Questions tagged [hybridization]

Hybridisation is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals to form new hybrid orbitals suitable for the qualitative description of atomic bonding properties.

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Why is the hydbridization of the N atom (rightmost) in diazomethane sp and not sp2? [duplicate]

Why is the hydbridization of the $N$ atom (rightmost) in diazomethane $sp$ and not $sp^2$ ? Most books claim that the negative charge (electron pair) of nitrogen can participate in resonance and is ...
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Hybridization of nitrogen in trisilylamine, (SiH3)3N?

I want to know the hybridization of the central atom in $\ce{(SiH3)3N}$. I think it should be $\mathrm{sp^3}$, because $\ce{N}$ is attached to three silicon atoms and one lone pair. But actually it ...
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Are resonating structures real or not? [duplicate]

We say that hybrid structure is real. It has distinct properties as compared to its Resonating Structure. Is it because that all the experiments we carry out are on a sample, lots of molecules are ...
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How to calculate the hybridization of ethane with H=½[V+M-C+A]?

I wanted to calculate the hybridization of this molecule $\ce{CH3-CH3}$. I noticed a shortcut formula given in my class notes for calculating the hybridization. It was $$H=\frac{1}{2}×[V+M-C+A].$$ ...
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Is orbital hybridisation real?

Is the concept of orbital hybridisation an accurate description of a physical process that actually occurs in bonding atoms, or is it, like VSEPR, a heuristic tool to reason about the characteristics ...
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Why is cyclopropane more acidic than propane

Though I found links about ring strain and other things, I actually fail to understand the exact reason for this difference in acidity.
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The intuition behind carbon's covalent bonds

As an introduction to hybridization, my textbook discusses that "The formation of covalent bonds often starts with the excitation of the atoms." Taking carbon as an example, the author says: Carbon ...
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η1 or sigma complex involving cyclopentadienyl anion

When $\ce{\eta^1-C5H5-}$ acts as a ligand, does the donor carbon become $sp^3$ hybridized, and would this be a sigma donor through sigma orbitals? Or, is it $sp^2$ where the lone pair is donated ...
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length of bond, bond angle and p character in bond

My reference data: http://www.rsc.org/suppdata/ra/c4/c4ra06781a/c4ra06781a1.pdf Consider these five chemicals: A: $\ce{CH4}$ (methane) B: $\ce{CH3Cl}$ (chloromethane) C: $\ce{CH2Cl2}$ (...
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Why is an alkenyl hydrogen more acidic than the alkyl analog?

For example, in ethene the sigma bonds are stronger overall than in ethane. ...
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Theoretically, Which d orbital participates in sp3d and sp3d2?

This question is regarding the old way (inaccurate) $\ce{PCl5}$ and $\ce{SF6}$ are taught in elementary chemistry. In the crystal field splitting diagram for triagonal bypyramidal geometry, $\mathrm{...
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Why is ammonia more basic than acetonitrile

Why is $\ce{NH_3}$ more basic than $\ce{CH3CN}$? I tried to reason it out with the hybridization of nitrogen in both the molecules. In $\ce{NH_3}$ nitrogen is $\mathrm{sp^3}$ hybridized while in ...
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Hybridisation of POCl3 [duplicate]

I was doing lewis structures and i came across a question asking the structure of POCl3. Here, the answer is a tetrahedral shape with P as central atom connected to 3Cl atoms by a single bond and 1 ...
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Hybridisation of terminal nitrogen in diazomethane

I have a few questions about the terminal nitrogen (highlighted in red) in diazomethane, $\ce{CH2N2}$. Is that nitrogen $\mathrm{sp}$ or $\mathrm{sp^2}$ hybridised? What type of orbitals do the lone ...
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When finding hybridisation of atoms, why are double bonds and triple bonds only considered once?

To figure out what hybridization an atom has is to just count the number of atoms bonded to it and the number of lone pairs. Double and triple bonds still count as being only bonded to one atom. (...
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What is the hybridisation in BrF5 [duplicate]

What is the hybridisation of $\ce{BrF5}$ ? I find different sources giving different answers. When I approach this problem , I don't find any exceptional case like $\ce{SH6}$ (in which hybridisation ...
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How to explain shape of molecules in penta and hexa coordination if hybridization involving d-orbitals (in main block) is considered incorrect?

