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Questions tagged [hybridization]

Hybridisation is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals to form new hybrid orbitals suitable for the qualitative description of atomic bonding properties.

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Why does F replace the axial bond in PCl5?

Why does $\ce{F}$ replace an axial bond in $\ce{PCl5}$? I realize that it would be more stable there than at equatorial bond, but what is the reason of its stability? Similarly in $\ce{AB4}$ type of ...
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What is Bent's rule?

I'm all bent out of shape trying to figure out what Bent's rule means. I have several formulations of it, and the most common formulation is also the hardest to understand. Atomic s character ...
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Why is it wrong to use the concept of hybridization for transition metal complexes?

I have asked a lot of questions on coordination chemistry here before and I have gone through a lot others here as well. Students, including me, attempt to answer those questions using the concept of ...
Arishta's user avatar
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66 votes
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Why do compounds like SF6 and SF4 exist but SH6 and SH4 don't?

Both $\ce{SF6}$ and $\ce{SH6}$ and $\ce{SF4}$ and $\ce{SH4}$ have the same central atom and the same hybridization, but my teacher specifically mentioned that $\ce{SH6}$ and $\ce{SH4}$ don't exist. I'...
sayantankhan's user avatar
50 votes
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Why does bond angle decrease in the order H2O, H2S, H2Se?

I know that bond angle decreases in the order $\ce{H2O}$, $\ce{H2S}$ and $\ce{H2Se}$. I wish to know the reason for this. I think this is because of the lone pair repulsion but how?
Yomal Amarathunge's user avatar
55 votes
4 answers
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How do I figure out the hybridization of a particular atom in a molecule?

I'm learning how to apply the VSEPR theory to Lewis structures and in my homework, I'm being asked to provide the hybridization of the central atom in each Lewis structure I've drawn. I've drawn out ...
Melanie Shebel's user avatar
20 votes
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Relative acidities of alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes

How does one explain the trend in bond lengths and acidity of the following hydrocarbons? $$\begin{array}{ccc} \hline \text{Species} & \ce{C-H}\text{ bond length / Å} & \mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a} ...
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Hybridization of sulfur in sulfur dioxide

One of the canonical structures for sulfur dioxide - $\ce{SO2}$ - has sulfur (with a lone electron pair) double bonded to each oxygen atom to form a total of 4 bonds for sulfur - which can be achieved ...
Mark Adams's user avatar
8 votes
3 answers
11k views

π Bonding in Carbon Dioxide

I am fairly sure the first diagram I drew for carbon dioxide is wrong in terms of showing π bonding. This is because we use a π orbital twice, which isn't possible. The second diagram corrects this by ...
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Are the lone pairs in water equivalent?

I've read that the oxygen atom in water is $\mathrm{sp^2}$ hybridized, such that one of the oxygen lone pairs should be in an $\mathrm{sp^2}$ orbital and the other should be in a pure p atomic orbital....
jheindel's user avatar
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How to rationalise the resonance structures and hybridisation of the nitrogen in a conjugated amine?

I was given the first structure, and then drew the other 5 resonance structures: First of all, are they correct? ChemBioDraw had some complaints, but as far as I can see there's the same number of ...
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33 votes
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What is Drago's rule? Does it really exist?

My textbooks states the Drago's rule in inorganic chemistry as follows: The more electronegative atom prefers the orbital having more $\mathrm{p}$ character, and lone-pairs or less electronegative ...
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Does sulfur and phosphorus expand their octet?

There are many compounds in which the stability of a molecule is not governed by the presence of octet configuration in central atom. In most of the cases the central atom is generally sulfur or ...
agha rehan abbas's user avatar
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3 answers
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Why can there not be more than one sigma bond in a set of bonds?

A question on an exam asked why there is exactly one sigma bond in double and triple covalent bonds. I looked in my text and online after the exam, but couldn't find an anawer to the question. Why ...
Hal's user avatar
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23 votes
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How can the Bonding in IF7 be explained using LCAO method?

I know that the VSEPR theory explains $\ce{IF_7}$ (iodine heptafluoride)'s structure as a pentagonal bi-pyramidal one. The valence bond theory can be used to say that it has $\mathrm{sp^3d^3}$ ...
scienceauror's user avatar
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What is the hybridization of terminal fluorine atoms in molecules like boron trifluoride?

What is the hybridisation of $\ce{F}$ in $\ce{BF3}$ or $\ce{CH3F}$ or $\ce{PF5}$ or $\ce{SF6}$? My book states that the p orbitals of fluorine overlaps, but I feel that sp3 hybridisation occurs in $\...
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What makes banana bonds possible in diborane?

Diborane has the interesting property of having two 3-centered bonds that are each held together by only 2 electrons (see the diagram below, from Wikipedia). These are known as "banana bonds." I'm ...
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13 votes
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Why is the lone pair of pyridine's nitrogen atom not part of the aromatic ring?

