Questions tagged [halides]

Chemical compounds that contain halogens (group 17 in the Periodic Table) as part of their chemical structure. This tag should only be applied where the halide group is one of the main focuses of the question.

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63 views

Reaction of 1,3-dibromobutane with zinc dust upon heating

I've studied that when 1,3-dibromopropane (or in general any halogen, not just bromine) is heated with Zn dust, the electrons produced cause the halogens to break away homolytically and two free ...
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What makes a good chlorinating agent?

From what I know, good inorganic chlorinating agents, $\ce{SOCl2, PCl3, PCl5}$ are able to substitute a poorer leaving group (like $\ce{OH-}$) for chlorine. For example, for substitution of the ...
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1answer
119 views

Is HCl a lewis base?

Cl in HCl has three lone pairs of electrons. So it can donate a lone pair and thus become a lewis base. Right? Just like water is called a lewis base because oxygen has 2 lone pairs and can donate a ...
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63 views

Calcium chloride hydrolysis

I was wondering about $ \ce{CaCl2} $ hydrolysis. The most primitive answer would have been: $ \ce{Ca(OH)2} $ does not dilute that great, therefore it is not strong enough to have the $ \ce{Ca^2+} $s ...
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2answers
156 views

Why is density of chloroform greater than water? [closed]

Hydrocarbons (i.e., molecules containing carbon and hydrogen only) are generally less dense than water. Yet chloroform, which is a halogenated hydrocarbon, is more dense. Why is this? I know water ...
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37 views

Find the major products when these cyclohexenone bromides react with caustic potash in alcoholic medium:

Question: Also find the order of the rates of the given reactions. Answer: The answer of this question is given as option 'D' ie. all products are identical, however I am getting the answer as ...
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1answer
53 views

Lucas test in the presence of EWG like -CN

Does the given compound give Lucas test? My teacher says due to the presence of a strong electron withdrawing group the carbocation formed is unstable. But I say if it undergoes $\mathrm{S_N2}$ ...
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1answer
65 views

Contradiction of general rules of bond character [closed]

The rules the ionic character of metal halides of halogens is given in order $\ce{MF > MCl > MBr > MI}$. While judging polarisability we say that a compound that has large cation and small ...
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1answer
42 views

Reaction (or lack thereof) between oxygen and halogen gas

I understand that oxygen and halogens are both very electronegative elements and it would makes sense that they don't want to associate with each other at all. However, I know that oxides of halogens (...
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1answer
50 views

Predict the species formed by the reaction of mercury(II) chloride and iodine

$\ce{HgCl2}$ and $\ce{I2}$ both when dissolved in water containing $\ce{I-}$ ions the pair of species formed is A. $\ce{HgI2, I3-}$ B. $\ce{HgI2, I-}$ C. $\ce{HgI4^2-, I3-}$ D. $\ce{Hg2I2, I-}$ ...
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Preparing Hypochlorous acid from salt water

I am a school student and I want help with a project My aim: Preparing Hypochlorous Acid (Suitable for sanitation). I searched across the internet and found an article at https://www.hypochlorousacid....
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114 views

Reaction of 2,3-dichlorobutanoate with a decarboxylating agent followed by hydrochloric acid and then aq. potassium hydroxide

Question $$\ce{CH3-CH(Cl)-CH(Cl)-COO- ->[-CO2]A->[HCl]B->[aq KOH]C}$$ Product C is: a) $\ce{CH3-CH2-CHO}$ b) $\ce{CH3-CH(OH)-CH2-CH2-OH}$ c) $\ce{CH3-CHO}$ d)$\ce{CH3-C(=O)-CH3}$ Answer My ...
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275 views

Mechansim of reaction between 1‐bromo‐2‐fluorobenzene and furan in the presence of Li/Hg

Problem From FITJEE AITS test series: What is the mechanism of the following reaction? Solution My approach It looks like Birch reduction with $\ce{Li}$ converting to $\ce{Li+}.$ But I can't make ...
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366 views

Most favorable position of attack of an electrophile on 4-trifluoromethyl-1,2-diphenylbenzene

Problem This problem is from a FIITJEE AITS paper Which position is most favorable for the attack of an electrophile? Answer My attempt The more favorable position for attack should be the on the ...
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1answer
73 views

Why is polonium tetrafluoride non-existent?

I learnt that the group 16 elements can form halides, but with the exception that polonium cannot form a tetrahalide with fluorine. However, I thought that it was possible. This is because the ...
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106 views

What is the correct formula for iodonium ion?

