Questions tagged [halides]

Chemical compounds that contain halogens (group 17 in the Periodic Table) as part of their chemical structure. This tag should only be applied where the halide group is one of the main focuses of the question.

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42 views

Can a per-acetylated sugar anomerize?

So I have a question concerning a reaction mechanism for the reaction below. I know for certain that I get the alfa anomer, but I can't explain it. When I draw out the mechanism it doesn't make sense ...
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How do we predict the order of melting points of group 1 and group 2 halides?

I get really confused by this: The order of melting points of group 2 chlorides is: $$\ce{BaCl2 > SrCl2 > CaCl2 > MgCl2 > BeCl2}$$ This is completely understandable by Fajan's Rules. But,...
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Why London force dominates in Alkyl Halides

Why London Force is greater than dipole-dipole interactions in Alkyl Halides? As we know that most of the time London force is weaker than other forces. Then why in this case it's not so? ...
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Why is 1,2-diiodoethane unstable? [duplicate]

Diiodoethane is a product of the reaction between glycol and $\ce{PI3}$. Why is 1,2-diiodoethane unstable?
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Why does alcoholic KOH prefer elimination whereas aqueous KOH prefers substitution?

What is the basic difference between aqueous and alcoholic $\ce{KOH}$? Why does alcoholic $\ce{KOH}$ prefer elimination whereas aqueous $\ce{KOH}$ prefers substitution?
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Do alcohols react with alkyl halides?

I wonder if alkyl halides react with alcohols or not. I searched on Google but could only find reaction of alcohols with hydrogen halides
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261 views

Attack of ethoxide on epichlorohydrin

I eliminated the possibility of the first two options since they included an alcohol and the solvent has not been specified so we do not know whether it is polar protic or polar aprotic. As for the ...
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Which has one monochlorination possibility?

Which would have one monochlorination possibility? 2,2-dimethylpropane: or 2-methylpropane: It seems I'm missing something because I thought both would only have one monochlorination possibility. ...
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Does chlorine trifluoride react with candlewax?

I've run across references to chlorine trifluoride quite a lot. It pops up fairly regularly on the Worldbuilding SE, and whatever idea people have with it is usually shot down very quickly - For ...
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Wittig reaction with an alkyl dibromide

Recently, I have come across a problem, in which a ketone needs to be converted into an alkene. However, in the alkene product, there is also another bromide functional group, at the end of the alkyl ...
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Will Chlorodifluoromethane (R22 refrigerant) react with calcium metal?

I am attempting to recycle or find a use for chlorodifluoromethane, however I do not want to risk venting it into the atmosphere or exposing myself to hydrofluoric acid. Ideally, I would like to ...
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Why is sulfur hexafluoride more stable than selenium or tellurium hexafluoride?

I was just reading about p Block elements from two different books. Both books say that $\ce{SF6}$ is extremely stable in 16th group due to steric reasons but my question is why is it more stable than ...
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Can you give examples for a halide ion reacting with interhalogen compound to give polyhalides?

Interhalogen compounds are formed when two halogens $(\ce{F},$ $\ce{Cl},$ $\ce{Br},$ $\ce{I})$ react together. They are represented by $\ce{XX'_n},$ where $\ce{X}$ is halogen of larger size and $\ce{X'...
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Why are two three-membered rings preferred to a single five-membered ring in the reaction of a dihalide with alcoholic KOH?

The given answer is 1,1-dicyclopropylmethanone: Step 1 is abstraction of acidic H by the strong base. Then, there's surely going to be anchimeric assistance. But there can be two places where the ...
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930 views

Mechanism for Chromyl Chloride Formation

This is the very famous chromyl chloride test, used for detection of chloride ion in solution - $$\ce{K2Cr2O7 + 4NaCl + 6H2SO4 -> 2CrO2Cl2 + 2KHSO4 + 4NaHSO4 +3H2O}$$ When a mixture containing ...
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Order of Basicity of Nitrogen Trihalides

I was asked to arrange nitrogen tri-halides in order of increasing basicity. On looking up the answer online, it turned out to be the following: $\ce{NF3}$ < $\ce{NCl3}$ < $\ce{NBr3}$ < $\ce{...
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Why is the dipole moment of ethyl chloride larger than that of vinyl chloride?