In pyrrole, the lone pair of electrons belonging to the nitrogen is part of the aromatic ring. However, in pyridine it is part of an sp2-hybridized orbital. Why can't it be in the p-orbital and take ...
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9 votes
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Hybridization in PH3

Does $\ce{PH3}$ exhibit $\ce{sp^3}$ hybridization? Arguments against hybridization: $\ce{PH3}$ is less basic than $\ce{NH3}$. This jibes with the supposition that $\ce{PH3}$ keeps its lone pair in ...
Dissenter's user avatar
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What is the hybridization of chlorine in vinyl chloride?

Is chlorine in vinyl chloride sp2 or sp3 hybridized? Calculating using steric number it is found to be sp3 hybridized. But according to I. L. Finar* it is sp2. *I.L. Finar: Organic chemistry Vol.1 ...
Hariharan V's user avatar
12 votes
2 answers
30k views

Is nitrogen of aniline sp² or sp³ hybridized? [duplicate]

I found a thread which discussed this which totally confused me. (refer to the part of the link which talks about $\ce{sp^2/sp^3}$) The question "How to rationalise the resonance structures and ...
Wong's user avatar
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How are the hybrid orbitals of sulfur hexafluoride shaped?

On the fluorine end the fluoride atoms are simply completing a $3p$ orbital. On the sulfur end one could posit a hybrid of one $3s$ orbital, two $3p$ orbitals and a three inner $2p$ orbitals. However,...
Ms. Molly Stewart-Gallus's user avatar
14 votes
1 answer
15k views

What is the hybridisation of trifluoromethyl free radical?

Having three σ bonds in a similar manner to $\ce{CH3^·}$ free radical, $\ce{CF3^·}$ should also have $\mathrm{sp^2}$ hybridisation. However, if we look at its shape, it is pyramidal and not planar ...
James Hunt's user avatar
11 votes
2 answers
37k views

Why an asymmetric geometry with sp3d and sp3d3 hybridization?

A molecule in which the central atom is $sp^3d^2$ hybridized ($\ce{SF_6}$), for example, acquires an octahedral shape, which can be explained by assuming that the hybrid orbitals arrange themselves to ...
Gerard's user avatar
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What is the hybridisation of titanium in the hexaaqua- and hexaamminetitanium(III) complex?

I want to check if their hybridizations are as follows: $\mathrm{sp^3d^2}$ in $\ce{[Ti(NH3)6]^3+}$ and $\mathrm{d^2sp^3}$ in $\ce{[Ti(H2O)6]^3+}$.
BEWARB's user avatar
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1 answer
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Hybridization in Light of Resonance

According to this video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ns4Py96Bkn8&NR=1 1) Is this true? (You might recall I asked a similar question about $\ce{sp^2}$ hybridization implying $\ce{sp^2}$ ...
Dissenter's user avatar
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33 votes
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Sp5 hybridization in cyclopropane?

I have never before heard/read about something as a $sp^5$ hybridization. Today, Henry Rzepa's blog post made me aware of the existance of such a bonding system. That made me search a little bit and I ...
pH13 - Yet another Philipp's user avatar
19 votes
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What is the hybridization of the carbonyl oxygen in a carboxylic acid?

My professor sent out a review guide. One of the questions on this guide is The carboxylic acid carbonyl oxygen is: 1. $\ce{sp^2}$ 2. $\ce{sp^3}$ 3. $\ce{H}$-bond donor 4. rapidly ...
user15750's user avatar
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8 votes
1 answer
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Why does hybridization significantly matter for organic chemistry?

I just recalled, and still see that almost every organic chemistry book starts with bonds, empahsizing hybridization. One thing is straight forward but the rest doesn't seem to connect well. The thing ...
bonCodigo's user avatar
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30 votes
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Are the bonding orbitals in methane equivalent - photoelectron spectrum

The low energy portion (the part dealing with the $\ce{2s}$ and $\ce{2p}$ electrons) of the photoelectron (PE) spectrum of methane is reproduced below. (image source) The reaction being examined is ...
ron's user avatar
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25 votes
4 answers
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Does nitrogen inversion affect the basicity of amines?

If I were to compare the basic strength of 1-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane and triethylamine: Can I say that 1-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane is more basic than triethylamine because the lone pair of electrons ...
Aditya Dev's user avatar
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25 votes
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What is the origin of the differences between the MO schemes of O₂ and N₂?

Here are the MO schemes of $\ce{N2}$ (left) and $\ce{O2}$ (right). Why is the $\sigma$-MO formed by the $p$ AOs energetically above the $\pi$-MO for $\ce{N2}$ but not for $\ce{O2}$? Can it be ...
EJC's user avatar
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20 votes
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What does it mean when it is said that an sp³ orbital has 25% s character?

