Questions tagged [hybridization]

Hybridisation is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals to form new hybrid orbitals suitable for the qualitative description of atomic bonding properties.

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Effects of orbital overlap and electronegativity on polarity of binary halogen acids

I have discerned these factors affecting orbital overlap: Symmetry Type of orbital Nodes along the internuclear axis $n$ quantum number of the atomic orbitals - the number of shells of electrons Size ...
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Nitric acid vs. chloric acid strength

Here the central chlorine atom is best described as $\ce{sp^3}$ hybridized. This makes sense; the molecule is pyramidal. Also, due to the molecule's pyramidal geometry, this rules out the possibility ...
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Are ther known compounds of Argon? What is their molecular geometry and hybridisation?

Can Argon hybridize orbitals and/or form covalent-like/ionic-like compounds? Is there any study of that? I would be happy to read concrete references. What kind of molecular geometries for argon ...
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Determining central atom in NCl3

Less electronegative atom is the central atom. $\ce{N}$ is more electronegative than $\ce{Cl}$ as $\ce{Cl}$ has larger atomic radius. So why in $\ce{NCl3}$, $\ce{N}$ is the central atom?
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Hybridization in Light of Resonance

According to this video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ns4Py96Bkn8&NR=1 1) Is this true? (You might recall I asked a similar question about $\ce{sp^2}$ hybridization implying $\ce{sp^2}$ ...
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sp3 hybridisation in carbon

Before $\ce{sp^3}$ hybridisation, does the $\ce{C}$ -atom get excited to $\ce{1s^2~2s^1~2p^3}$ state, as it happens before $\ce{sp^2}$ hybridisation? What is the energy of the $\ce{sp^3}$ hybridised ...
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π Bonding in Carbon Dioxide

I am fairly sure the first diagram I drew for carbon dioxide is wrong in terms of showing π bonding. This is because we use a π orbital twice, which isn't possible. The second diagram corrects this by ...
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Is this textbook bonding picture of hybridization in ethene wrong?

Regarding the above picture, why is the $\ce{C-C}$ $\sigma$ bond composed of two $\ce{sp^2}$ orbitals while the $\ce{C-H}$ $\sigma$ bonds composed of $\ce{sp^3}$ hybrid orbitals? I don't see why; I ...
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Why does sp2 hybridization imply adjacent sp2 hybridization?

EDIT: I misquoted my teacher; he said something more along the lines of: in conjugated systems, if an atom is $\ce{sp^2}$ hybridized, then every atom it is bound to is also $\ce{sp^2}$ hybridized. ...
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How do I find the hybridisation of the orbitals of carbon in a molecule? [duplicate]

What are hybridisation states of each carbon atom in the following compounds? $\ce{CH2=C=O}$ $\ce{CH3CH=CH2}$ $\ce{(CH3)2CO}$ $\ce{CH2=CHCN}$ $\ce{C6H6}$ How do I find the hybridisation of the ...
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Why does ammonia have sp hybridization?

Apparently it has $sp^3$ hybridization, but I don't understand why. Ammonia ($\ce{NH3}$) seems to me to not require $sp$ hybridization because all of its bond lengths are already equal. It has 3 ...
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Does the hybridization model gives us any further insight on Molecular Geometry?

It doesn't seem as though the hybridization model adds anything useful to the discussion of molecular geometry as predicted by the VSEPR model. It's just another way of labeling linear, trigonal ...
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Hybridisation of Mn in potassium permanganate

I'm clear with the concepts of crystal field theory. But I can't figure out the exact reason why the hybridisation of manganese in potassium permanganate ($\ce{KMnO4}$) is $\mathrm{d^3s}$. Can anyone ...
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Is hybridization used in ab initio valence bond calculation?

Many general chemistry textbooks introduced the concept "hybridization" to construct a symmetry-adapted VB-type wavefunction. In the textbooks, usually the minimal basis is used and without optimizing ...
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How can the Bonding in IF7 be explained using LCAO method?