Previously, I have made a comment on user @Maurice's response to a question where he enquired about the existence of $\ce{I3+}$. I cited a paper1 which said that $\ce{I3+}$ is (apparently?) called ...
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97 views

Relative reactivity of alkyl and aryl halides in nucleophilic-substitution reactions

In case of alkyl halides, the order for relative rates of reactions is $\ce{RI > RBr > RCl}$. The reason is clear that $\ce{I-}$ is a better lg because of negative charge stabilisation and also $...
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45 views

Ring expansion in cyclo compounds

In the following reaction, why does ring expansion not take place? Mechanism that was the correct one: In the second step when there is a protonated carbon the ring should expand to become 6 ...
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2answers
156 views

Stability of F- Cl- Br- I-? In aqueous state [closed]

If we talk about hydrolysis F- will be more heavily hydrolysed so it should be more stable in aqueous state. But I know that HI is a stronger acid than HF. So the stability of conjugate acid ie I- ...
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Reaction of Alkyl Halide with Ag2S / Na2S

What does alkyl halides give on reaction with $\ce{Ag2S / Na2S}$? In my book, it is given as $\ce{R-S-R}$ but I am not quite sure as alkyl halide react with moist $\ce{Ag2O}$ to gives $\ce{R-OH}$ and ...
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Order of boiling point of group 14 halides

Find out the species having lowest boiling point: (A) $\ce{SnCl4}$ (B) $\ce{GeCl4}$ (C) $\ce{SiCl4}$ (D) $\ce{CCl4}$ I have considered the inert pair effect of $\ce{Sn}$ here which will make the ...
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3answers
215 views

Stability of α-chlorocarbocations

I'm trying to compare the relative stability of two carbocations: $$\ce{CH3-\overset{+}{C}H-Cl}\quad\text{vs}\quad\ce{CH3-\overset{+}{C}H2}$$ Does the $\ce{Cl}$ exert a +M effect to stabilise the ...
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1answer
103 views

Why HCl is used in Lucas test?

In Lucas test $\ce{HCl}$ is used for acid-base reaction between $\ce{Zn(OH)Cl}$ to give $\ce{ZnCl2}$ and $\ce{H2O}$ which is kind of good because $\ce{ZnCl2}$ is formed again and used in first step ...
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229 views

Stability of CI4 and PbI4

I have read in my textbook that $\ce{CI4}$ is more stable than $\ce{PbI4}$ due to inert pair effect. But shouldn't we also consider the effect of steric repulsions? In $\ce{CI4}$, four large iodine ...
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2answers
74 views

Can Ethanol be used to carry out SN1 reaction?

My book says that the reaction of $$\ce{Cl-CH2-O-CH2-CH3}$$ with ethanol to form $$\ce{CH3-CH2-O-CH2-O-CH2-CH3}$$ occurs through $\mathrm{S_N1}$ mechanism, but shouldn't it actually be $\mathrm{S_N2}$...
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3answers
347 views

Why benzenediazonium bromide and iodide are not important?

When we think of aryldiazonium compounds, the first compound that comes to mind is benzenediazonium chloride. Sure thing, the compound is versatile and has been used to make a vast array of organic ...
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197 views

Darzens reaction on allylic position

Question Attempt I thought the products would be from simple darzens reaction. So I replaced the OH by Cl. But the answer of mine seems way wrong. Do give some tips on what might be happening in ...
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1answer
25 views

Comparing between nucleophilic and basic strength of acetylene ion [closed]

Question In this question I understand that 2 reactions- Substitution and elimination- will occur. But which will be major?
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1answer
97 views

Can Cyanide ion substitute methoxide? [closed]

Question Attempt Since CN is better nucleophile than both OMe and Cl, I believe that it should replace both. But none of the options match my answer. Where am I wrong? Please help.
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1answer
71 views

Which site would NaCN attacks (SN2)?

Question Attempt I thought that the bromine atom farther from the ring would be substituted because of less hindrance, but the book says opposite, why?
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90 views

Comparing between SN2 and E2

Question I am confused between the questions B. And C. The earlier is SN2 and later is E2. But what makes the difference?
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1answer
420 views

Reaction between anisole and concentrated HI in excess

Question: My Attempt: In most of the ethers reaction of HI in excess yields alkane iodide products. But in case of anisole two scenarios are possible, I believe: The HI breaks bond between methyl ...
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20 views

What kind of conjugation occurs in in intermediate formed during SN2 reaction of allylic system?

I had read about the good reactivity of allylic systems towards SN2s. In SN1 there is stabilisation of intermediate carbocation through resonance. What kind of conjugation occurs in SN2?
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92 views

What would the following NGP reaction yield?

