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Questions tagged [hybridization]

Hybridisation is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals to form new hybrid orbitals suitable for the qualitative description of atomic bonding properties.

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Why Bond Angle is different? [duplicate]

H2O has two lone pair electron and H2S also have two lone pair electron but Bond Angle in H2O is 104.5° but H2S has 92.12°bond Angle . Both H2O and H2S has same hybridization ,which is sp3 and i know ...
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Why do transition metals make colored compounds despite the remaining d orbitals being hybridized? [closed]

I know that transition metals make colored compounds when they forms a bond with a ligand, as the ligand increases the energy level of $\ce{d_{x^2-y^2}}$ and $\ce{d_{z^2}}$ orbital by repelling these ...
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Structure of phosphate ion [duplicate]

I understand that the hybridization in the phosphate ion is $\mathrm{sp^3}$ since phosphorous forms $4$ sigma bonds with $4$ of the oxygens and there are no lone pairs on the phosphorous atom. The ...
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Why does NCl3 use sp³ hybrid orbitals?

I have a question regarding the hybridization of $\ce{NCl3}$. From what I've understood, hybridization occurs when electrons belonging to different orbitals mix. For example an electron belonging to ...
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How to compare energy levels in hybridized sp orbitals?

How to compare energy levels in $\ce{sp, sp^2, sp^3}$ orbitals? Since a higher energy level implies lower stability, an $\ce{sp-sp}$ bond must have the lowest energy level, since it is formed by the ...
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Deciding if a molecule is polar and non-polar in cyclic carbon compounds

While discussing about dipole moment of the compounds, our chemistry teacher told that the dipole moment will be 0 for 1,4-Dichlorobenzen, and for those compounds where same atoms or group of atoms ...
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Molecule where an sp3 chalcogen is connected to an sp2 atom

I am looking for a small molecule where an $\mathrm{sp^3}$ atom from Group 16 (O, S, Se,...) is connected to an $\mathrm{sp^2}$ or resonant atom of another column? Background: The universal force ...
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Why does the size of hybrid orbitals vary as sp³>sp²>sp?

In my text book it said that Size of hybrid orbitals vary as sp³>sp²>sp Does this size variation in hybid orbitals means that S orbitals are smaller than P orbitals? But we know that larger the ...
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Meaning of carbon hybridization [closed]

What do we mean when we talk about carbon hybridization? I'm trying to understand how it works, what is the difference between non-hybridized and hybridized carbon?
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Electronic strucure of cyclopropene radical cation

Suppose I have a cyclopropene molecule with a + charge on the singly bonded carbon.I think the singly bonded carbon is $\mathrm{sp^2}$ hybridised, isn't it? To obtain this species from cyclopropene, ...
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Why is triplet carbene sp2-hybridised?

Triplet carbene has a carbon with 6 electrons, of which 2 are unpaired. I would expect the carbon to be $\ce{sp}$ or $\ce{sp^3}$ hybridised and the two singly occupied orbitals to be degenerate. ...
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Resonance in Organic Compound

Is the pi bond of a $\ce{sp}$ hybridised carbon in conjugation with another π-bond capable of resonance? Examples: $\ce{={C}=C-C=}$ $\ce{#{C}-C=}$ Is resonance possible?
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Question about hybridization

So, I was wondering that how can a methane molecule form 4 sp3 hybrid orbitals, with each hybrid orbital containing one s and three p orbitals. In four of such sp3 hybrid orbitals, it makes a total of ...
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Chemical structure of xenon heptafluoride anion

When $\ce{XeF6}$ acts as a fluoride acceptor, $\ce{XeF7-}$ is formed. What is the hybridisation, geometry, and shape of $\ce{XeF7-}$?
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How to calculate steric number of methyl free radical?

According to the definition, steric number = number of atoms it is attached + lone pair. In that way, I get 4 for methyl free radical which means sp3 hybridization . But that's wrong ! Why is this ...
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Hybridisation in phosphorus allotropes

The white phosphorus has a tetrahedral structure, like this: [Image source: Wikipedia] The red phosphorus, on the other hand, has a polymeric structure: [Image source: google images] Then what ...
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Why is this PH3 considered to be an unhybridized molecule? [duplicate]

Also, don't hybrid orbitals appear in all molecules? The answer by "ron" says "the molecule can be viewed as being unhybridized": How does lone pair of a central atom affect the dipole moment?
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Bonding in PCl3 [duplicate]

Why is there a need to produce 4 equivalent sp3 hybrids? Wouldn't the 3s2 orbital be just fine on its own since it's spherical? Wouldn't it be easier to just be closer to the nucleus and not get ...
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Identifying a Positive or Neutral Ligand Inside Coordination Sphere?