I know that the VSEPR theory explains $\ce{IF_7}$ (iodine heptafluoride)'s structure as a pentagonal bi-pyramidal one. The valence bond theory can be used to say that it has $\mathrm{sp^3d^3}$ ...
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Predicting electronic geometry, observable geometry, and hybridization for any atom in a molecule

Can someone please explain the intuition around the answers to this problem: I'm finding it very confusing because it seems like you have to nitpick between two resonance structures to get the ...
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References to draw 3D molecules with directionality of non-bonding electron pairs and p-orbitals

My instructor has been drawing 3D molecules that show the directionality of non-bonding electron pairs and p-orbitals. I've been trying to find references online that show this process, but I'm having ...
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Hybridisation of the negatively charged carbon atom in a carbanion

Given the carbanion, $\ce{R3C-}$, the carbon is $\mathrm{sp^3}$ hybridized, unless it is participating in resonance. This is clear from its steric number. However, I am having trouble in drawing its ...
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Sulfur trioxide - vacant d-orbitals

Sulfur trioxide violates the octet rule. Upon drawing the Lewis dot structure for sulfur trioxide, we see that the central sulfur atom is bonded to three other oxygen atoms by double covalent bonds. ...
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What utility does the Tau bond model of orbital overlap have?

In his book on molecular orbital theory, Molecular Orbitals and Organic Chemical Reactions, Ian Fleming notes that Pauling formulated an early alternative model to Huckel theory for explaining the ...
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Energy required to break single bond vs double bond vs triple bond of a carbon atom in an organic molecule

Assuming every other conditions are the same, what would be the comparison of energy required to break single bond, double bond and triple bond of a carbon atom in an organic molecule?
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Why do compounds like SF6 and SF4 exist but SH6 and SH4 don't?

Both $\ce{SF6}$ and $\ce{SH6}$ and $\ce{SF4}$ and $\ce{SH4}$ have the same central atom and the same hybridization, but my teacher specifically mentioned that $\ce{SH6}$ and $\ce{SH4}$ don't exist. I'...
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How do I figure out the hybridization of a particular atom in a molecule?

I'm learning how to apply the VSEPR theory to Lewis structures and in my homework, I'm being asked to provide the hybridization of the central atom in each Lewis structure I've drawn. I've drawn out ...
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Why is this atom sp² hybridised? [duplicate]

I'm doing exercises on hybridisation, and I was given this molecule: I'm wondering about this (electron deficient) oxygen atom. My intuition says it should be ${sp^2}$ like the answer says, but ...
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How to rationalise the resonance structures and hybridisation of the nitrogen in a conjugated amine?

I was given the first structure, and then drew the other 5 resonance structures: First of all, are they correct? ChemBioDraw had some complaints, but as far as I can see there's the same number of ...
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Hybridization sp3 and sp2

When we calculate the electrons and orbital numbers in $\ce{CH4}$ $sp^3$ hybridization we have taken 3 electrons from $2p$ of $\ce{C}$ and 1 electron from $2s$ of $\ce{C}$ but in $\ce{C2H4}$ we have $...
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What is natural bond orbital theory used for?

My understanding is that the NBO methodology transforms the molecular orbital picture of a molecule into a collection of pairwise interactions (bond orbitals). This is obviously handy for didactic and ...
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Non-integer hybridization

I've known that hybridization in distorted geometries is not exactly $sp^3$ or $sp^2$ or whatever. For example, $\ce{PH3}$ has nearly pure $p$ orbitals in the $\ce{P-H}$ bond, and the lone pair is in ...
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What makes banana bonds possible in diborane?

Diborane has the interesting property of having two 3-centered bonds that are each held together by only 2 electrons (see the diagram below, from Wikipedia). These are known as "banana bonds." I'm ...
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Color of chromate and permanganate

I've heard quite a few times that the chromate and permanganate have a $d^3s$ configuration. Also, their colors arise due to a rapid switching of electrons between the oxygen and metal atoms. I don't ...