The dipole moment of ethyl chloride is 2.10 D (J. Mol. Struct. 1990, 216, 9–26), and that of vinyl chloride is 1.42 D (J. Chem. Phys. 1960, 32 (1), 205–209). Why is this the case? I would have ...
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288 views

Why do we use hydrochloric in the test for sulfate ions but nitric acid for halide ions?

Recently, I have learnt about testing for ions in qualitative analysis (BBC Bitesize). The link above which I used for reference mentions that for the test for sulfate anions, hydrochloric acid $(\ce{...
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Acid etching of float glass

While we have done some etching of glass with hydrofluoric acid alone, to achieve a matte white finish on float glass, I am curious to know what formula and procedure is required to create a more ...
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Reaction rate of Mg with aryl halides

I have been thinking of the rate of reaction of aryl bromide and aryl chloride with $\ce{Mg}$ to form Grignard. When considering the electronegativities the carbon in aryl chloride is more ...
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What is the structural formula of alkali hypohalite: MOX or MXO?

Recently I came across this question and in the comment section, there was an argument regarding the formula of sodium hypoiodite which kept me wandering: what is the actual formula of alkali ...
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What should be the order of specific conductance (κ) of floride, chloride and bromide ions?

The equivalent conductance order is $\ce{Br-} > \ce{Cl-} > \ce{F-}$. $$Λ = \frac{κ}{c},$$ so $Λ$ is proportional to specific conductance? But in ion chromatography we get peak area where $\ce{...
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Identifying a chloride of the unknown element from the masses of chlorine and compound as well as vapor density [closed]

1 g of a chloride of an element contains 0.835 g of chlorine. If vapour density of the chloride is 85, find weight of the element and its valency. I tried to solve it but couldn't get to the answer ...
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Which is better: iodine number or bromine number?

The degree of unsaturation of fats can be determined with the help of two type of scale namely iodine number and bromine number. Generally, iodine number is more preferred over bromine number (Is ...
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What is the molecular structure of xenon hexafluoride?

Xenon hexafluoride, $\ce{XeF6}$, can be obtained by reaction of xenon with excess fluorine gas. What is the gas-phase structure of the molecule? What experimental evidence is there to support it, ...
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Haloform reaction with limited bromine

We were asked the reaction between 1 mole acetone and 1 mole $\ce{Br2}$ in basic medium. Since only a limited amount of bromine was given I got the final answer as 1-bromopropan-2-one (mono bromo ...
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Does acetophenone show haloform reaction?

Although acetophenone is a methyl ketone, as it is aromatic, it is immiscible in H2O so the last step in the haloform reaction should not occur? I couldn't find any source regarding the haloform ...
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Inductive effects of halogens

The Wikipedia page on inductive effects states that the order of inductive effects of halogens is as follows: $$\ce{-F} > \ce{-Cl} > \ce{-Br} > \ce{-I}$$ From this, and from the fact that ...
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Why is HF the least acidic hydrogen halide?

Fluorine is the most electronegative halogen and therefore, there is larger difference in electronegativity between the atoms of $\ce{HF}$ than any other hydrogen halide, which means the positive ...
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Acetone Enolate-HaloBenzene Reaction

A reaction I am trying to perform says to use a strong base like Sodium Amide with Acetone and Iodo-Benzene as reactants with DMSO as the solvent to form Phenylacetone. The main idea is to use the ...
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Reaction of Br2/KOH with succinic anhydride

What products will be formed when $\ce{Br2/KOH}$ reacts with the following compound in water at room temperature? Here is what I think is possible: $\ce{OH-}$ will take up the acidic hydrogen. ...
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MacGyvered chlorine gas protection

I was watching Periodic Video's chlorine video, which discusses chlorine's ferocity in stripping electrons whenever possible, and the professors mentioned its consequent use in WWI as a chemical agent....
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Why do the boiling and melting points decrease as you go down group 1 and vice versa for group 7?

