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Why does chlorine have a higher electron affinity value than fluorine? [duplicate]

Why does chlorine have a higher electron affinity value than fluorine? Since this periodic property tends from the bottom up (in the group), the logic would be that the fluorine is the element with ...
Santiago Javier Celis Lara's user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
39 views

Synthesis Sec - Butyl Bromide from alcohol

The question is to make Sec-butyl Bromide from alcohol. From what i have read, 2° and 3° alkyl bromide and alkyl iodide cannot be formed with Conc H2SO4 as it will make it into alkene. I have tried P4 ...
Aum Pandya's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
227 views

Iodine solution concentration

I am planning to make 1L of 0.005M iodine solution from KI and I2. I have found instructions that say to use 2 g of KI and 1.3 g of I2 but no explanation why exactly this particular amount. I also ...
Ance's user avatar
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Formation of hypofluorite from F2 and hydroxide

Why $\ce{FO-}$ can't form in reaction of $\ce{F2}$ with $\ce{OH-}$ but $\ce{ClO-}$ can form on reacting $\ce{Cl2}$ with $\ce{OH-}$? Is $\ce{FO-}$ very unstable? I know that fluorine can't have ...
Harjot Dhillon's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
461 views

Substitution or elimination when a chloroalkene reacts with NaOH in ethanol?

NaOH + EtOH will eliminate the Cl atom forming a double bond. At least, that's what I think. 3 could also be a viable answer since the OH can also attack the said double bond (this is probably not ...
Aranya's user avatar
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5 votes
2 answers
131 views

What words can I use to differentiate between cases where two atoms are of the same element versus when two atoms are of different elements?

I am writing my thesis, and usually I'm quite good with picking the right words for specific phenomena, yet I am having trouble finding the right words for this specific circumstance. I am trying to ...
thelocalsage's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
290 views

Very Little Astatine

Astatine is the penultimate halogen in the periodic table with atomic number 85. It is very much radioactive and would vaporize itself by its own radioactivity before being collected. But there is ...
Proscionexium's user avatar
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Elegant and fast way without chromatography to remove fluoride ions from water phase without contamination of the polar water soluble product?

I have a challenging purification routine. I want to remove fluoride from an aqueous solution, my product is a phosphonic acid, which is readly water soluble and an anion. The anion is about 200 Da in ...
raptorlane's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
97 views

How to find the percentage of chloroderivatives after monochlorination of a compound

There are series of examples in my textbook to decipher the chlorination selectivity. The example was to find percentage of monohlorderviatives of n-pentane after free radical halogenation giving ...
Moonwalker750's user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
59 views

Markonikov's Rule (Cyclohexene reacting with H-Br)

Based on Markonikov's rule, H-X hydrogen will be added onto the carbon (double bond) with more hydrogens. Therefore, the LHS and the middle makes sense. But why is the RHS product possible ? Hydrogen ...
user307640's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
456 views

Which Group 16 elements form stable dihalides?

My textbook says that "except oxygen, all elements of group 16 form dichlorides and dibromides", while other sources quote that only Oxygen and Sulphur form dihalides and dibromides. Whereas,...
Chem1234's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
126 views

Reaction of 1,4-Dichlorobenzene & Hydroxylamine

I'm looking for reactions that would attack the chlorine in dichlorobenzenes. Wikipedia mentions a reaction with hydroxylamine, yet Googling, I haven't found exact said reaction. Can anyone provide it ...
Dehbop's user avatar
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3 votes
3 answers
533 views

Why chlorate(V) is one of the primary products of disproportionation reaction between chlorine gas and hot concentrated NaOH?

Cold diluted $\ce{NaOH}$ reacts with $\ce{Cl2}$ producing hypochlorite: $$\ce{2 NaOH(aq, dil, cold) + Cl2(g) -> NaClO(aq) + NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)},\tag{R1}$$ whereas hot concentrated $\ce{NaOH}$ yields ...
monke's user avatar
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21 votes
1 answer
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Why is the boiling point of fluorine lower than that of oxygen?

Fluorine boils at -188.1 °C and oxygen boils at -183 °C, but shouldn't $\ce{F2}$ boil after $\ce{O2}$? Despite being electronegative elements, both are nonpolar molecules and posses dispersion forces ...
John Hon's user avatar
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-5 votes
1 answer
88 views

Can halogens show -3 or -5 or -7 oxidation state. Why? [closed]

I mean can we think it like if the electrons get excited into the d orbitals and because there are now more than one unpaired electron, why does it only loose them and why don't they accept more than ...
Ryn's user avatar
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7 votes
2 answers
2k views

Why, out of the main halogens, is bromine the most soluble in water?

Why, out of the main halogens, is bromine $(\ce{Br2})$ the most soluble in water? Why is there such a drastic decrease for iodine $(\ce{I2})?$ Here is a table from my inorganic chemistry textbook with ...
Dominik Primožič's user avatar
7 votes
3 answers
3k views

Why do diluted sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide etch copper only when chloride ions are present?