My textbook frequently mentions: $\mathrm{sp^3}$ hybrid orbital has 25% $\mathrm{s}$-character and 75% $\mathrm{p}$-character. What are these "characters"? And how do these characters influence ...
user avatar
18 votes
2 answers
4k views

Color of chromate and permanganate

I've heard quite a few times that the chromate and permanganate have a $d^3s$ configuration. Also, their colors arise due to a rapid switching of electrons between the oxygen and metal atoms. I don't ...
ManishEarth's user avatar
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17 votes
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Predicting sigma bond overlap strengths of s-s, p-p, s-p, sp-sp etc

How can we qualitatively predict $\sigma-$bond strengths of overlap between: $\ce{s-s}$ $\ce{s-p}$ $\ce{p-p}$ $\ce{sp-s}$ $\ce{sp-p}$ $\ce{sp-sp}$ etc.? My school-book says $\ce{s-s}$ overlap bond ...
jonsno's user avatar
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17 votes
4 answers
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Hybridization of nitrogen in trisilylamine, (SiH3)3N?

I want to know the hybridization of the central atom in $\ce{(SiH3)3N}$. I think it should be $\mathrm{sp^3}$, because $\ce{N}$ is attached to three silicon atoms and one lone pair. But actually it ...
hey's user avatar
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17 votes
2 answers
1k views

What utility does the tau bond model of orbital overlap have?

In his book on molecular orbital theory, Molecular Orbitals and Organic Chemical Reactions, Ian Fleming notes that Pauling formulated an early alternative model to Hückel theory for explaining the ...
Greg E.'s user avatar
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11 votes
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Hybridisation of ClO2

Find the hybridization as well identify the pπ-pπ as well as pπ-dπ bonds in $\ce{ClO2}$. $\ce{ClO2}$ has 2 $\sigma$ bonds, 1 lone pair, 2π bonds and 1 odd electron. Hybridisation is equal to number ...
Abhinav's user avatar
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11 votes
2 answers
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What is the hybridization of the nitrogen in the azide ion?

In the azide ion, there is a symmetrical arrangement of three nitrogen atoms. If I've been told to figure out the hybridization of each nitrogen atom, what's the best way to go about doing this? My ...
Ben Tollen's user avatar
11 votes
1 answer
11k views

Bonding of the complex when both weak and strong field ligand are present

In the complex $\ce{[Ni(H2O)2(NH3)4]^2+}$ the magnetic moment ($\mu$) of $\ce{Ni}$ is – Zero $2.83~\mathrm{BM}$ $1.73~\mathrm{BM}$ $3.87~\mathrm{BM}$ It is easy to find the unpaired electrons and ...
Arishta's user avatar
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7 votes
1 answer
430 views

Geometries of methyl and silyl radicals

The $\ce{.CH3}$ radical is planar but the $\ce{.SiH3}$ radical is a trigonal pyramid. Why are they different? After all, $\ce{C}$ and $\ce{Si}$ are in the same group.
Peter's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
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Sulfur trioxide - vacant d-orbitals

Sulfur trioxide violates the octet rule. Upon drawing the Lewis dot structure for sulfur trioxide, we see that the central sulfur atom is bonded to three other oxygen atoms by double covalent bonds. ...
Ram Sidharth's user avatar
3 votes
3 answers
3k views

Hybridisation of terminal nitrogen in diazomethane

I have a few questions about the terminal nitrogen (highlighted in red) in diazomethane, $\ce{CH2N2}$. Is that nitrogen $\mathrm{sp}$ or $\mathrm{sp^2}$ hybridised? What type of orbitals do the lone ...
surabhii's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
2k views

Determine the bond angle in a compound [closed]

How can we find the bond angle between 3 atoms in a compound? Please specify an equation which can be used for all compounds.
satwik satapathy's user avatar
44 votes
3 answers
10k views

Carbon atoms at the edge of a diamond

It is well known (the simplest textbook example) that a diamond has a well-defined arrangement of sp3 carbon atoms, as each atom is connected to four others in a ...
jimyy's user avatar
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19 votes
3 answers
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Why is one lobe of an sp3 hybridized orbital smaller than its other half?

A hybrid sp3 orbital is drawn with one lobe smaller than its other half, the latter which is of equal size when drawing the p orbital. Why is it so?
Apoorv's user avatar
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15 votes
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Is s-p mixing referring to hybridization or is it the mixing of one atoms s orbital with the other's p orbital?

According to molecular orbital theory s and p orbitals can mix if they are close enough in energy to each other. For period 2 diatomics, this occurs for $\ce{Li}$, $\ce{Be}$, $\ce{B}$, $\ce{C}$ and $\...
RobChem's user avatar
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14 votes
1 answer
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Bonding in Square Antiprismatic Compounds

Both $\ce{IF_8^-}$ and $\ce{XeF_8^{2-}}$ have (distorted) square antiprismatic geometries. I've been wondering how to explain the bonding in such compounds. Hypercoordinate bonding (as used to ...
ron's user avatar
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11 votes
2 answers
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Is the phenyl cation or ethynylium more stable?

I recently gave an exam and I received an interesting question to which I believe the answer is wrong. Given two compounds, a benzene molecule with carbocation at one of its constituting carbon atoms ...
Abhinav's user avatar
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9 votes
1 answer
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Is the hybridization only related to atomic orbitals but not to the molecular orbitals?

What is Hybridization? (Spelling: Hybridisation (British English) / Hybridization (American English)) The hybridization is a concept that describes atomic orbitals. In other words: Hybridization ...
laminin's user avatar
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