Questions tagged [hybridization]

Hybridisation is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals to form new hybrid orbitals suitable for the qualitative description of atomic bonding properties.

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Do hybrid orbitals exist in unbonded molecules? What would they look like?

For example, the ground state of a neutral carbon atom could be notated as: $$ [\ce{He}] \underset{\ce{2s}}{[\uparrow \downarrow]} \underset{\ce{2p}}{[\uparrow \vert \uparrow \vert \; \;]} $$ I ...
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How are the hybrid orbitals of sulfur hexafluoride shaped?

On the fluorine end the fluoride atoms are simply completing a $3p$ orbital. On the sulfur end one could posit a hybrid of one $3s$ orbital, two $3p$ orbitals and a three inner $2p$ orbitals. However,...
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What is the hybridisation of hydrogen in methane? [duplicate]

I am trying to understand hybridisation. In methane carbon has $\mathrm{sp^3}$ hybridisation, but what is the hybridisation of hydrogen? Is it $\mathrm{sp^3}$? If yes then why?
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Geometry of buta-1,3-dien-1-ol

Consider the molecular formula $\ce{CH2=CH-CH=CH-OH}$ $(\ce{C4H5OH})$. Tell the types of bond, hybridizations, bond angles and geometry of this compound. I didn't have any trouble with the first 3 ...
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d-orbital splittings in WS2 monolayer

The formerly degenerate $d$ orbitals of the tungsten atoms in the $\ce{WS2}$ monolayer are split into three groups: (1) $\mathrm{d}_{z^2}$, (2) $\mathrm{d}_{x^2-y^2}, \mathrm{d}_{xy}$ and (3) $\mathrm{...
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Why are axial bonds are longer than equatorial bond in sp3d hybridized atoms?

Why are axial bonds are longer than equatorial bond in case of $\mathrm{sp^3d}$ hybridization? I have done some research but I can't seem to find the answer.
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Hybridization and excitation of electrons

In case of hybridization of PCl5 why does the electron move to 3d orbital though 4s orbital has a lower energy?
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Hybridization of Cu2+ in tetraamminecopper(II) sulfate complex

$\ce{Cu^2+} $ has 9 electrons and the $\mathrm d$-orbital is almost completely filled (except for 1 electron vacancy), eventually forming $\mathrm{sp^3}$ hybrid orbitals, where each $\ce{NH3}$ donates ...
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Hybridization of sulfur in sulfur dioxide

One of the canonical structures for sulfur dioxide - $\ce{SO2}$ - has sulfur (with a lone electron pair) double bonded to each oxygen atom to form a total of 4 bonds for sulfur - which can be achieved ...
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Hybrid orbitals in molecular orbitals

In our textbook there are two topics that I can't make connection between: hybrid orbitals which (as I understand) are used to demonstrate the spacial shape of molecules like CH4 with VSEPR while ...
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Are the lone pairs in water equivalent?

I've read that the oxygen atom in water is $\mathrm{sp^2}$ hybridized, such that one of the oxygen lone pairs should be in an $\mathrm{sp^2}$ orbital and the other should be in a pure p atomic orbital....
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Geometry of tetrabromidomanganate(II)

What is geometry and hybridization of $\ce{[MnBr4]^2-}$ for $\ce{Mn}$ ($Z = 25$)? I am not sure if it is tetrahedral or square planar. I assumed $\ce{Br}$ is a weak ligand and got its geometry to be ...
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Hybridization of carbon in CO2

I know that if there exists a carbon atom with single bonds only (with other atoms),then it is $\mathrm{sp^3}$ hybridized. And if at least one of the bond is double bond then its $\mathrm{sp^2}$ ...
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Hybridization of nitrogen in a ring [closed]

Is there a well defined way to discern the hybridization of a nitrogen atom in ring, like pyrrole? How can you know whether the nitrogen's lone pair are in the conjugated system or not?
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Why is the lone pair of pyridine's nitrogen atom not part of the aromatic ring?

In pyrrole, the lone pair of electrons belonging to the nitrogen is part of the aromatic ring. However, in pyridine it is part of an sp2-hybridized orbital. Why can't it be in the p-orbital and take ...
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Why can't oxygen in furan be sp-hybridized?

From the Chem LibreTexts article on Aromaticity and the Huckel $4n + 2$ Rule: So far, you have encountered many carbon homocyclic rings, but compounds with elements other than carbon in the ring can ...
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Are there any strategies to determine bond order and hybridization rankings without drawing the Lewis Structure?

