Questions tagged [hybridization]

Hybridisation is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals to form new hybrid orbitals suitable for the qualitative description of atomic bonding properties.

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What is the hybridization state of E (= Sn, C) in ECl₂?

What is the hybridization state of tin in tin(II) chloride, $\ce{SnCl2}$, and is the explanation similar for dichlorocarbene, $\ce{CCl2}$? For $\ce{SnCl2}$, I read in my book that it is sp² but I am ...
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If I have an alloy of two materials, will I have a chemical reaction between the two materials

I have always been told that an alloy is a mixture without chemical interference between the materials, but if I look at highly doped silicon (doped with Aluminum via ion implantation and then lattice ...
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Hybridization in Oxygen and Nitrogen

What is the proper orbital hybridization O and N in $\ce{H_2O}$ and $\ce{NH_3}$? The rules say that they are sp and sp2 hybridized, respectively, but some sources say both are sp3. I have problems ...
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What is the hybridisation state of the sulfur atom in S4N4F4?

The molecule is shown in the textbook as: I can rationalise that the N is sp2 hybridised with a single electron in the p-orbital perpendicular to the plane of the S/N ring. (The sp2 lone pair is ...
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Is there any possibility of tautomerisation to en-ol form?

In the picture, you can see the bridge whose end points are in para relation (for making the image clear). Now, what my friend said is that there is no possibility of tautomerisation as there is no H ...
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What are the height and width of the large and small nodes of the sp3 hybridized orbitals of carbon and silicon?

I will make an effort to interpret answers based on wave functions, but I am a senior pursuing a bachelor's degree in Biology, so I don't have the background in quantum physics for a purely ...
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dsp2 and sp3 hybrid orbital shapes in coordination chemistry

Why is $\mathrm{dsp}^2$ square planar but $\mathrm{sp}^3$ tetrahedral in shape? I am unable to find a reason anywhere. I know how to figure which hybridisation a compound is, but not why.
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How is hybridisation of a carbon atom determined by looking at the molecule's structure and observing the lone pair and/or sigma bond present? [duplicate]

How can I judge the hybridization of a carbon atom of any carbon containing compound just by looking at its structure? How can I say this by the help of lone pairs and sigma bonds present?
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What is the oxidation state of carbon atoms in Ethanoic acid?

The oxidation states of $sp^2$ and $sp^3$ carbon in ethanoic acid are $-3$ if we do not consider the electronegativity difference of these two carbons due to their different hybridisation but this ...
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Relation between various bond angles of Nitrogen compounds

I was thinking what could be order of bond angles of NH3, NF3, N(CH3)3 and N(C2H5)3. Considering NF3 and NH3: Since there is backbonding between 2p-2p orbitals of N and F, there will be a partial ...
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Why does AsH5 not exist?

Why does $\ce{AsH5}$ not exist? Is it because the s-orbital of H doesn't and can't overlap with the d-orbital of As after As makes $\rm sp^{3}d$ hybridization?Theoretically the bond can occur because ...
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Hybridisation of carbon atom in cyclopentadienyl anion

How do I figure out the hybridisation of the carbon with the negative charge? One logic is that it is an $\mathrm{sp^3}$ carbon because there are 3 sigma bonds and 1 lone pair around it. Another ...
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What is the hybridisation of titanium in the hexaaqua- and hexaamminetitanium(III) complex?

I want to check if their hybridizations are as follows: $\mathrm{sp^3d^2}$ in $\ce{[Ti(NH3)6]^3+}$ and $\mathrm{d^2sp^3}$ in $\ce{[Ti(H2O)6]^3+}$.
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When is there hybridization and when is there no hybridization?

When is there hybridization and when is there no hybridization? Do all structures have hybridization or only some specific structures have it and why?
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How does VB theory explain the bond angles in SiO2?

Silicon dioxide has a huge variety of structures. Most of them have a tetrahedral $\ce{SiO2}$ unit cell — the $\ce{O–Si–O}$ angle is $109.5°$, accordingly. The VB/hybridization approach to this ...
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How are electronic configurations including hybrid orbitals notated?

