Questions tagged [hybridization]

Hybridisation is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals to form new hybrid orbitals suitable for the qualitative description of atomic bonding properties.

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How do I figure out the hybridization of a particular atom in a molecule?

I'm learning how to apply the VSEPR theory to Lewis structures and in my homework, I'm being asked to provide the hybridization of the central atom in each Lewis structure I've drawn. I've drawn out ...
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What is the hybridization of copper in blue vitriol?

My book says that the structure of blue vitriol is the following: From the structure, I figured that since there are 4 water molecules coordinated to the cuprate ion, the hybridization should be $sp^...
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Where should the double bonded C attached to Sulphur be at? Equatorial or Axial position?

The maximum number of atoms that may lie in the same plane in $\left(\mathrm{CH}_{3}\right)_{2} \mathrm{C}=\mathrm{SF}_{2}\left(\mathrm{CH}_{3}\right)_{2}$ is ____ : Where should the the S=C bond lie ...
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How does a molecule (for example, ClF₅) have a steric number of more than 4 if SP³ hybridisation is the maximum? [duplicate]

"The sum of the number of atoms bonded to a central atom and the number of lone pairs formed by its nonbonding valence electrons is known as the central atom's steric number." Wikipedia's ...
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Hybridisation of Azide ion

In azide ion, $\ce{N3-}$, the hybridisation is $\mathrm{sp}$ because number of hybrid orbitals = steric number, the central atom $(\ce{N})$ has 6 bonds with other $\ce{N}$ atom, 2 of which are sigma ...
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Why do the d orbitals contract when pairing of electrons start, because the size should increase due to increase in energy

The energy of an orbital is proportional to its mean radial distance, and since the 3d orbital is much larger it is much higher in energy than the 3s and 3p orbitals All references from JD Lee ...
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Role of 'p' Orbitals in Graphite Carbons

In the graphite arrangement of carbons, if we model them according to hybridization theory, the carbons in graphite are sp2 hybridized. This would mean that one s and two p orbitals hybridize, making ...
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Is there a shortcut method to calculate the Steric Number?

The steric number is equal to the number of $\sigma$-bonds + the number of lone pairs of electrons on the central atom. It gives us the number of hybridised orbitals. It is pretty straight-forward to ...
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What's the "Charge" in Steric Number Formula

I was reading about the Steric Number Formula here. There, I came to know that the Steric Number $N=\frac{V+M \pm I}{2}$ where $V = n(\ce{e-})$, the number of valence electrons of central atom, which ...
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What is the hybridisation of carbon in transition state in SN2 mechanism?

Normally, a carbon atom is $\ce{sp^3}$ hybridized, whereas in a transition state five bonds are present, then what's the hybridisation of carbon?
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Comparing intensity of colour in coordination compounds

I had given an examination recently in which the question asked was: Write the decreasing order for the intensity of color in $\ce{[CoCl4]^{2-}}$, $\ce{[Co(CN)4]^2-}$, $\ce{[Co(H2O)6]^2+}$ What my ...
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Selection of p-orbital(s) when considering sp or sp2 hybridisation

I am considering $z$-axis as the internuclear axis in all cases. When we consider overlap of s and p orbital to form a $\sigma$-bond, the chosen orbital must be p$_z$ orbital for a proper overlap. ...
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What is Drago's rule? Does it really exist?

My textbooks states the Drago's rule in inorganic chemistry as follows: The more electronegative atom prefers the orbital having more $\mathrm{p}$ character, and lone-pairs or less electronegative ...
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If all bond angles in AX₃ are the same, then which of the following are correct conclusions about AX₃?

Question If all bond angles in $\ce{AX3}$ are the same, then which of the following are correct conclusions about $\ce{AX3}?$ (A) $\ce{AX3}$ must be polar. (B) $\ce{AX3}$ must be planar. (C) $\ce{AX3}...
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Hybridization of nitrogen in trisilylamine, (SiH3)3N?

I want to know the hybridization of the central atom in $\ce{(SiH3)3N}$. I think it should be $\mathrm{sp^3}$, because $\ce{N}$ is attached to three silicon atoms and one lone pair. But actually it ...
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How to rationalise the planar structre of I2Cl6?

$\ce{I2Cl6}$ is a dimer of $\ce{ICl3}$. $\ce{ICl3}$ is T-shaped, with $\ce{I}$ being $\mathrm{sp^3d}$ and having two lone pairs. I read in Inorganic Reaction Mechanisms by R. K. Sharma that $\ce{I2Cl6}...
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Why d and s orbitals overlap even when there is considerable difference in their energies?

