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Questions tagged [hybridization]

Hybridisation is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals to form new hybrid orbitals suitable for the qualitative description of atomic bonding properties.

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Is the hybridization only related to atomic orbitals but not to the molecular orbitals?

What is Hybridization? (Spelling: Hybridisation (British English) / Hybridization (American English)) The hybridization is a concept that describes atomic orbitals. In other words: Hybridization ...
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Why allene cannot be described with an allyl system?

Why is it impossible in allene to have two pi-bonds in the same orientation? => Why isn't allene planar? (4 $p$ electrons are in two 2x2 $p$-orbitals) From my chemical intuition I would guess that ...
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Does tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8) have a nonzero dipole moment?

I've looked at and drawn the structure, and I originally felt that it would be nonpolar - as I believe all the dipoles would cancel out, but I'm not 100% sure. I might be too dependent on the fact ...
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How to find if the unpaired electron is placed in hybrid orbital or pure orbital in odd electron species?

Odd electron species contain an unpaired electron which can either be placed in hybrid orbital or in pure orbital. Example: In the case of $\ce{.CF3}$ radical, the unpaired electron is placed in $\...
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Why is triplet carbene sp2-hybridised?

Triplet carbene has a carbon with 6 electrons, of which 2 are unpaired. I would expect the carbon to be $\ce{sp}$ or $\ce{sp^3}$ hybridised and the two singly occupied orbitals to be degenerate. ...
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Hybridisation of ClO2

Find the hybridization as well identify the pπ-pπ as well as pπ-dπ bonds in $\ce{ClO2}$. $\ce{ClO2}$ has 2 $\sigma$ bonds, 1 lone pair, 2π bonds and 1 odd electron. Hybridisation is equal to number ...
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Is the phenyl cation or ethynylium more stable?

I recently gave an exam and I received an interesting question to which I believe the answer is wrong. Given two compounds, a benzene molecule with carbocation at one of its constituting carbon atoms ...
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What is the hybridization of terminal fluorine atoms in molecules like boron trifluoride?

What is the hybridisation of $\ce{F}$ in $\ce{BF3}$ or $\ce{CH3F}$ or $\ce{PF5}$ or $\ce{SF6}$? My book states that the p orbitals of fluorine overlaps, but I feel that sp3 hybridisation occurs in $\...
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Hybridization of sulfur in sulfur dioxide

One of the canonical structures for sulfur dioxide - $\ce{SO2}$ - has sulfur (with a lone electron pair) double bonded to each oxygen atom to form a total of 4 bonds for sulfur - which can be achieved ...
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Hybridization sp3 and sp2

When we calculate the electrons and orbital numbers in $\ce{CH4}$ $sp^3$ hybridization we have taken 3 electrons from $2p$ of $\ce{C}$ and 1 electron from $2s$ of $\ce{C}$ but in $\ce{C2H4}$ we have $...
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Why does hybridization significantly matter for organic chemistry?

I just recalled, and still see that almost every organic chemistry book starts with bonds, empahsizing hybridization. One thing is straight forward but the rest doesn't seem to connect well. The ...
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Hybrid orbitals forming molecular orbitals

My teacher showed me this diagram on how the hybrid orbitals of two atoms combine to form molecular orbitals. I was confused by this because I thought that VB and MO theories were two separate ...
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Are the triply-bonded carbons in pyridyne (and benzyne) sp-hybridised?

I was given this molecule (3,4-pyridyne) in a test: I had to find out if it had any atoms which had a hybridization state other than sp2. The solution said that it doesn't have any. But aren't the ...
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Geometries of methyl and silyl radicals

The $\ce{.CH3}$ radical is planar but the $\ce{.SiH3}$ radical is a trigonal pyramid. Why are they different? After all, $\ce{C}$ and $\ce{Si}$ are in the same group.
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Hybridization in PH3

Does $\ce{PH3}$ exhibit $\ce{sp^3}$ hybridization? Arguments against hybridization: $\ce{PH3}$ is less basic than $\ce{NH3}$. This jibes with the supposition that $\ce{PH3}$ keeps its lone pair in ...
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Theoretically, Which d orbital participates in sp3d and sp3d2?

This question is regarding the old way (inaccurate) $\ce{PCl5}$ and $\ce{SF6}$ are taught in elementary chemistry. In the crystal field splitting diagram for triagonal bypyramidal geometry, $\mathrm{...
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How to explain molecular geometry without the help of VSEPR, valence bond, or hybridization theories?