I know the general scheme for notating electronic configurations is (with s and p orbitals) [noble gas core]nsel.$n$pel. etc., where $n$ is the principal quantum number and el. is the number of ...
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The logic for hybridisation formula

Hybridisation for a molecule is given by: $$\frac{1}{2}(V + H - C + A)$$ Where, V = Number of valance electrons in central atom H = Number of surrounding monovalent atoms C = Cationic charge A = ...
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Bond strength by Similar size or Overlap? [duplicate]

Which of the sp³-sp³ or sp³-sp² forms a more stronger bond.. As we know that former one will make weaker bond as both are larger orbitals but in latter one.. One is bigger and other smaller.. So ...
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why do electron pairs not take axial positions in the VSEPR structure of ClF3? [duplicate]

when we make a Valence shell electron pair repulsion theory based structure for an molecule after calculating its hybridisation ; when we have to decide the positions of the ions we put them in such ...
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Bond lengths in hydrocarbons

It seems like the first molecule has a bond order of $1$, the second and third have a bond order of $7/6$ and the fourth molecule has a bond order of $3/2$. Why is the answer not $4 < 2 = 3 < 1$?...
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Why is the F-F bond in fluorine a p p sigma bond?

Won't the lone pair s hybridize to sp3 making it an sp3 sp3 sigma bond? If it still is p p sigma bond what is the spatial location of the lone pairs?
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Can Carbon Form bonds without Hybridization?

Carbon has two electrons in its p orbital which should be able to form bonds, are there any examples in which this occurs instead of carbon hybridizing before bonding?
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dsp3 and sp3d hybridization — what is the difference and which applies to square pyramidal?

What is the difference between dsp3 and sp3d Hybridization? Are they one in the same? Also, I have a book that says that in compounds where the central atom is dsp3 hybridized, it's shape is square ...
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Hybrid orbitals forming molecular orbitals

My teacher showed me this diagram on how the hybrid orbitals of two atoms combine to form molecular orbitals. I was confused by this because I thought that VB and MO theories were two separate ...
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Structure of OSF4

Recently I had given a test where I was asked to specify the hybridisation of $\ce{OSF4}$ and its structure. I guessed that the structure would be trigonal bipyramidal, but I was unsure since I hadn't ...
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How to rationalise the planar structre of I2Cl6?

$\ce{I2Cl6}$ is a dimer of $\ce{ICl3}$. $\ce{ICl3}$ is T-shaped, with $\ce{I}$ being $\mathrm{sp^3d}$ and having two lone pairs. I read in Inorganic Reaction Mechanisms by R. K. Sharma that $\ce{...
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Finding Hybridization of Certain Atoms in Lewis Structure [duplicate]

So, I'm having trouble with this problem. We're given this incomplete lewis structure and asked to find the hybridization of 3 of the atoms. I figured that the labelled Cl would be sp3 because of it'...
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Why does basicity go down along the group 15 hydrides? [duplicate]

As we go down Group 15, the sizes of atoms increase and these are the central atoms in their corresponding hydrides. Shouldn't the large size of central atom (in case of $\ce{Bi}$) actually help the ...
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Why and how does carbon hybridize itself according to its need? [duplicate]

Sometimes carbon forms sp3 orbital and sometimes sp2 and sp. Also, carbon chains are more stable with sp3 orbitals. So, why and how does carbon hybridize itself to other orbitals? My question is more ...
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Hybridization, MOT and Paramagnetism

In what way can hybridization or molecular orbital theory be used to explain paramagnetism? For instance, when something is hybridized to make enough bonding electrons, do all the electrons end up ...
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Comparing C=O bond length in CO2 and CH2O

Why is the C=O bond in $\ce{CO2}$ shorter than that in $\ce{CH2O}$? How can I use hybridisation theory to explain this?
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How to prove that the orientation of the atomic orbitals in the superposition $\psi= a\psi_{1} + b\psi_{2}$depends on the coefficients $a$ & $b$?

Hybridisation is a quantum superposition of orthogonal atomic orbitals; for instance $$\newcommand{\k}[2]{\langle #1 \lvert #2 \rangle} \psi_{sp^3}= c_1\psi_{2s}+ c_2\psi_{2p_{x}} + c_3\psi_{2p_y} + ...
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Does nitrogen inversion affect the basicity of amines?