In my grade 11 chemistry NCERT textbook, its written that hybridization happens when orbitals of almost same energy overlaps. But S orbital and D orbital have significant difference in their energies. ...
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Hybridisation of cobalt in tris(oxalato)cobaltate(III)

Will the hybridisation of of $\ce{Co}$ in $\ce{[Co(C2O4)3]}^{3-}$ be $\mathrm{sp^3d^2}$ or $\mathrm{d^2sp^3}$? The question in which I found it has mentioned the answer to be $\mathrm{d^2sp^3}$ while ...
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Why is the bond angle of sulphur difluoride greater than that of hydrogen sulphide?

Why is the bond angle of $\ce{SF_2 (98.05^\circ) > SH_2 (92.11^\circ)}$? Isn't this contradicting Bent's rule or otherwise electron repulsion rule ? Fluorine is more electronegative and hence it ...
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Hybridisation and bond strength

I'm a high school student with minimal mathematical knowledge about the theory of chemical bond. (I just have a bit of theoretical background). I came across a statement which stated that "The more is ...
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Why does a larger bond angle correspond to greater s-character?

In trialkylamines $\ce{NR3}$, the $\ce{R}$ alkyl group attached to nitrogen increases the electronegativity of the nitrogen atom. I also found in this question that this happens due to the repulsion ...
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What makes banana bonds possible in diborane?

Diborane has the interesting property of having two 3-centered bonds that are each held together by only 2 electrons (see the diagram below, from Wikipedia). These are known as "banana bonds." I'm ...
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Why is cyclopropane more acidic than propane

Though I found links about ring strain and other things, I actually fail to understand the exact reason for this difference in acidity.
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How can orbitals of Hydrogen and Chlorine atom combine to form molecular orbitals of Hydrogen Chloride? [closed]

Linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) states that orbitals can only combine if the energies and shape of the orbitals are same. $3p$ orbital of Chlorine and $1s$ orbital of Hydrogen are the ...
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What is the hybridization of the central carbon in buta‐1,2‐diene?

State the hybridisation of asterisked carbon in $\ce{CH3-CH=\overset{\ast}{C}=CH2}.$ I am not sure between $\mathrm{sp^2}$ and $\mathrm{sp}$ hybridization. Because of the presence of double bonds I ...
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Bond lengths in hydrocarbons

It seems like the first molecule has a bond order of $1$, the second and third have a bond order of $7/6$ and the fourth molecule has a bond order of $3/2$. Why is the answer not $4 < 2 = 3 < 1$?...
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What is θ in Bent's rule equation (%s - character)?

I was learning about Bent's Rule. I came across a formula $$\cos\theta = \frac{s}{s-1}$$ I am quite confused about $\theta$. I know that it represents bond angle. But for a compound like $\ce{PCl5}$, ...
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Why doesn't an sp3s hybridisation exist?

Trying to prove that nitrogen doesn't split its lone pair to form 5 bonds, I thought of a situation that I couldn't rule out; the paired electron being excited to the 3s orbital, so that five bonds ...
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How do you determine the hybridisation state of a coordinate complex?

If an exercise asks for the hybridisation state of a coordinate complex (ion in solution) consisting of a central cobalt atom surrounded by $\ce{NH_3}$ ligands, and neither coordination number or ...
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Which d orbitals are involved in "d3s hybridisation"?

I was reading about hybridisation and came across a point saying that $\mathrm{d^3s}$ hybridisation involves only $\mathrm d_{xy}$, $\mathrm d_{yz}$, and $\mathrm d_{zx}$ orbitals and not $\mathrm d_{...
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Are there square planar complexes with sp2d hybridization?

We were taught (Under the section 'Valence Bond Theory') seven types of geometries a transition metal complex may assume and its corresponding hybridization states, Linear - $\ce{sp}$ Trigonal planar ...
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Bond length comparison between sulfur tetrafluoride and thionyl tetrafluoride

I'm comparing sulfur tetrafluoride and thionyl tetrafluoride. The lone pair has more s character compared to a double bond. Therefore, sulfur in $\ce{SF4}$ should have a greater s character compared ...
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Relation between the number of hybridised orbitals and the number of sigma bonds

March's Advanced Organic Chemistry (8th Ed.), has in its first chapter several tantalizing statements of the following variety; Boron has only three valence electrons available to form bonds, hence ...
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A contradiction in the nucleophilic attack of hydride ion based on charge densities

On page 130 of Organic Chemistry by Clayden, it is stated that Nucleophilic attack by the hydride ion, $\ce{H-}$, is an almost unknown reaction. This species, which is present in the salt sodium ...
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Hybrid lobes of sp3d2 and sp3d3 [closed]

