Questions tagged [hybridization]

Hybridisation is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals to form new hybrid orbitals suitable for the qualitative description of atomic bonding properties.

55 questions with no upvoted or accepted answers
Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
7
votes
0answers
287 views

What is the hybridization state of the carbon atoms in [10]annulene?

I know that one of the more stable structures of [10]annulene or cyclodecapentaene is planar boat-shaped. But that means the hybridization state of the carbons must have changed to suit the geometry. ...
7
votes
0answers
280 views

Electron promotion in hybridisation: A misconception

Recently, I read through a short article on Nature Chemistry, written by Michelle Francl, titled "Talking to Pauling's ghost". The article talks about how electron promotion was never something that ...
7
votes
0answers
755 views

Chemical bonding with f orbitals

For the elements such as rhenium, osmium, iridium how probable is for electrons in the inner 4f orbitals to gain energy and take part in a molecular orbital (such as an $f^2 d^2 s p^3$ hybrid orbital) ...
6
votes
0answers
683 views

Coordination Numbers and Hybridization schemes of anions

Draw the molecular structures of (a) the borax anion, $\ce{[B4O5(OH)4]^2-}$ (b) the peroxoborate anion, $\ce{[B2(O2)2(OH)4]^2-}$ ...
5
votes
0answers
166 views

How much electron hybridization and bonding occurs in liquid helium?

Helium is the only element which does not freeze at atmospheric pressure, and only forms a liquid at around 4 Kelvin due to weak van der Waals forces. I'm interested in knowing roughly how much ...
5
votes
0answers
533 views

Unconventional hybridisation states

I just came across a table with interesting hybridisation schemes I have never seen before. The table is shown below. I was wondering if anyone could give me some examples of atoms in particular ...
4
votes
0answers
3k views

dsp2 and sp3 hybrid orbital shapes in coordination chemistry

Why is $\mathrm{dsp}^2$ square planar but $\mathrm{sp}^3$ tetrahedral in shape? I am unable to find a reason anywhere. I know how to figure which hybridisation a compound is, but not why.
4
votes
0answers
263 views

Does alcohol hydrogen in the enol tautomer of a β-dicarbonyl have sp² character?

My reasoning for the somewhat implausible "$\mathrm{sp^2}$" character of the hydrogen between these two oxygens on the enol structure of the right comes from recognizing that if it were, then we would ...
3
votes
0answers
61 views

Why is the bond angle of sulphur difluoride greater than that of hydrogen sulphide?

Why is the bond angle of $\ce{SF_2 (98.05^\circ) > SH_2 (92.11^\circ)}$? Isn't this contradicting Bent's rule or otherwise electron repulsion rule ? Fluorine is more electronegative and hence it ...
3
votes
0answers
37 views

Reactivity of unsaturated organolithium compounds

I'm particularly looking in the context of alkyl lithiums compared to vinyl-lithiums and alkynyl-lithiums. Why is it that shifting from sp3 to sp2, and even further to sp carbanions, reduces the ...
3
votes
0answers
778 views

Hybridization of Oxygen in Orthoboric Acid

What should be the hybridization of the oxygen atom? A) It should be $\mathrm{sp^2}$ as 1 lone pair must be in the unhybridized orbital for back bonding with boron which has a vacant p-orbital B)It ...
2
votes
0answers
29 views

is there a stead fast rule to predict hybridization or is it just an ad hoc concept

Before I start of this question, Ι want to make it clear that I know that hybridization, like pretty much all of chemical bonding, are just made up to qualitatively rationalize observations. I know ...
2
votes
0answers
164 views

Describe the formation of the [PbCl4]2- complex ion

The $\ce{[PbCl4]^{2-}}$ complex ion is formed when $\ce{PbCl2}$ is exposed to excess $Cl^-$ ions in solution as explained here and here through the following reversible reaction: $$\ce{PbCl2(s) + 2Cl^-...
2
votes
0answers
322 views

Comparing axial and equatorial bond lengths in square pyramidal structures

I found this image on wikipedia: It got me wondering why the axial bond angles were shorter than the equatorial ones. I found this extract elsewhere on the internet - Extract: (ww.nrcresearchpress....
2
votes
0answers
179 views

Which substitutent should be placed on axial position in SCl2(OCH3)2?

According to Bent's rule, in $\mathrm{sp^3d}$ more electronegative element is placed on the axial position, so between $\ce{Cl}$ and $\ce{OCH3}$ in $\ce{SCl2(OCH3)2}$ which should be placed on axial ...
2
votes
0answers
3k views

Why is the nitrile nitrogen sp hybridized?