In this answer @Jan says: penta- and hexacoordination; tetracoordination with additional lone pairs and related: attempt to form as many normal bonds with p orbitals as possible; keep one lone ...
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Bonding of the complex when both weak and strong field ligand are present

In the complex $\ce{[Ni(H2O)2(NH3)4]^2+}$ the magnetic moment ($\mu$) of $\ce{Ni}$ is – Zero $2.83~\mathrm{BM}$ $1.73~\mathrm{BM}$ $3.87~\mathrm{BM}$ It is easy to find the unpaired ...
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Clarification needed regarding description of molecules without hybridization using pure p orbitals

I need some clarification regarding this answer given by the user @Jan. @Jan says: Therefore, the a priori predicted most stable configurations of certain coordination numbers are: ...
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What is Drago's rule? Does it really exist?

My textbooks states the Drago's rule in inorganic chemistry as follows: The more electronegative atom prefers the orbital having more p character, and lone-pairs or less electronegative elements ...
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How do you determine the hybridisation state of a coordinate complex?

If an exercise asks for the hybridisation state of a coordinate complex (ion in solution) consisting of a central cobalt atom surrounded by $\ce{NH3}$ ligands, and neither coordination number or ...
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What is the hybridisation of the carbons in the allyl radical?

The example I am talking about is $\ce{CH2CHCH2^.}$. To find the steric number and hence the hybridization, we use steric number = No. of lone pairs + number of sigma bonds. In this example, the ...
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Band gap difference in different allotropes of Group4 materials

Diamond and bulk Si are both Group 4 elements found in their $sp^3$ hybridized states, having bandgaps of around 5.3eV and 1.1eV respectively, but Graphene and Silicene are both $sp^2$ hybridized ...
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Explanation for increasing wave number trends for hydrocarbons

At my university, we had an organic chemistry exam question that stated,"The trend in the values of the ir absorbtions for the c-h bonds of methane ($\ce{CH4}$: $2995\,\mathrm{cm}^{-1}$), (ethylene: $...
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What is the hybridisation of carbon in transition state in SN2 mechanism?

Normally, a carbon atom is $\ce{sp^3}$ hybridized, whereas in a transition state five bonds are present, then what's the hybridisation of carbon?
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Why is an alkyne more acidic than an alkene? Or, why is acetylene more acidic than ethylene?

pKa acetylene ~ 25 pKA ethylene ~ 44 I'm not looking for the "because alkyenes are sp hybridized and more s character means their electrons are held tighter" answer because I'm not the biggest fan ...
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Does s stand for sigma bond and p for pi bond?

When we are talking about hybridization, in $\mathrm{sp/sp^2/sp^3}$ hybridization, does s stand for sigma bond and p for pi bond ?
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What is the hybridisation in dimolybdenum?

Dimolybdenum's $\mathrm{4s}$ and $\mathrm{4p}$ orbitals are full. It is going to use its $\mathrm{4d}$ and $\mathrm{5s}$ orbitals to form a sextuple bond (2 $\sigma$, 2 $\pi$, 2 $\delta$). I am ...
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What is the hybridization of diatomic nitrogen, diatomic anything like oyxgen, bromine; hydrogen and chlorine in HCl?

I'm guessing sp hybridization for nitrogen in diatomic nitrogen based on the lone pair on nitrogen and the triple bond but there is no mixing of s and p orbitals so I want to say that there is no ...
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Bond energy and s-character [closed]

While studying the basics of chemical bonding, I've often come across the following statements: 1. The bond energy increases with the increase in the s-character in a hybrid orbital, i.e sp3 sp2-sp2, ...
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Determining the orbitals that overlap to form a sigma bond

In the chapter on molecular orbitals, my chemistry book mentions three types of sigma bonds: those formed by s-s ($\ce{H2}$), s-p ($\ce{HCl}$), p-p ($\ce{Cl2}$) hybrid-s ($\ce{CH4}$) and hybrid-hybrid ...
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Which d orbitals are used in sp3d3 hybridisation? [duplicate]

What d orbitals are used in the hybridisation of the molecule $\ce{IF7}$. I know the hybrid state of Iodine is $sp^3d^3$ i.e. 3d orbitals are involved in hybridisation. Some say they are $d_{(xy)}, ...
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Are there square planar complexes with sp2d hybridization?

We were taught (Under the section 'Valence Bond Theory') seven types of geometries a transition metal complex may assume and its corresponding hybridization states, Linear - $\ce{sp}$ Trigonal planar ...
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sp2 hybridized carbon versus sp3 hybridized silicon

Carbon's most commonly found allotrope is graphite/soot/fullerene/carbon nanotubes which are all $\mathrm{sp^2}$ hybridized forms of it, while silicon being its first periodic twin is mostly found in ...
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Where does the energy required for excitation of electrons in hybridization come from?