It's known that $\ce{sp^3d}$ hybridization has 5 lobes; 3 equatorial with $\ce{sp^2}$ lobes and 2 axial with $\ce{dp}$ lobes. Do we have such splitting in $\ce{sp^3d^2}$ and $\ce{sp^3d^3}$ ...
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Reactivity of unsaturated organolithium compounds

I'm particularly looking in the context of alkyl lithiums compared to vinyl-lithiums and alkynyl-lithiums. Why is it that shifting from sp3 to sp2, and even further to sp carbanions, reduces the ...
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Why is it that nitrogen hybridizes in ammonia, yet in F2, fluorine does not [closed]

It seems rather arbitrary to me that we have decided that nitrogen sp3 hybridizes in ammonia to stay consistent with VSEPR, yet that fluorine uses its 2p orbital to bond with another fluorine in F2 (I....
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Relative acidities of alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes

How does one explain the trend in bond lengths and acidity of the following hydrocarbons? $$\begin{array}{ccc} \hline \text{Species} & \ce{C-H}\text{ bond length / Å} & \mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a} ...
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sp, sp2 and sp3 hybrid orbitals are actual solutions of Schrodinger's equation or only a heuristic?

According to Wikipedia's article about orbital hybridisation: [...] today it is considered an effective heuristic for rationalising the structures of organic compounds. [...] Hybrid orbitals are ...
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is there a stead fast rule to predict hybridization or is it just an ad hoc concept

Before I start of this question, Ι want to make it clear that I know that hybridization, like pretty much all of chemical bonding, are just made up to qualitatively rationalize observations. I know ...
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How to calculate the hybridization of ethane with H=½[V+M-C+A]?

I wanted to calculate the hybridization of this molecule $\ce{CH3-CH3}$. I noticed a shortcut formula given in my class notes for calculating the hybridization. It was $$H=\frac{1}{2}×[V+M-C+A].$$ ...
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How does VB theory explain the Si-O-Si bond angles in SiO2?

Silicon dioxide has a huge variety of structures. Most of them are built up from connected $\ce{SiO4}$ units — the $\ce{O–Si–O}$ angle is $109.5°$, accordingly. The VB/hybridization approach to this ...
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Why there is no sp2s hybridization in hydrocarbons? [closed]

If carbon's $\mathrm{sp^2}$ orbital is overlapped with hydrogen's $\mathrm{s},$ then why it is $\mathrm{sp^2}$ and why not $\mathrm{sp^2s}?$
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Why is oxygen sp2 hybridised in acetate ion [closed]

The oxygen atom with the negative charge on the acetate ion is said to be sp2 hybridised but I can seem to figure out how I feel I may not have out much effort into this question so even a link to a ...
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The covalent bond in HCl and the Lewis model

Can the formation of the covalent bond in HCl be explained through the hybridization model? We know for sure that it can be explained by the theory of molecular orbitals. In this way, it would be ...
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Why do compounds like SF6 and SF4 exist but SH6 and SH4 don't?

Both $\ce{SF6}$ and $\ce{SH6}$ and $\ce{SF4}$ and $\ce{SH4}$ have the same central atom and the same hybridization, but my teacher specifically mentioned that $\ce{SH6}$ and $\ce{SH4}$ don't exist. I'...
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Hybridization in PH3

Does $\ce{PH3}$ exhibit $\ce{sp^3}$ hybridization? Arguments against hybridization: $\ce{PH3}$ is less basic than $\ce{NH3}$. This jibes with the supposition that $\ce{PH3}$ keeps its lone pair in ...
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Describe the formation of the [PbCl4]2- complex ion

The $\ce{[PbCl4]^{2-}}$ complex ion is formed when $\ce{PbCl2}$ is exposed to excess $Cl^-$ ions in solution as explained here and here through the following reversible reaction: $$\ce{PbCl2(s) + 2Cl^-...
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Predicting sigma bond overlap strengths of s-s, p-p, s-p, sp-sp etc

How can we qualitatively predict $\sigma-$bond strengths of overlap between: $\ce{s-s}$ $\ce{s-p}$ $\ce{p-p}$ $\ce{sp-s}$ $\ce{sp-p}$ $\ce{sp-sp}$ etc.? My school-book says $\ce{s-s}$ overlap bond ...
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Electron configuration of non-hybridized carbon

I'm currently learning about orbital hybridization in carbon. I see that carbon has an electron configuration of 1s2 2s2 2p2. However, there are actually three p-orbitals in the second shell, namely ...

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