I used to think that because an alkali metal needs to lose one electron to complete its outer shell, when the atom increases in size (atomic radius), the electron would be easier to lose as the ...
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Storing hydrofluoric acid before the invention of plastics

The first person to synthesize hydrofluoric acid in large quantities was Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1771. This acid is known for its ability to corrode glass and metals. What materials were the ...
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1answer
152 views

Equation for reaction between chlorine fluoride and potassium bromide

The equation given in the answer key was $$\ce{ClF + 2KBr → KCl + KF + Br2}$$ However won't the $\ce{KCl}$ also react with $\ce{ClF}$ to form $\ce{KF}$ and $\ce{Cl2}$, resulting in the net reaction ...
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OF2 vs O2F2 oxidising strength

My teacher said that OF2 is the third most powerful oxidising agent after F2 and atomic O, but I think O2F2 should be even more oxidising, since it less stable than OF2. I just read on quora that O2F2 ...
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Can I boil off chlorine? Does it evaporate quickly at high temperatures?

Can I boil off chlorine? Does it evaporate quickly at high temperatures? I am asking because I want to remove it from drinking water, and I don't want to wait 24 hours for it to evaporate naturally.
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Products formed on cleavage of epoxides using HI

There seems to be multiple forms of HI used to cleave epoxides: conc. HI, anhydrous HI, cold HI, hot HI, cold conc. HI, hot conc. HI, etc. So, does concentration of HI and temperature have any ...
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what is a pseudohalogen/pseudohalide?

What do you mean by a pseudohalogen/pseudohalide and how do you tell whether a molecule/ion is a pseudohalogen/pseudohalide ?
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Reaction of ethylene glycol with PI₃ (P + I₂)

We know that $\ce{2P + 3I2 -> 2PI3}$ Ethylene glycol reacts with $\ce{PCl3}$ to give ethylene dichloride, but why does it gives ethylene when it reacts with $\ce{P + I2}$? I don't really know ...
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How would one determine the yield of primary vs. secondary hydrohalogenation addition products?

For example, if I was to perform the following reaction: $\ce{CH3CHCH2 + HBr -> CH3CHBrCH3 + CH3CH2CH2Br}$ How would I quantitatively determine the relative yield of the primary and secondary ...
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Why PI3 is not used in HVZ reaction?

With the help of HVZ reaction, we can get alpha-chloro or alpha-bromo carboxylic acid. But can we make alpha-iodocarboxylic acid with the help of HVZ reaction? I could not find any reference of HVZ ...
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Action of H2S and OH- on an alkyl halide?

What would be the action of $\ce{OH-}$ and $\ce{H2S}$ on 2,6 dichloroheptane? I came across this question in my organic chemistry workbook but I have simply never seen a question of this type before. ...
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Heating Dry Benzenediazonium Chloride

If we heat BDC with water then phenol is formed. I was wondering what would happen if we heated dry benzenediazonium chloride. I know that on heating benzenediazonium fluoroborate we obtain ...
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1answer
721 views

Why BiCl5 isn't stable?

I read this in a textbook: $\ce{Bi(V)}$ is very unstable and is a good oxidizing agent. Why does it happen that way? Is it because in $\pu{+5}$ oxidation state $\ce{Bi}$ pulls in more electrons ...
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1answer
461 views

What is the oxidation state of bromine in BrO3?

I came across this compound $\ce{BrO3}$ in my textbook, and was trying to find the oxidation state of bromine. This is how I proceeded: Since this is not a superoxide or a peroxide, or any other ...
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1answer
682 views

Existence of Dichlorine Pentoxide

I searched the net and a lot of books, but I was unable to find any information about dichlorine pentoxide. Does dichlorine pentoxide($\ce{Cl2O5}$) exist? If it doesn't exist, then why so? If ...
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Elimination of HCl from isomeric chlorocyclohexadienes

Which of these is most easily dehydrohalogenated? a. 5-Chlorocyclohexa-1,3-diene (1) b. 3-Chlorocyclohexa-1,4-diene (2) c. 1-Chlorocyclohexa-1,4-diene (3) d. Both 1 and 3 I ...
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1answer
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Why is fluoride the most nucleophilic halide in aprotic solvents? [duplicate]

I am confused on the topic of electronegative nucleophiles, and polar aprotic solvents. From my understanding, the more electronegative a nucleophile is, the weaker of a nucleophile it will be, ...
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How to get $\Gamma_{vib}$ for hexafluoroethane?

An exercise asks me to find $\Gamma_{vib}$ for that molecule. I know that: $$\Gamma_{cart}=\Gamma_{vib}+\Gamma_{translations}+\Gamma_{rot}$$ Since the molecule I'm considering belongs to the $D_{3d}$ ...