This site, from which the above image was taken, indicates that the hybridization of the orbitals on the C and N atoms in hydrogen cyanide is sp. I can certainly see how that would be the case for ...
2
votes
0answers
2k views

length of bond, bond angle and p character in bond

My reference data: http://www.rsc.org/suppdata/ra/c4/c4ra06781a/c4ra06781a1.pdf Consider these five chemicals: A: $\ce{CH4}$ (methane) B: $\ce{CH3Cl}$ (chloromethane) C: $\ce{CH2Cl2}$ (...
2
votes
0answers
2k views

Why is an alkyne more acidic than an alkene? Or, why is acetylene more acidic than ethylene?

pKa acetylene ~ 25 pKA ethylene ~ 44 I'm not looking for the "because alkyenes are sp hybridized and more s character means their electrons are held tighter" answer because I'm not the biggest fan ...
2
votes
0answers
758 views

Why does AsH5 not exist?

Why does $\ce{AsH5}$ not exist? Is it because the s-orbital of H doesn't and can't overlap with the d-orbital of As after As makes $\rm sp^{3}d$ hybridization?Theoretically the bond can occur because ...
2
votes
0answers
97 views

How does an hybridised orbital become unhybridised after bond cleavage?

In $\ce{CH4}$, $1 s$ and $3 p$ orbitals are hybridised into four $sp^3$ orbitals. But on homolytic bond cleavage an unpaired electron remains in an unhybridised $p$ orbital? Similarly in heterolytic ...
2
votes
0answers
513 views

Effects of orbital overlap and electronegativity on polarity of binary halogen acids

I have discerned these factors affecting orbital overlap: Symmetry Type of orbital Nodes along the internuclear axis $n$ quantum number of the atomic orbitals - the number of shells of electrons Size ...
2
votes
1answer
78 views

Why doesn't an sp3s hybridisation exist?

Trying to prove that nitrogen doesn't split its lone pair to form 5 bonds, I thought of a situation that I couldn't rule out; the paired electron being excited to the 3s orbital, so that five bonds ...
2
votes
1answer
1k views

Why does sp hybridised orbital have more directional character than p orbital?

It states so in my textbook. But since s orbital is non directional, shouldn't sp hybridized orbital be less directional in character than p orbital?
2
votes
1answer
154 views

Confusion Regarding Nitrogen Inversion

In nitrogen inversion, the lone pair changes its direction continuously. Does this in any way delocalize the charge density on the nitrogen making it less nucleophilic and less basic than another ...
1
vote
0answers
33 views

Selection of p-orbital(s) when considering sp or sp2 hybridisation

I am considering $z$-axis as the internuclear axis in all cases. When we consider overlap of s and p orbital to form a $\sigma$-bond, the chosen orbital must be p$_z$ orbital for a proper overlap. ...
1
vote
0answers
43 views

Relation between the number of hybridised orbitals and the number of sigma bonds

March's Advanced Organic Chemistry (8th Ed.), has in its first chapter several tantalizing statements of the following variety; Boron has only three valence electrons available to form bonds, hence ...
1
vote
0answers
39 views

Hybridization theory (orbitals used in different hybridizations)

Why is $d_{x²-y²}$ orbital used in $sp^3d$ (square pyramidal geometry) while $d_{z^2}$ orbital in $sp^3d$ (trigonal bipyramidal geometry)? I came across this information while reading J.D.Lee Concise ...
1
vote
0answers
112 views

Bent's rule: electronegativity and s character

I'm very much confused about Bent's rule. What I perceive from it is that more electronegative element occupies a position which has less s character. What I can infer from here is that s character ...
1
vote
0answers
522 views

Dichlorine monoxide molecular geometry

I need to predict the geometry of Dichlorine monoxide, using the main link theory: Lewis model, VSEPR and hybridization of molecular orbitals. First, the Lewis structure is a graphical representation ...
1
vote
0answers
870 views

How to calculate steric number of methyl free radical?

According to the definition, steric number = number of atoms it is attached + lone pair. In that way, I get 4 for methyl free radical which means sp3 hybridization . But that's wrong ! Why is this ...
1
vote
0answers
3k views

Hybridisation in phosphorus allotropes

The white phosphorus has a tetrahedral structure, like this: [Image source: Wikipedia] The red phosphorus, on the other hand, has a polymeric structure: [Image source: google images] Then what ...
1
vote
0answers
200 views

The affect of effective nuclear charge on energy gap between subshells

A few days ago my teacher taught me about $\mathrm{d}$ orbital contraction. He said that in $\ce{SF6}$ the hybridization of sulphur is $\mathrm{sp^3d^2}$. He said that although the $\mathrm{d}$ ...
1
vote
0answers
385 views

Hybridisation and bond strength

I'm a high school student with minimal mathematical knowledge about the theory of chemical bond. (I just have a bit of theoretical background). I came across a statement which stated that "The more is ...
1
vote
0answers
819 views

Why Don't Sulfur Atoms Hybridize?