We're commonly taught that when atoms want to hybridize in for instance methane, an electron is excited from $2s$ to $2p$ to allow for four unpaired electrons, which is necessary for bonding. Where ...
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Does >2e contribution of an atomic orbital (AO) to a hybrid AO of a molecule violate Pauli exclusion?

This question is inspired by On the Role of d Orbital Hybridization in the Chemistry Curriculum J. Chem. Educ., 2007, 84 (5), p 783. The article calculates 6 bonding sulfur atomic orbitals in SF6 as ...
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Do hybrid orbitals exist in unbonded molecules? What would they look like?

For example, the ground state of a neutral carbon atom could be notated as: $$ [\ce{He}] \underset{\ce{2s}}{[\uparrow \downarrow]} \underset{\ce{2p}}{[\uparrow \vert \uparrow \vert \; \;]} $$ I ...
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How are the hybrid orbitals of sulfur hexafluoride shaped?

On the fluorine end the fluoride atoms are simply completing a $3p$ orbital. On the sulfur end one could posit a hybrid of one $3s$ orbital, two $3p$ orbitals and a three inner $2p$ orbitals. However,...
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What is the hybridisation of hydrogen in methane? [duplicate]

I am trying to understand hybridisation. In methane carbon has $\mathrm{sp^3}$ hybridisation, but what is the hybridisation of hydrogen? Is it $\mathrm{sp^3}$? If yes then why?
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d-orbital splittings in WS2 monolayer

The formerly degenerate $d$ orbitals of the tungsten atoms in the $\ce{WS2}$ monolayer are split into three groups: (1) $\mathrm{d}_{z^2}$, (2) $\mathrm{d}_{x^2-y^2}, \mathrm{d}_{xy}$ and (3) $\mathrm{...
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Why are axial bonds are longer than equatorial bond in sp3d hybridized atoms?

Why are axial bonds are longer than equatorial bond in case of $\mathrm{sp^3d}$ hybridization? I have done some research but I can't seem to find the answer.
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Hybridization and excitation of electrons

In case of hybridization of PCl5 why does the electron move to 3d orbital though 4s orbital has a lower energy?
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Hybridization of tetraamminecopper(II) sulfate

$\ce{Cu^2+} $ has 9 electrons and a d-orbital and is almost completely filled (except 1 electron vacant) and $\ce{NH3}$ donates an electron eventually forming $\mathrm{sp^3}$ hybrid orbitals. But it ...
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Hybridization of sulfur in sulfur dioxide

One of the canonical structures for sulfur dioxide - $\ce{SO2}$ - has sulfur (with a lone electron pair) double bonded to each oxygen atom to form a total of 4 bonds for sulfur - which can be achieved ...
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Hybrid orbitals in molecular orbitals

In our textbook there are two topics that I can't make connection between: hybrid orbitals which (as I understand) are used to demonstrate the spacial shape of molecules like CH4 with VSEPR while ...
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Are the lone pairs in water equivalent?

I've read that the oxygen atom in water is $\mathrm{sp^2}$ hybridized, such that one of the oxygen lone pairs should be in an $\mathrm{sp^2}$ orbital and the other should be in a pure p atomic orbital....
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Geometry of tetrabromidomanganate(II)

What is geometry and hybridization of $\ce{[MnBr4]^2-}$ for $\ce{Mn}$ ($Z = 25$)? I am not sure if it is tetrahedral or square planar. I assumed $\ce{Br}$ is a weak ligand and got its geometry to be ...
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Hybridization of carbon in CO2

I know that if there exists a carbon atom with single bonds only (with other atoms),then it is $\mathrm{sp^3}$ hybridized. And if at least one of the bond is double bond then its $\mathrm{sp^2}$ ...
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Hybridization of nitrogen in a ring [closed]

Is there a well defined way to discern the hybridization of a nitrogen atom in ring, like pyrrole? How can you know whether the nitrogen's lone pair are in the conjugated system or not?
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Why is the lone pair of pyridine's nitrogen atom not part of the aromatic ring?

In pyrrole, the lone pair of electrons belonging to the nitrogen is part of the aromatic ring. However, in pyridine it is part of an sp2-hybridized orbital. Why can't it be in the p-orbital and take ...