I've mixed 30 ml 10% sulfuric acid with 20 ml 3% hydrogen peroxide and put a drop of this solution onto copper foil. The solution quickly removed the oxide layer from the copper but did not dissolve ...
Jonathan S.'s user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
68 views

Hydrochloric acid from diaphragm electrolysis

I have a diaphragm electrolysis cell, which is made up of an outer container containing the cathode and a small terra cotta pot containing the anode. If sodium chloride solution is placed in the outer ...
user118995's user avatar
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Reaction of propanoic acid with chlorine used in wastewater treatment

I'm asked in a problem to write down the equation of the reaction of propanoic acid with chlorine used in wastewater treatment: $\ce{CH3-CH2-COOH +Cl2}$. The problem also states that, in this reaction,...
User1234321's user avatar
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0 answers
321 views

Why does chlorine show a mesomeric effect in haloarenes and an inductive effect in haloalkanes?

Chlorine shows the +R effect in haloarenes and the -I effect in haloalkanes. Does chlorine do the same for all cyclic compounds or only for aromatic rings? Is this just another experimentally seen ...
Dhruv Desai's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
74 views

Why is chloride measurment 0 [closed]

In class we did an experiment to measure chloride in different water sources, including a lake. We used Ion-selective electrode of Ag/AgCl technique. We did the calibration curve and all steps and ...
Edu Galindo's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
140 views

Is the electric conductivity of chlorine ions influenced by its oxidation state?

I'm a high school student researching the conductivity of electrolyte solutions. In this excerpt of the CRC Handbook, I noticed that different ions containing chlorine have different limiting molar ...
Lynn Gu's user avatar
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0 answers
219 views

Total Chloride Vs Organic/Inorganic Chloride

I am currently running a project to detect chloride level in crude palm oil. On most lab service websites, some offer total chloride detection and others offer organic chloride detection. What are the ...
babymaster27's user avatar
1 vote
3 answers
355 views

How can chlorine be 'only' the third-most electronegative element yet have the highest electron affinity?

From Wikipedia: It is an extremely reactive element and a strong oxidising agent: among the elements, it has the highest electron affinity and the third-highest electronegativity on the Pauling scale,...
Kurt Hikes's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
175 views

Are there terms for ions of chlorine other than chloride?

An ion of chlorine with a charge of −1 is called a chloride ion/anion. Are there terms for other ions of chlorine, for example, $\ce{Cl+}$ or $\ce{Cl^2-}?$
Kantura's user avatar
  • 709
7 votes
2 answers
986 views

How to measure chlorine content using ORP sensor?

In my project I need to measure pH, turbidity, and chlorine level of treated drinking water. I found sensors for measuring pH, turbidity, and also chlorine. The actual problem begins is that the cost ...
Aravinth Kalai's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
117 views

Why do iron objects leave black marks on laminate countertop [closed]

My over 30 years old laminate kitchen countertop had accumulated a lot of marks over the years that no cleaner would remove. I finally gave up and decided to use chlorine bleach on it knowing that ...
Johnny Petro's user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
168 views

Halogens chemical reactions with each other [closed]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halogen Can Halogens react with each other? Examples : Chlorine + Flourine Flourine + Iodine Iodine + Bromine Chlorine + Bromine and so on. Permutations and Combinations. ...
Prashant Akerkar's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
288 views

What makes a good chlorinating agent?

From what I know, good inorganic chlorinating agents, $\ce{SOCl2, PCl3, PCl5}$ are able to substitute a poorer leaving group (like $\ce{OH-}$) for chlorine. For example, for substitution of the ...
chematwork's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
5k views

Naming and structure of PtCl4.2HCl (complex/coordination compound)

Given that $\ce{PtCl4.2HCl}$ when reacted with excess of $\ce{AgNO3}$ produced zero moles of $\ce{AgCl}$, I understand that all the chlorine atoms are inside the coordination sphere. But what will the ...
sam's user avatar
  • 149
0 votes
1 answer
129 views

ClO2 chlorine dioxide how to know if it is still active or not ? by color ? by smell ? by reaction?

my wife have ClO2 tablet form. she dilutes it to be put inside mister. each time she make the dilution: package instruction: 1 tablet to 1 liter water => 100ppm ClO2 *we name this 100ppm as "...
andrew_ysk's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
152 views

Creating a chemical solution with water and chlorine

I bought a swimming pool for my kids and also a measurement instrument for measuring the amount of chlorine in the pool in mg/l. The problem is now that you have to calibrate the instrument before ...
Alex's user avatar
  • 41
-1 votes
2 answers
2k views

Production of hypoclorous acid by salt water electrolysis: requesting tips [closed]

I wish to use commonly available perfume ultrasonic nebulizers/diffusers to "fog" my working environment with hypoclorous acid, to obtain full coverage (ish) disinfection, albeit slowly. I also wish ...
ephestione's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
119 views

Nickel salts from hypochlorites

(JUST A HEADS UP I’m 15 years old and new to chemistry) So I was recently looking around the house looking for products that I can extract chemicals from and I found a bottle of cleaning Vinegar ( 5% ...
15year old chemist's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
2k views

What is the substance turning salty water green when electrolysed? [duplicate]

I am a student and I take O.L. Chemistry, in my knowledge I know if I electrolysed concentrated aqueous NaCl solution I should get Hydrogen evolved at the cathode and chlorine at the anode. I did an ...
Shams M.Monem's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
120 views

Could the Superoxide Radical Anion Be Responsible for the Removal of Chlorine Dioxide Used to Treat Natural Waters?

Some background facts: $\ce{ClO_2}$ is a gas that is highly soluble in water (some 8 g/L at 20 °C). However, per Wikipedia , to quote: It does not hydrolyze when it enters water, and is usually ...
AJKOER's user avatar
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