If I were to compare the basic strength of 1-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane and triethylamine: Can I say that 1-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane is more basic than triethylamine because the lone pair of electrons ...
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How to tell which atoms are sp3 hybridized given the structure of a molecule? Confused specifically about given diagram

So this problem has me completely stumped. I get the general concept of hybridization but I have no clue how to apply it to this diagram. What are the atoms in the unlabelled areas such as f and h? ...
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Structure of Benzyne [duplicate]

I have seen in a lot of pictures that benzyne looks like: But aren't $\ce{C_6}$ and $\ce{C_5}$ $-$ $\ce{sp}$ hybridized? And hence bond angle should be $180^{\circ}$ or at least near about it? ...
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Why do we excite electrons before hybridisation?

In case of hybridisation like $\mathrm{sp^3}$ hybridisation of carbon or nitrogen why do we excite electrons before hybridisation? Why couldn't we just mix orbitals without exciting electrons?
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Hybrization of H in HNO [duplicate]

There is a problem that states: Find the molecular geometry of each molecule and the hybridization of each atom in the molecule. The two molecules are HNO and HCN. I found HNO to be sp3 hybridized and ...
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Sp5 hybridization in cyclopropane?

I have never before heard/read about something as a $sp^5$ hybridization. Today, Henry Rzepa's blog post made me aware of the existance of such a bonding system. That made me search a little bit and I ...
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Does alcohol hydrogen in the enol tautomer of a β-dicarbonyl have sp² character?

My reasoning for the somewhat implausible "$\mathrm{sp^2}$" character of the hydrogen between these two oxygens on the enol structure of the right comes from recognizing that if it were, then we would ...
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What type of hybridization does phosphorus have in P2O5?

I'm inclined to think that P has a $dsp$ hybridization in that compound, because it makes 5 bonds and 2 of them are $\pi$ bonds - with oxygen. However, I found in some websites that it may have $sp^2$ ...
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Geometries of methyl and silyl radicals

The $\ce{.CH3}$ radical is planar but the $\ce{.SiH3}$ radical is a trigonal pyramid. Why are they different? After all, $\ce{C}$ and $\ce{Si}$ are in the same group.
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Hybridization of oxygen in Nitrate ion and the location/bond of nitrogen's lone pair

I have tried to apply the rules and basics that I learnt so far. But I am confused about the hybridization of oxygen atoms which are making the single bond in nitrate ion. Following are the steps I ...
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Why does hybridization significantly matter for organic chemistry?

I just recalled, and still see that almost every organic chemistry book starts with bonds, empahsizing hybridization. One thing is straight forward but the rest doesn't seem to connect well. The ...
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sp2 hybridization Group V elements

I'm confused about $\mathrm{sp^2}$ hybridization in the formation of $\ce{NO3-}$ ion. Valence electrons of N are $\mathrm{(2s)^2}$ and $\mathrm{(2p)^3}$. Is one of $\mathrm{2s}$ electrons kicked up ...
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Hybridization of oxygen in phenol [duplicate]

What is the hybridization of oxygen in phenol molecule? I assume it is $sp^3$ hybridized because it forms 2 bonds - 1 with benzene, another with hydrogen, as in how oxygen is hybridized in a water ...
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Difference between oxygens in a carboxylic acid?

I've been reading about MO theory and am wondering if the traditional model of carboxylic acids is correct. Usually, how it's presented is that the carbonyl carbon is doubly bonded to one oxygen and ...
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How does an hybridised orbital become unhybridised after bond cleavage?

In $\ce{CH4}$, $1 s$ and $3 p$ orbitals are hybridised into four $sp^3$ orbitals. But on homolytic bond cleavage an unpaired electron remains in an unhybridised $p$ orbital? Similarly in heterolytic ...
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What Causes Atomic Orbitals to Hybridise?

I'm finding it difficult to visualise the process of hybridisation. Taking the example of formation of $\ce{CH4}$, can it viewed as the collapsing of the p orbitals of the Carbon atoms as they get "...
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How can hybrid orbitals be equivalent?

How can hybrid orbitals be equivalent? Take, for example, $\mathrm{sp^3}$ hybridization. The wave functions of each hybrid orbitals are given by: \begin{align} \psi_1 &= \psi_s + \psi_{p_x} + \...
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Is the hybridization only related to atomic orbitals but not to the molecular orbitals?

What is Hybridization? (Spelling: Hybridisation (British English) / Hybridization (American English)) The hybridization is a concept that describes atomic orbitals. In other words: Hybridization ...