I was taught, at the high school level, how to rationalise molecular geometries with the help of VSEPR, valence bond, and hybridization theories. However, I have recently also come to know that these ...
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What is the hybridization state of the carbon atoms in [10]annulene?

I know that one of the more stable structures of [10]annulene or cyclodecapentaene is planar boat-shaped. But that means the hybridization state of the carbons must have changed to suit the geometry. ...
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Electron promotion in hybridisation: A misconception

Recently, I read through a short article on Nature Chemistry, written by Michelle Francl, titled "Talking to Pauling's ghost". The article talks about how electron promotion was never something that ...
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Structure and bonding in ClO2 [duplicate]

To draw the structure of $\ce{ClO2}$, I tried to find the hybridization of the central atom i.e $\ce{Cl}$. I figured out that there would be two $\ce{Cl - O}$ double bonds, which means $\ce{Cl}$ would ...
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π Bonding in Carbon Dioxide

I am fairly sure the first diagram I drew for carbon dioxide is wrong in terms of showing π bonding. This is because we use a π orbital twice, which isn't possible. The second diagram corrects this by ...
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Shape of sp³ hybrid orbital

I have a doubt regarding the shape of the $\mathrm{sp^3}$ hybridised orbital. I looked up for it on stackexchange and found a post where the guy said that where ever the orbitals interfere with ...
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How are the hybrid orbitals of sulfur hexafluoride shaped?

On the fluorine end the fluoride atoms are simply completing a $3p$ orbital. On the sulfur end one could posit a hybrid of one $3s$ orbital, two $3p$ orbitals and a three inner $2p$ orbitals. However,...
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Is this textbook bonding picture of hybridization in ethene wrong?

Regarding the above picture, why is the $\ce{C-C}$ $\sigma$ bond composed of two $\ce{sp^2}$ orbitals while the $\ce{C-H}$ $\sigma$ bonds composed of $\ce{sp^3}$ hybrid orbitals? I don't see why; I ...
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Difference between oxygens in a carboxylic acid?

I've been reading about MO theory and am wondering if the traditional model of carboxylic acids is correct. Usually, how it's presented is that the carbonyl carbon is doubly bonded to one oxygen and ...
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Change of electron spin in Carbon after Hybridization?

During bond formation in Carbon, one of the electrons from the 2s orbital jumps to one the empty p orbitals creating a hybrid orbital as seen in the figure below. Now clearly one electron from the 2s ...
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Hybridization of Na in [Na(H2O)6]+

In the complex ion $\ce{[Na(H2O)6]+}$, the sodium cation forms 6 coordinate bonds with water ligands. Typically this octahedral form is associated with $\mathrm{sp^3d^2}$ hybridization as far as I ...
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What is the hybridization of oxygen in furan?

I fail to understand why the hybridization of oxygen in furan is $\ce{sp^2}$. I think that since there are 2 bond pairs and two lone pairs so it should be $\ce{sp^3}$ hybridized? Is it to do with the ...
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Hybridisation of the negatively charged carbon atom in a carbanion

Given the carbanion, $\ce{R3C-}$, the carbon is $\mathrm{sp^3}$ hybridized, unless it is participating in resonance. This is clear from its steric number. However, I am having trouble in drawing its ...
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Bonding of the complex when both weak and strong field ligand are present

In the complex $\ce{[Ni(H2O)2(NH3)4]^2+}$ the magnetic moment ($\mu$) of $\ce{Ni}$ is – Zero $2.83~\mathrm{BM}$ $1.73~\mathrm{BM}$ $3.87~\mathrm{BM}$ It is easy to find the unpaired ...
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why do electron pairs not take axial positions in the VSEPR structure of ClF3? [duplicate]

when we make a Valence shell electron pair repulsion theory based structure for an molecule after calculating its hybridisation ; when we have to decide the positions of the ions we put them in such ...
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Length of C-H bonds in hybridized bonding orbitals

What is the effect of hybridization and double-bond formation on the rest of the atoms/molecules attached to the central atom? For example, in a benzene molecule, the Carbon-Carbon bonds are ...
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Why does sp2 hybridization imply adjacent sp2 hybridization?

EDIT: I misquoted my teacher; he said something more along the lines of: in conjugated systems, if an atom is $\ce{sp^2}$ hybridized, then every atom it is bound to is also $\ce{sp^2}$ hybridized. ...
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What is the hybridisation of CF3 free radical?