I'm not Chemist. I'm taking a chemistry class in college, and the test review contains many questions where I'm asked to rank from least to greatest based on bond order, polarity, and bond angles. I ...
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Bonding in Square Antiprismatic Compounds

Both $\ce{IF_8^-}$ and $\ce{XeF_8^{2-}}$ have (distorted) square antiprismatic geometries. I've been wondering how to explain the bonding in such compounds. Hypercoordinate bonding (as used to ...
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What is the hybridisation of trifluoromethyl free radical?

Having three σ bonds in a similar manner to $\ce{CH3^·}$ free radical, $\ce{CF3^·}$ should also have $\mathrm{sp^2}$ hybridisation. However, if we look at its shape, it is pyramidal and not planar ...
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Is the phenyl cation or ethynylium more stable?

I recently gave an exam and I received an interesting question to which I believe the answer is wrong. Given two compounds, a benzene molecule with carbocation at one of its constituting carbon atoms ...
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Why Don't Sulfur Atoms Hybridize?

I am doing some chemistry problems with given answers, and supposedly the $107^{\circ}$ and $92^{\circ}$ bond angles in $\ce{H_2O}$ and $\ce{H_2S}$, respectively, is due to the fact that"$\ce{O}$ uses ...
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What is the hybridization state of E (= Sn, C) in ECl₂?

What is the hybridization state of tin in tin(II) chloride, $\ce{SnCl2}$, and is the explanation similar for dichlorocarbene, $\ce{CCl2}$? For $\ce{SnCl2}$, I read in my book that it is sp² but I am ...
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If I have an alloy of two materials, will I have a chemical reaction between the two materials

I have always been told that an alloy is a mixture without chemical interference between the materials, but if I look at highly doped silicon (doped with Aluminum via ion implantation and then lattice ...
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Hybridization in Oxygen and Nitrogen

What is the proper orbital hybridization O and N in $\ce{H_2O}$ and $\ce{NH_3}$? The rules say that they are sp and sp2 hybridized, respectively, but some sources say both are sp3. I have problems ...
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Is there any possibility of tautomerisation to en-ol form?

In the picture, you can see the bridge whose end points are in para relation (for making the image clear). Now, what my friend said is that there is no possibility of tautomerisation as there is no H ...
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What are the height and width of the large and small nodes of the sp3 hybridized orbitals of carbon and silicon?

I will make an effort to interpret answers based on wave functions, but I am a senior pursuing a bachelor's degree in Biology, so I don't have the background in quantum physics for a purely ...
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dsp2 and sp3 hybrid orbital shapes in coordination chemistry

Why is $\mathrm{dsp}^2$ square planar but $\mathrm{sp}^3$ tetrahedral in shape? I am unable to find a reason anywhere. I know how to figure which hybridisation a compound is, but not why.
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How is hybridisation of a carbon atom determined by looking at the molecule's structure and observing the lone pair and/or sigma bond present? [duplicate]

How can I judge the hybridization of a carbon atom of any carbon containing compound just by looking at its structure? How can I say this by the help of lone pairs and sigma bonds present?
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What is the oxidation state of carbon atoms in Ethanoic acid?

The oxidation states of $sp^2$ and $sp^3$ carbon in ethanoic acid are $-3$ if we do not consider the electronegativity difference of these two carbons due to their different hybridisation but this ...
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Relation between various bond angles of Nitrogen compounds

I was thinking what could be order of bond angles of NH3, NF3, N(CH3)3 and N(C2H5)3. Considering NF3 and NH3: Since there is backbonding between 2p-2p orbitals of N and F, there will be a partial ...
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Why does AsH5 not exist?

Why does $\ce{AsH5}$ not exist? Is it because the s-orbital of H doesn't and can't overlap with the d-orbital of As after As makes $\rm sp^{3}d$ hybridization?Theoretically the bond can occur because ...
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Hybridisation of carbon atom in cyclopentadienyl anion

How do I figure out the hybridisation of the carbon with the negative charge? One logic is that it is an $\mathrm{sp^3}$ carbon because there are 3 sigma bonds and 1 lone pair around it. Another ...
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What is the hybridisation of titanium in the hexaaqua- and hexaamminetitanium(III) complex?