Question Attempt I believe that in first reaction there would be simple Sn2. In the second reaction there Should be NGP. Hence i think the products should be diastereomers. But answer is (A)they are ...
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1answer
45 views

What is the effect of polar protic solvent on nucleophilicty? [closed]

Question Attempt: I could figure out the answer correctly using simple rules governing nucleophilicity . But my doubt is how does polar protic solvent affect nucleophicity. And what would be the ...
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152 views

Dipole moment difference between ch2f2 and ch3f [duplicate]

In CH3F and CH2F2 the net dipole moment increases from 1.82 to 1.97 while in all other halogen substituted carbon atoms the dipole moment decreases. In the case of CH3Cl and CH3F the chlorine ...
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62 views

When is a compound sterically hindered?

In a nucleophilic substitution reaction , which one of the following undergoes complete inversion of configuration ? (A) $\ce{C_6H_5CCH_3C_6H_5Br}$ (B) $\ce{C_6H_5CHCH_3Br}$ (C) $\ce{C_6H_5CHC_6H_5Br}$...
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1answer
141 views

Why is phosphorus trifluoride the strongest Lewis acid among the phosphorus trihalides?

I had read that for the trihalides of boron, boron trifluoride is the weakest Lewis acid due to backbonding. The order I had seen was - $\ce{BI3 > BBr3 > BCl3 > BF3}\$ $$\ce{}$ $- order of ...
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1answer
184 views

Reaction of alc. KOH with alkyl halide

The following question was given in FIITJEE study material: At first, I thought it should be elimination. But, soon I realized that there is no heating, plus a primary alkyl halide is used. So, "...
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160 views

Comparison of I-F, Br-F, and Cl-F bond strengths

From Chemistry of the Elements by Greenwood and Earnshaw [1, p. 833]: Figure 17.9 Mean bond energies of halogen fluorides. This shows the mean bond energy for $\ce{X-F}$, where $\ce{X}$ is a ...
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220 views

Lewis acidity comparison of boron and aluminium trichlorides

Lewis acidity is a function of electron deficiency on the acceptor atom, which in this case is $\ce{B}$ and $\ce{Al}$ respectively. Back donation is better as is the case of $\ce{B}$, due to better ...
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1answer
65 views

Are the reaction rates of these equations equal? [closed]

$$\ce{CH3CH2CH2Br + OH- -> CH3CH2CH2OH + Br-}$$ $$\mathrm{rate} = k[\ce{CH3CH2CH2Br}][\ce{OH-}]$$ If I change the $\ce{Br}$ with any element from halogens (without changing concentration, volume, ...
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Can a per-acetylated sugar anomerize?

So I have a question concerning a reaction mechanism for the reaction below. I know for certain that I get the alfa anomer, but I can't explain it. When I draw out the mechanism it doesn't make sense ...
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Why London force dominates in Alkyl Halides

Why London Force is greater than dipole-dipole interactions in Alkyl Halides? As we know that most of the time London force is weaker than other forces. Then why in this case it's not so? ...
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1answer
124 views

Why is 1,2-diiodoethane unstable? [duplicate]

Diiodoethane is a product of the reaction between glycol and $\ce{PI3}$. Why is 1,2-diiodoethane unstable?
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Will Chlorodifluoromethane (R22 refrigerant) react with calcium metal?

I am attempting to recycle or find a use for chlorodifluoromethane, however I do not want to risk venting it into the atmosphere or exposing myself to hydrofluoric acid. Ideally, I would like to ...
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2answers
240 views

Can you give examples for a halide ion reacting with interhalogen compound to give polyhalides?

Interhalogen compounds are formed when two halogens $(\ce{F},$ $\ce{Cl},$ $\ce{Br},$ $\ce{I})$ react together. They are represented by $\ce{XX'_n},$ where $\ce{X}$ is halogen of larger size and $\ce{X'...
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1answer
2k views

Why do we use hydrochloric in the test for sulfate ions but nitric acid for halide ions?

Recently, I have learnt about testing for ions in qualitative analysis (BBC Bitesize). The link above which I used for reference mentions that for the test for sulfate anions, hydrochloric acid $(\ce{...
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45 views

Reaction rate of Mg with aryl halides

I have been thinking of the rate of reaction of aryl bromide and aryl chloride with $\ce{Mg}$ to form Grignard. When considering the electronegativities the carbon in aryl chloride is more ...
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1answer
712 views

In the Lewis structure for barium fluoride, why does barium lose its valence electrons?

I searched for $\ce{BaF2}$ Lewis structure, and found out that the Barium atom loses its 2 valence electrons to form $\ce{F- Ba^2+F-}$. Before seeing it I thought each of $\ce{Ba}$'s valence electrons ...

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