Questions tagged [hybridization]

Hybridisation is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals to form new hybrid orbitals suitable for the qualitative description of atomic bonding properties.

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What is natural bond orbital theory used for?

My understanding is that the NBO methodology transforms the molecular orbital picture of a molecule into a collection of pairwise interactions (bond orbitals). This is obviously handy for didactic and ...
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Hybrid orbitals forming molecular orbitals

My teacher showed me this diagram on how the hybrid orbitals of two atoms combine to form molecular orbitals. I was confused by this because I thought that VB and MO theories were two separate ...
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Is s-p mixing referring to hybridization or is it the mixing of one atoms s orbital with the other's p orbital?

According to molecular orbital theory s and p orbitals can mix if they are close enough in energy to each other. For period 2 diatomics, this occurs for $\ce{Li}$, $\ce{Be}$, $\ce{B}$, $\ce{C}$ and $\...
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Carbon atoms at the edge of a diamond

It is well known (the simplest textbook example) that a diamond has a well-defined arrangement of sp3 carbon atoms, as each atom is connected to four others in a ...
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Is the hybridization only related to atomic orbitals but not to the molecular orbitals?

What is Hybridization? (Spelling: Hybridisation (British English) / Hybridization (American English)) The hybridization is a concept that describes atomic orbitals. In other words: Hybridization ...
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Why are axial bonds are longer than equatorial bond in sp3d hybridized atoms?

Why are axial bonds are longer than equatorial bond in case of $\mathrm{sp^3d}$ hybridization? I have done some research but I can't seem to find the answer.
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Why are sp hybridized carbocations high energy?

You don’t see carbocations on double bonds very much, and here's a good reason: compared to sp3, there is more s character in the orbitals, so the empty orbital is held more closely to the nucleus. ...
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Hybridisation of Mn in potassium permanganate

I'm clear with the concepts of crystal field theory. But I can't figure out the exact reason why the hybridisation of manganese in potassium permanganate ($\ce{KMnO4}$) is $\mathrm{d^3s}$. Can anyone ...
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Electron promotion in hybridisation: A misconception

Recently, I read through a short article on Nature Chemistry, written by Michelle Francl, titled "Talking to Pauling's ghost". The article talks about how electron promotion was never something that ...
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Does nitrogen inversion affect the basicity of amines?

If I were to compare the basic strength of 1-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane and triethylamine: Can I say that 1-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane is more basic than triethylamine because the lone pair of electrons ...
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Structure of Benzyne [duplicate]

I have seen in a lot of pictures that benzyne looks like: But aren't $\ce{C_6}$ and $\ce{C_5}$ $-$ $\ce{sp}$ hybridized? And hence bond angle should be $180^{\circ}$ or at least near about it? ...
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Theoretically, Which d orbital participates in sp3d and sp3d2?

This question is regarding the old way (inaccurate) $\ce{PCl5}$ and $\ce{SF6}$ are taught in elementary chemistry. In the crystal field splitting diagram for triagonal bypyramidal geometry, $\mathrm{...
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sp² hybridized orbital

I do not understand why and how an atom with $\ce{sp^2}$ hybridization has only one p orbital?? For example in pyridine why is the lone pair of nitrogen not counted as a pi electron.
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Why is one lobe of an sp3 hybridized orbital smaller than its other half?

A hybrid sp3 orbital is drawn with one lobe smaller than its other half, the latter which is of equal size when drawing the p orbital. Why is it so?
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Structure and bonding in ClO2 [duplicate]

To draw the structure of $\ce{ClO2}$, I tried to find the hybridization of the central atom i.e $\ce{Cl}$. I figured out that there would be two $\ce{Cl - O}$ double bonds, which means $\ce{Cl}$ would ...
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What is the hybridization of terminal fluorine atoms in molecules like boron trifluoride?

What is the hybridisation of $\ce{F}$ in $\ce{BF3}$ or $\ce{CH3F}$ or $\ce{PF5}$ or $\ce{SF6}$? My book states that the p orbitals of fluorine overlaps, but I feel that sp3 hybridisation occurs in $\...
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Hybridization of Na in [Na(H2O)6]+

In the complex ion $\ce{[Na(H2O)6]+}$, the sodium cation forms 6 coordinate bonds with water ligands. Typically this octahedral form is associated with $\mathrm{sp^3d^2}$ hybridization as far as I ...
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Is ClH7 possible? [duplicate]

Chlorine can be $sp^3d^3$ hybridized. If so, it can form $\ce{ClH_7}$ and then chlorine, being more electronegative, will have (-7) as its oxidation number. But we know that the oxidation number of $\...
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Geometries of methyl and silyl radicals

The $\ce{.CH3}$ radical is planar but the $\ce{.SiH3}$ radical is a trigonal pyramid. Why are they different? After all, $\ce{C}$ and $\ce{Si}$ are in the same group.
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What is the hybridization state of the carbon atoms in [10]annulene?