I want to check if their hybridizations are as follows: $\mathrm{sp^3d^2}$ in $\ce{[Ti(NH3)6]^3+}$ and $\mathrm{d^2sp^3}$ in $\ce{[Ti(H2O)6]^3+}$.
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When is there hybridization and when is there no hybridization?

When is there hybridization and when is there no hybridization? Do all structures have hybridization or only some specific structures have it and why?
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How does VB theory explain the Si-O-Si bond angles in SiO2?

Silicon dioxide has a huge variety of structures. Most of them are built up from connected $\ce{SiO4}$ units — the $\ce{O–Si–O}$ angle is $109.5°$, accordingly. The VB/hybridization approach to this ...
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How are electronic configurations including hybrid orbitals notated?

I know the general scheme for notating electronic configurations is (with s and p orbitals) [noble gas core]nsel.$n$pel. etc., where $n$ is the principal quantum number and el. is the number of ...
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The logic for hybridisation formula

Hybridisation for a molecule is given by: $$\frac{1}{2}(V + H - C + A)$$ Where, V = Number of valance electrons in central atom H = Number of surrounding monovalent atoms C = Cationic charge A = ...
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Bond strength by Similar size or Overlap? [duplicate]

Which of the sp³-sp³ or sp³-sp² forms a more stronger bond.. As we know that former one will make weaker bond as both are larger orbitals but in latter one.. One is bigger and other smaller.. So ...
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why do electron pairs not take axial positions in the VSEPR structure of ClF3? [duplicate]

when we make a Valence shell electron pair repulsion theory based structure for an molecule after calculating its hybridisation ; when we have to decide the positions of the ions we put them in such ...
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Bond lengths in hydrocarbons

It seems like the first molecule has a bond order of $1$, the second and third have a bond order of $7/6$ and the fourth molecule has a bond order of $3/2$. Why is the answer not $4 < 2 = 3 < 1$?...
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Why is the F-F bond in fluorine a p-p sigma bond?

Won't the lone pairs hybridize to $\mathrm{sp^3}$ making it an $\mathrm{sp^3}$-$\mathrm{sp^3}$ $\sigma$ bond? If it still is $\mathrm{p^\sigma}$-$\mathrm{p^\sigma}$ bond what is the spatial location ...
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Can Carbon Form bonds without Hybridization?

Carbon has two electrons in its p orbital which should be able to form bonds, are there any examples in which this occurs instead of carbon hybridizing before bonding?
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dsp3 and sp3d hybridization — what is the difference and which applies to square pyramidal?

What is the difference between $\mathrm{dsp^3}$ and $\mathrm{sp^3d}$ hybridization? Are they one in the same? Also, I have a book that says that in compounds where the central atom is $\mathrm{dsp^3}$...
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Hybrid orbitals forming molecular orbitals

My teacher showed me this diagram on how the hybrid orbitals of two atoms combine to form molecular orbitals. I was confused by this because I thought that VB and MO theories were two separate ...
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Structure of OSF4

Recently I had given a test where I was asked to specify the hybridisation of $\ce{OSF4}$ and its structure. I guessed that the structure would be trigonal bipyramidal, but I was unsure since I hadn't ...
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How to rationalise the planar structre of I2Cl6?

$\ce{I2Cl6}$ is a dimer of $\ce{ICl3}$. $\ce{ICl3}$ is T-shaped, with $\ce{I}$ being $\mathrm{sp^3d}$ and having two lone pairs. I read in Inorganic Reaction Mechanisms by R. K. Sharma that $\ce{I2Cl6}...
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Finding Hybridization of Certain Atoms in Lewis Structure [duplicate]

So, I'm having trouble with this problem. We're given this incomplete lewis structure and asked to find the hybridization of 3 of the atoms. I figured that the labelled Cl would be sp3 because of it'...
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Why does basicity go down along the group 15 hydrides? [duplicate]

As we go down Group 15, the sizes of atoms increase and these are the central atoms in their corresponding hydrides. Shouldn't the large size of central atom (in case of $\ce{Bi}$) actually help the ...
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1answer
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Why and how does carbon hybridize itself according to its need? [duplicate]

Sometimes carbon forms sp3 orbital and sometimes sp2 and sp. Also, carbon chains are more stable with sp3 orbitals. So, why and how does carbon hybridize itself to other orbitals? My question is more ...
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Hybridization, MOT and Paramagnetism

In what way can hybridization or molecular orbital theory be used to explain paramagnetism? For instance, when something is hybridized to make enough bonding electrons, do all the electrons end up ...

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