum trihydride are 1 orbital of 2s and 2 ...
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Why does the size of hybrid orbitals vary as sp³>sp²>sp?

In my text book it said that Size of hybrid orbitals vary as sp³>sp²>sp Does this size variation in hybid orbitals means that S orbitals are smaller than P orbitals? But we know that larger the ...
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Why is this PH3 considered to be an unhybridized molecule? [duplicate]

Also, don't hybrid orbitals appear in all molecules? The answer by "ron" says "the molecule can be viewed as being unhybridized": How does lone pair of a central atom affect the dipole moment?
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Why can't oxygen in furan be sp-hybridized?

From the Chem LibreTexts article on Aromaticity and the Huckel $4n + 2$ Rule: So far, you have encountered many carbon homocyclic rings, but compounds with elements other than carbon in the ring ...
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When finding hybridisation of atoms, why are double bonds and triple bonds only considered once?

To figure out what hybridization an atom has is to just count the number of atoms bonded to it and the number of lone pairs. Double and triple bonds still count as being only bonded to one atom. (...
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Hybridization in ethene [closed]

I recently learned that there is such thing as a hybridization in chemistry, but I don't really get it. For example, in $\ce{C2H2}$ (Ethene), they say the there are 3 electrons in three ${sp^2}$ and ...
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VSEPR theory and hybridization in determining the shape of a molecule

Our chemistry teacher told us that both VSEPR theory (which says that the electron pairs in the valence shell of an atom arrange themselves in such a way that repulsions among them are minimized and ...
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Predicting electronic geometry, observable geometry, and hybridization for any atom in a molecule

Can someone please explain the intuition around the answers to this problem: I'm finding it very confusing because it seems like you have to nitpick between two resonance structures to get the ...
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Ethylene hybridization [duplicate]

In the carbon atom, there are electrons in 2s, 2Px, 2Py, and 2Pz. Out of these orbitals, only 2Px, 2Py, and 2s are hybridized. The 2Pz orbital is left. When making a bond there is a pi bond between ...
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Where does the energy required for excitation of electrons in hybridization come from?

We're commonly taught that when atoms want to hybridize in for instance methane, an electron is excited from $2s$ to $2p$ to allow for four unpaired electrons, which is necessary for bonding. Where ...
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What is the hybridization of chromium in chromate and dichromate ions?

I was recently reading about the transition metals and some important compounds of them. I came across a rather interesting diagram in my book... a tetrahedral structure for the chromate ion. The only ...
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Hybridization of carbon atoms present in the smallest ester?

I found this question in the Resonance DLPD Organic Chemistry book on Page 55: What is the hybridization of carbon atoms present in the smallest ester? The smallest ester as far as I know is ...
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Hybridization and excitation of electrons, how is it possible?

When studying the structures of molecules by hybridization why we take into consideration of excitation of electron if the excited electron only stays in the upper shell by absorbing for only 10^-8 ...
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Resemblance of molecular orbital formed by mixing of s and p orbitals to hybridised sp orbital

See the following two images. I think that the two orbitals should not resemble each other because s and p orbitals overlap in different fashions in the two cases. In the case of sp hybrid orbital, ...
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Why does NCl3 use sp³ hybrid orbitals?

I have a question regarding the hybridization of $\ce{NCl3}$. From what I've understood, hybridization occurs when electrons belonging to different orbitals mix. For example an electron belonging to ...
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Structure of phosphate ion [duplicate]

I understand that the hybridization in the phosphate ion is $\mathrm{sp^3}$ since phosphorous forms $4$ sigma bonds with $4$ of the oxygens and there are no lone pairs on the phosphorous atom. The ...
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Hybridisation and bond strength

I'm a high school student with minimal mathematical knowledge about the theory of chemical bond. (I just have a bit of theoretical background). I came across a statement which stated that "The more is ...
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Need for hybridization

I have learned hybridisation as a concept created to explain the same $\ce{C-H}$ bond lengths in $\ce{CH4}$. I found it easy to find the type of hybridisation in different molecules, but my problem ...
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Are there any strategies to determine bond order and hybridization rankings without drawing the Lewis Structure?

I'm not Chemist. I'm taking a chemistry class in college, and the test review contains many questions where I'm asked to rank from least to greatest based on bond order, polarity, and bond angles. I ...
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What are the height and width of the large and small nodes of the sp3 hybridized orbitals of carbon and silicon?

I will make an effort to interpret answers based on wave functions, but I am a senior pursuing a bachelor's degree in Biology, so I don't have the background in quantum physics for a purely ...
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Magnetic nature of tetraamminedichlorocobalt(III) chloride

I know how to predict magnetic nature when the compound contains only strong field or only weak field ligands. But in $\ce{[Co(NH3)4Cl2]Cl},$ $\ce{NH3}$ is a strong ligand whereas $\ce{Cl-}$ is a weak ...
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Why does hybridization produce a more stable structure? [duplicate]

I am aware of the fact that hybridization does not ALWAYS produce a stable structure (example: PH3) However, my question is, what makes hybrid orbitals so effective in forming stable bonds? Although ...
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Reason behind hybridisation [duplicate]

I have been taught that orbitals can overlap only when all of them are in the same energy state. That is the reason why the orbitals hybridise in a kind of 'mixing up' and give rise to orbitals having ...
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Why are d(xy),d(yz) and d(xz) orbitals involved in d³s hybridisation?

Shouldn't d(x²-y²) dxy and dz² orbitals participate? Since this corressponds to the best case overlap? What factors decide the participating orbitals in hybridisation? P.S I am well versed with the ...
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What is the electronic structure of Mn in KMnO4 and K2MnO4?

I know that is is d3s hybrid. But in my book it is unclear which orbitals participate in pi bond with O. I think it should be both p and d orbitals of Mn that do.
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How to Choose Orbitals for Hybridization

Recently, I was reviewing my textbook regarding orbital hybridization, and one of the problems was to determine the hybridization of each of the atoms in $\text{CO}_2$. I understand why the ...
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Why does the orbital occupying more space around the central atom have higher s character?

Originally I had thought that Bents Rule stated that more electronegative atoms prefer to stay in the axial position. But later I came to know that this works only for Trigonal Bipyramidal Geometry. ...
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Are sp, sp2, and sp3 hybridisation only relevant to the carbon atom?

When we are talking about $\mathrm{sp, sp^2}$ and $\mathrm{sp^3}$ hybridisation, is it only relevant to the carbon atom only? For the following molecules: Acetone (propanone), Acetic acid (ethanoic ...