There are some coordination compounds like $\ce{Na2[Fe(CN)5NO]}$, where ligands like $\ce{NO}$ are used which exist as both $\ce{NO+}$ (nitrosonium ion) and $\ce{NO^.}$ (neutral nitrosyl). How to ...
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Coordination Numbers and Hybridization schemes of anions

Draw the molecular structures of (a) the borax anion, $\ce{[B4O5(OH)4]^2-}$ (b) the peroxoborate anion, $\ce{[B2(O2)2(OH)4]^2-}$ ...
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Why are d orbitals used in the hybridisation of PCl5 and similar compounds? [duplicate]

Phosphorus uses its $\ce{3s}$, three $\ce{3p}$ and one $\ce{3d}$ orbitals for its hybridization in $\ce{PCl5}$ and similar compounds. However, shouldn't it use its $\ce{4s}$ rather than $\ce{3d}$ ...
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How does the phosphate ion look like? [duplicate]

I am trying to understand how a phosphate ion looks like using the VSEPR theory. The phosphorus element has an atomic number of 15, and therefore it has a electron configuration as follow by the ...
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VSEPR theory and hybridization in determining the shape of a molecule

Our chemistry teacher told us that both VSEPR theory (which says that the electron pairs in the valence shell of an atom arrange themselves in such a way that repulsions among them are minimized and ...
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How can the hybridisation schemes of transition metal complexes be determined?

Lets say I have to find hybridisation of $\ce{[Ni(CO)_4]}$ and $\ce{[Ni(CN)_4]^{2-}}$. The metal atom/ion in these compounds are $\rm Ni$ and $\rm Ni^{2+}$ respectively. So the outer shell ...
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The affect of effective nuclear charge on energy gap between subshells

A few days ago my teacher taught me about $\mathrm{d}$ orbital contraction. He said that in $\ce{SF6}$ the hybridization of sulphur is $\mathrm{sp^3d^2}$. He said that although the $\mathrm{d}$ ...
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Predicting sigma bond overlap strengths of s-s, p-p, s-p, sp-sp etc

How can we qualitatively predict $\sigma-$bond strengths of overlap between: $\ce{s-s}$ $\ce{s-p}$ $\ce{p-p}$ $\ce{sp-s}$ $\ce{sp-p}$ $\ce{sp-sp}$ etc.? My school-book says $\ce{s-s}$ overlap bond ...
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What is the hybridization of terminal fluorine atoms in molecules like boron trifluoride?

What is the hybridisation of $\ce{F}$ in $\ce{BF3}$ or $\ce{CH3F}$ or $\ce{PF5}$ or $\ce{SF6}$? My book states that the p orbitals of fluorine overlaps, but I feel that sp3 hybridisation occurs in $\...
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Unconventional hybridisation states

I just came across a table with interesting hybridisation schemes I have never seen before. The table is shown below. I was wondering if anyone could give me some examples of atoms in particular ...
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Hybridisation and bond strength

I'm a high school student with minimal mathematical knowledge about the theory of chemical bond. (I just have a bit of theoretical background). I came across a statement which stated that "The more is ...
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Determining the structure of N2O using hybridization

I have learnt how to determine the structure of molecules where only the central atom is hybridised like $\ce{ClF3}$, $\ce{C2H2}$, $\ce{PCl5}$, but in $\ce{N2O}$ it seems as though both nitrogen and ...
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Why energy of all d orbitals is same?

This question first popped up in my head when I learnt that $d_{z^2}$ orbital is used in $sp^3d$ hybridization and $d_{x^2-y^2}$ and $d_{z^2}$ orbitals are used in $sp^3d^2$ hybridization. If all ...
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How does hybridisation affect an otherwise chiral centre? [closed]

In basic theory, a carbon atom with four nonidentical substituents attached, makes a chiral centre. Thus any molecule is chiral as long as it has a chiral centre (except meso compounds). I thought ...
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Are carbocations necessarily sp2 hybridized and trigonal planar?