I am doing some chemistry problems with given answers, and supposedly the $107^{\circ}$ and $92^{\circ}$ bond angles in $\ce{H_2O}$ and $\ce{H_2S}$, respectively, is due to the fact that"$\ce{O}$ uses ...
0
votes
0answers
91 views

Comparing intensity of colour in coordination compounds

I had given an examination recently in which the question asked was: Write the decreasing order for the intensity of color in $\ce{[CoCl4]^{2-}}$, $\ce{[Co(CN)4]^2-}$, $\ce{[Co(H2O)6]^2+}$ What my ...
0
votes
0answers
31 views

A contradiction in the nucleophilic attack of hydride ion based on charge densities

On page 130 of Organic Chemistry by Clayden, it is stated that Nucleophilic attack by the hydride ion, $\ce{H-}$, is an almost unknown reaction. This species, which is present in the salt sodium ...
0
votes
0answers
45 views

The covalent bond in HCl and the Lewis model

Can the formation of the covalent bond in HCl be explained through the hybridization model? We know for sure that it can be explained by the theory of molecular orbitals. In this way, it would be ...
0
votes
0answers
28 views

Does Hybridization change the shape of molecules after bonding to other molecules?

If you have two molecules bonding to each other such as NH and CH2 you have a change in hybridization for both N and C. NH with its two lone pairs is sp2 hybridized and CH2 is also sp2 hybridized. As ...
0
votes
0answers
51 views

Does hybridization change atomic size?

I have come to know that nitrogen can undergo both $\mathrm{sp}^3$ and $\mathrm{sp}^2$ hybridization. Does a different hybridization lead to a different atomic radius?
0
votes
0answers
27 views

Electronegativity of elements on pauling scale

When we say the electronegativity of Nitrogen is 3.04 ( on pauling scale ) what is the hybridisation of Nitrogen? Similarly for other elements?
0
votes
0answers
345 views

Why do the d orbitals contract when pairing of electrons start, because the size should increase due to increase in energy

The energy of an orbital is proportional to its mean radial distance, and since the 3d orbital is much larger it is much higher in energy than the 3s and 3p orbitals All references from JD Lee ...
0
votes
0answers
198 views

Why are d(xy),d(yz) and d(xz) orbitals involved in d³s hybridisation?

Shouldn't d(x²-y²) dxy and dz² orbitals participate? Since this corressponds to the best case overlap? What factors decide the participating orbitals in hybridisation? P.S I am well versed with the ...
0
votes
0answers
355 views

What is the electronic structure of Mn in KMnO4 and K2MnO4?

I know that is is d3s hybrid. But in my book it is unclear which orbitals participate in pi bond with O. I think it should be both p and d orbitals of Mn that do.
0
votes
0answers
131 views

How to Choose Orbitals for Hybridization

Recently, I was reviewing my textbook regarding orbital hybridization, and one of the problems was to determine the hybridization of each of the atoms in $\text{CO}_2$. I understand why the ...
0
votes
0answers
1k views

Deciding if a molecule is polar and non-polar in cyclic carbon compounds

While discussing about dipole moment of the compounds, our chemistry teacher told that the dipole moment will be 0 for 1,4-Dichlorobenzen, and for those compounds where same atoms or group of atoms ...
0
votes
0answers
121 views

Why is an alkenyl hydrogen more acidic than the alkyl analog?

For example, in ethene the sigma bonds are stronger overall than in ethane. ...
0
votes
0answers
631 views

How to explain shape of molecules in penta and hexa coordination if hybridization involving d-orbitals (in main block) is considered incorrect?

In this answer @Jan says: penta- and hexacoordination; tetracoordination with additional lone pairs and related: attempt to form as many normal bonds with p orbitals as possible; keep one lone ...
0
votes
0answers
32 views

Band gap difference in different allotropes of Group4 materials

Diamond and bulk Si are both Group 4 elements found in their $sp^3$ hybridized states, having bandgaps of around 5.3eV and 1.1eV respectively, but Graphene and Silicene are both $sp^2$ hybridized ...
0
votes
0answers
152 views

Hybrid orbitals in molecular orbitals

In our textbook there are two topics that I can't make connection between: hybrid orbitals which (as I understand) are used to demonstrate the spacial shape of molecules like CH4 with VSEPR while ...
0
votes
0answers
54 views

If I have an alloy of two materials, will I have a chemical reaction between the two materials

I have always been told that an alloy is a mixture without chemical interference between the materials, but if I look at highly doped silicon (doped with Aluminum via ion implantation and then lattice ...