Having 3 sigma bonds in a similar manner to CH3 free radical it should also have hybridisation sp2. However, if we look at its shape, it is pyramidal and not planar unlike CH3 free radical(which is ...
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Hybridization, MOT and Paramagnetism

In what way can hybridization or molecular orbital theory be used to explain paramagnetism? For instance, when something is hybridized to make enough bonding electrons, do all the electrons end up ...
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Why an asymmetric geometry with sp3d and sp3d3 hybridization?

A molecule in which the central atom is $sp^3d^2$ hybridized ($\ce{SF_6}$), for example, acquires an octahedral shape, which can be explained by assuming that the hybrid orbitals arrange themselves to ...
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Do hybrid orbitals exist in unbonded molecules? What would they look like?

For example, the ground state of a neutral carbon atom could be notated as: $$ [\ce{He}] \underset{\ce{2s}}{[\uparrow \downarrow]} \underset{\ce{2p}}{[\uparrow \vert \uparrow \vert \; \;]} $$ I ...
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Chemical bonding with f orbitals

For the elements such as rhenium, osmium, iridium how probable is for electrons in the inner 4f orbitals to gain energy and take part in a molecular orbital (such as an $f^2 d^2 s p^3$ hybrid orbital) ...
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What is the hybridization of chlorine in vinyl chloride?

Is chlorine in vinyl chloride sp2 or sp3 hybridized? Calculating using steric number it is found to be sp3 hybridized. But according to I. L. Finar* it is sp2. *I.L. Finar: Organic chemistry Vol.1 ...
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η1 or sigma complex involving cyclopentadienyl anion

When $\ce{\eta^1-C5H5-}$ acts as a ligand, does the donor carbon become $sp^3$ hybridized, and would this be a sigma donor through sigma orbitals? Or, is it $sp^2$ where the lone pair is donated ...
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How can hybrid orbitals be equivalent?

How can hybrid orbitals be equivalent? Take, for example, $\mathrm{sp^3}$ hybridization. The wave functions of each hybrid orbitals are given by: \begin{align} \psi_1 &= \psi_s + \psi_{p_x} + \...
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Sulfur trioxide - vacant d-orbitals

Sulfur trioxide violates the octet rule. Upon drawing the Lewis dot structure for sulfur trioxide, we see that the central sulfur atom is bonded to three other oxygen atoms by double covalent bonds. ...
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The logic for hybridisation formula

Hybridisation for a molecule is given by: $$\frac{1}{2}(V + H - C + A)$$ Where, V = Number of valance electrons in central atom H = Number of surrounding monovalent atoms C = Cationic charge A = ...
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Through bond interaction in biradical dioxo compound and its correlation diagram

I'd like to investigate into the ring opening, the migratory reverse reaction of the electrocyclic ring-closure of Dimethyldioxirane: As a first question I'd like to ask if I have drawn the through ...
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Why is the F-F bond in fluorine a p p sigma bond?

Won't the lone pair s hybridize to sp3 making it an sp3 sp3 sigma bond? If it still is p p sigma bond what is the spatial location of the lone pairs?
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Coordination Numbers and Hybridization schemes of anions

Draw the molecular structures of (a) the borax anion, $\ce{[B4O5(OH)4]^2-}$ (b) the peroxoborate anion, $\ce{[B2(O2)2(OH)4]^2-}$ ...
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Unconventional hybridisation states

I just came across a table with interesting hybridisation schemes I have never seen before. The table is shown below. I was wondering if anyone could give me some examples of atoms in particular ...
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Is planarity really necessary for conjugation?

If we look at the $\ce{ClO4-}$ anion, the chlorine atom in it is sp3 hybridised. Hence, it has a tetrahedral structure in which conjugation shouldn't be possible, but while explaining the acidic ...
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Bent's rule for Sulfur trioxide and Sulfur dioxide

How is Bent's rule applied on $\ce{SO3}$ and $\ce{SO2}$? Bond length of $\ce{SO3}$ < $\ce{SO2}$. Is this a direct consequence of applying the Bent's rule?
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Hybridization of heteroatom

Why is the hybridization of oxygen in the seven membered ring pictured below $sp^3$, while the oxygen has a hybridization of $sp^2$ in the 5 membered ring? This also may be an error in the answer key ...