My copy of Pearson's Organic Chemistry (7e), Morrison and Boyd, under the section "Reaction intermediates", accords a succinct description on the structure of carbocations: The central $C$-atom (of ...
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Chemical bonding with f orbitals

For the elements such as rhenium, osmium, iridium how probable is for electrons in the inner 4f orbitals to gain energy and take part in a molecular orbital (such as an $f^2 d^2 s p^3$ hybrid orbital) ...
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How to find if the unpaired electron is placed in hybrid orbital or pure orbital in odd electron species?

Odd electron species contain an unpaired electron which can either be placed in hybrid orbital or in pure orbital. Example: In the case of $\ce{.CF3}$ radical, the unpaired electron is placed in $\...
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Why is the tetraamminecopper(II) ion square planar?

The tetraamminecopper(II) ion is square planar in shape. But why? How can I rationalise this? Can I rationalise this without the concept of hybridization? And even if I take hybridization into ...
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How to explain molecular geometry without the help of VSEPR, valence bond, or hybridization theories?

I was taught, at the high school level, how to rationalise molecular geometries with the help of VSEPR, valence bond, and hybridization theories. However, I have recently also come to know that these ...
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What is the hybridization of chlorine in vinyl chloride?

Is chlorine in vinyl chloride sp2 or sp3 hybridized? Calculating using steric number it is found to be sp3 hybridized. But according to I. L. Finar* it is sp2. *I.L. Finar: Organic chemistry Vol.1 ...
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Why is it wrong to use the concept of hybridization for transition metal complexes?

I have asked a lot of questions on coordination chemistry here before and I have gone through a lot others here as well. Students, including me, attempt to answer those questions using the concept of ...
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Shape of sp³ hybrid orbital

I have a doubt regarding the shape of the $\mathrm{sp^3}$ hybridised orbital. I looked up for it on stackexchange and found a post where the guy said that where ever the orbitals interfere with ...
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Polarity of xenon fluoride

The structure of xenon fluoride is a capped octahedron. The lone pair is stereochemically active, i.e. it will rotate about. The dipole moments of the axial fluorides will get cancelled, and so will ...
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Is there a shortcut method to calculate the Steric Number?

The steric number is equal to the number of $\sigma$-bonds + the number of lone pairs of electrons on the central atom. It gives us the number of hybridised orbitals. It is pretty straight-forward to ...
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Number of F-Br-F angle of 90 degree in BrF5?

I faced a question like this: The number of $90$ degree $\ce{F-Br-F}$ angle in $\ce{BrF5}$ according to VSEPR theory is: The answer is given $0$ or $8$. I know $\ce{BrF5}$ has $\pu{sp3d2}$ ...
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Hybridisation and the Schrödinger equation

I am slightly confused about hybridisation and how it relates to molecular and atomic orbitals, despite having pored through many sources online. I was hoping someone could verify whether my current ...
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Ethylene hybridization [duplicate]

In the carbon atom, there are electrons in 2s, 2Px, 2Py, and 2Pz. Out of these orbitals, only 2Px, 2Py, and 2s are hybridized. The 2Pz orbital is left. When making a bond there is a pi bond between ...
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Hybridization of heteroatom

Why is the hybridization of oxygen in the seven membered ring pictured below $sp^3$, while the oxygen has a hybridization of $sp^2$ in the 5 membered ring? This also may be an error in the answer key ...
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Hybridisation of complex compound having octahedral geometry

$$\ce{K[Co(NH3)2Cl4]}$$ I have problem finding the hybridisation of this compound. The strong field ligand $\ce{NH3}$ forms the minority among the ligands, so do I consider the hybridisation to be $\...
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Structure and bonding in ClO2 [duplicate]

To draw the structure of $\ce{ClO2}$, I tried to find the hybridization of the central atom i.e $\ce{Cl}$. I figured out that there would be two $\ce{Cl - O}$ double bonds, which means $\ce{Cl}$ would ...
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Why chlorine acts as a strong field ligand in tetrachloridoplatinate(II)?

In most of the cases I have learnted, halogens act as a weak field ligand. However, I recently learned somewhere on the web that the strength of a ligand also depends upon the size of the atom. A ...
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How do I compare the C=C bond lengths in this cumulene?

How do I arrange these chemical bonds in an increasing/decreasing order based upon their lengths? I understand that the bond (a) will be longer than (b) because (a) is a bond between sp² hybrid and ...