I know that one of the more stable structures of [10]annulene or cyclodecapentaene is planar boat-shaped. But that means the hybridization state of the carbons must have changed to suit the geometry. ...
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Hybridization, MOT and Paramagnetism

In what way can hybridization or molecular orbital theory be used to explain paramagnetism? For instance, when something is hybridized to make enough bonding electrons, do all the electrons end up ...
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Are the p orbitals of the biradical dioxo compound in the HOMO perpendicular to the plane?

I tried to draw the frontier molecular orbitals of the following biradical structure: (A) At the top I've drawn the HOMO and LUMO, because I know that the reaction coordinate belongs to the $\ce{C_{$...
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Are ther known compounds of Argon? What is their molecular geometry and hybridisation?

Can Argon hybridize orbitals and/or form covalent-like/ionic-like compounds? Is there any study of that? I would be happy to read concrete references. What kind of molecular geometries for argon ...
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Why does ammonia have sp hybridization?

Apparently it has $sp^3$ hybridization, but I don't understand why. Ammonia ($\ce{NH3}$) seems to me to not require $sp$ hybridization because all of its bond lengths are already equal. It has 3 ...
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Does hybridization take place in other atoms apart from central atom in a molecule?

I have seen my textbooks always give formula and description of hybridization of central atom of a molecule. But I wonder will other atoms present (not Hydrogen) go in hybridization or only the ...
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Hybridization of oxygen in Nitrate ion and the location/bond of nitrogen's lone pair

I have tried to apply the rules and basics that I learnt so far. But I am confused about the hybridization of oxygen atoms which are making the single bond in nitrate ion. Following are the steps I ...
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1answer
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Why does hybridization produce a more stable configuration?

My text, and the other sources I've checked, include information on the effects, and kinds, of hybridized orbitals; however, they do not explain what properties of hybridized bonds conduce greater ...
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Why allene cannot be described with an allyl system?

Why is it impossible in allene to have two pi-bonds in the same orientation? => Why isn't allene planar? (4 $p$ electrons are in two 2x2 $p$-orbitals) From my chemical intuition I would guess that ...
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Are the triply-bonded carbons in pyridyne (and benzyne) sp-hybridised?

I was given this molecule (3,4-pyridyne) in a test: I had to find out if it had any atoms which had a hybridization state other than sp2. The solution said that it doesn't have any. But aren't the ...
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Difference between oxygens in a carboxylic acid?

I've been reading about MO theory and am wondering if the traditional model of carboxylic acids is correct. Usually, how it's presented is that the carbonyl carbon is doubly bonded to one oxygen and ...
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Bonding of the complex when both weak and strong field ligand are present

In the complex $\ce{[Ni(H2O)2(NH3)4]^2+}$ the magnetic moment ($\mu$) of $\ce{Ni}$ is – Zero $2.83~\mathrm{BM}$ $1.73~\mathrm{BM}$ $3.87~\mathrm{BM}$ It is easy to find the unpaired ...
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What is the hybridization state of E (= Sn, C) in ECl₂?

What is the hybridization state of tin in tin(II) chloride, $\ce{SnCl2}$, and is the explanation similar for dichlorocarbene, $\ce{CCl2}$? For $\ce{SnCl2}$, I read in my book that it is sp² but I am ...
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How can the electronic structure of pentaaquanitrosyliron be explained?

The magnetic moment of $\ce{[Fe(H2O)5NO]^2+}$ is 3.87 Bohr magneton, which implies that there are 3 unpaired electrons. Since iron is in $+1$ oxidation state (due to charge transfer with nitrosyl ...
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sp2 hybridization Group V elements

I'm confused about $\mathrm{sp^2}$ hybridization in the formation of $\ce{NO3-}$ ion. Valence electrons of N are $\mathrm{(2s)^2}$ and $\mathrm{(2p)^3}$. Is one of $\mathrm{2s}$ electrons kicked up ...
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Draw a simplified MO diagram for the pi system of Methyl vinyl ether

My attempt at the answers: i) 2 bond pairs and 2 lone pairs on oxygen atom therefore bond angle of slightly less than 109.5 degrees, around 104 degrees. ii) 120 degrees bond angle therefore $\mathrm{...
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Hybridisation of POCl3 [duplicate]

I was doing lewis structures and i came across a question asking the structure of POCl3. Here, the answer is a tetrahedral shape with P as central atom connected to 3Cl atoms by a single bond and 1 ...
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How to explain shape of molecules in penta and hexa coordination if hybridization involving d-orbitals (in main block) is considered incorrect?

In this answer @Jan says: penta- and hexacoordination; tetracoordination with additional lone pairs and related: attempt to form as many normal bonds with p orbitals as possible; keep one lone ...
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Number of F-Br-F angle of 90 degree in BrF5?

I faced a question like this: The number of $90$ degree $\ce{F-Br-F}$ angle in $\ce{BrF5}$ according to VSEPR theory is: The answer is given $0$ or $8$. I know $\ce{BrF5}$ has $\pu{sp3d2}$ ...

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