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Questions tagged [glass]

This tag is for questions relating to glass materials and properties. DO NOT use this tag for questions about glassware.

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8 votes
2 answers
206 views

Why don't oils use plastic droppers?

As shown in the picture, most cosmetic oils and serums make use of glass droppers. However in the chemistry lab, scientists often also use reusable plastic droppers as well. My question was that, ...
6 votes
2 answers
1k views

Can we make glass by heating Martian Soil

I was puzzled by a very interesting question. Can we heat up Martian soil and produce glass just the way we do here on Earth? (the basic way) For info, Martian sand consists of the following - $\ce{...
4 votes
0 answers
52 views

How can glycerol make glass objects 'disappear'?

There's a famous experiment that uses glycerol (glycerin) to make glass objects 'disappear'. A glass object becomes nearly invisible when filled with glycerol and immersed in a container of the same ...
1 vote
0 answers
49 views

Alkali-rich lead glass with working range at room temperature

I understand that the glass transition temperature (above which it is considered a super-cooled liquid) is quite far below the liquidus of the corresponding crystalline mixture. In the paper, "...
3 votes
2 answers
8k views

Glass with a low melting point?

What kind of glass can I purchase that will melt in a Bunsen burner flame? Is there any way to treat glass such that the melting point is lowered? I tried adding some sodium hydroxide but the glass ...
-1 votes
3 answers
118 views

Can any compound form into an amorphous solid?

I am curious whether it is possible or not to make any solution of a specific compound into a crystal lattice or into an amorphous solid? I know that crystals form under specific conditions but seem ...
3 votes
1 answer
57 views

Are there distinct phases of amorphous ice?

Amorphous ice is a solid phase of water that lacks crystal structure. It is stable below about 150K, above which it converts to crystalline ice. There are four phases of amorphous ice: low medium, ...
3 votes
1 answer
202 views

What reaction could rubidium undergo in a vacuumed chamber with Macor ceramic and glass?

In the center of the chamber on the photo below you can see the hexagonally-shaped Macor glass-ceramic consisting of Silicon dioxide $\ce{SiO2}~46\%$ Magnesium dioxide $\ce{MgO}~17\%$ Aluminum ...
1 vote
0 answers
62 views

Permanent water marks etched onto glass

We are noticing some permanent marks etched onto various glass parts we use in lighting products that cannot be removed. These appear regardless of the type of water (tap, DI etc. Our DI water is ...
1 vote
0 answers
69 views

Do Boron and Silicon form metallic-type bonds in alloys?

For context I am a physics student currently doing a project that involves metallic glasses. I am trying to figure out if you can get Ionic bonds inside an alloy with metalloids. More specifically, I ...
1 vote
1 answer
394 views

What can be used as substitute to dichloromethane for breaking optical cement bonds?

An optics supply company recommends using a dichloromethane solution to break bonds between optical elements joined with its UV-cured optical cement.1 The page mentions that dichloromethane-based ...
4 votes
0 answers
110 views

How to estimate the mobility constant and the surface energy parameter in the Cahn-Hilliard equation?

As a mathematician, I want to simulate phase separations with the Cahn-Hilliard equation $$ \frac{\partial c}{\partial t} = M \Delta \bigg(\frac{\partial \mu}{\partial c} - \kappa \Delta c \bigg), $$ ...
2 votes
0 answers
69 views

Diffusion vs mobility and the Einstein relation

This former question is about the mobility constant $M>0$ in the Cahn-Hilliard equation. To determine the value of such a mobility for a simulation study, Kim and Sanders (2020) use the formula $$ ...
2 votes
1 answer
68 views

Computing the molar volume for a 2D-simulation of phase separation

I am a mathematician and I want to simulate phase separation that occurs in a sodium silicate glass ($12.5\,\text{Na}_2\text{O}\cdot 87.5\,\text{SiO}_2$) at $T = 923\ \text{K}$ as it was done, for ...
3 votes
0 answers
383 views

Does soda-lime glass contain carbon?

Soda-lime glass is made by melting together soda (sodium carbonate), lime (calcium oxide), dolomite (calcium magnesium carbonate), silica (silicon dioxide), alumina (aluminum oxide), and small ...
1 vote
2 answers
630 views

How does lime prevent soda lime glass from dissolving in water?

How does lime addition as an ingredient prevent soda lime glass from dissolving in water? Does it form calcium silicate in the process of melting?
0 votes
0 answers
68 views

How to define a chemical bond computationally?

I'm working with an amorphous system. With oxygen, my system has both covalent and ionic bond forming cations. I utilise the Wannier centre to define a covalent bond, and my theory is that if the ...
5 votes
2 answers
255 views

Understanding the molar free energy to simulate phase separations (Na2O-SiO2)

I am a mathematician and I want to understand the molar free energy model given in Kim and Sanders (2020) Equation (1), that is, \begin{equation} f(c,T) = RT \big(c \log(c) + (1-c) \log(1-c)\big) + \...
1 vote
1 answer
189 views

Understanding Cahn-Hilliard Equation in terms of Units

The Cahn-Hilliard equation may be formulated as $$ \frac{\partial c}{\partial t} = M \nabla^2 \left(\frac{\partial \hat f}{\partial c}\right), $$ where $c : \Omega \to [0,100]$ describes the ...
4 votes
1 answer
2k views

How should you report measurements and uncertainty for a measuring cylinder with 0.5 mL graduations?

I understand that a common convention is to report the uncertainty of an analogue instrument as plus or minus half of the smallest scale division. By this logic, a measuring cylinder with $\pu{0.5 mL}$...
5 votes
1 answer
8k views

Prevent molten glass from cracking when cooling down

My mother works in a ceramics workshop. Besides giving lessons she creates various ceramic dishes, cups and plates. She often uses the effect of colored glass melting in the product and then leaving ...
4 votes
1 answer
1k views

Do xenon di- and tetrafluorides react with glass?

A question came in my test asking which of the compounds are not stored in glass. The answers were $\ce{HF},$ $\ce{XeF6},$ $\ce{XeF4},$ $\ce{XeF2}$. I know about $\ce{HF}$ and $\ce{XeF6},$ but not ...
35 votes
3 answers
5k views

Why isn't 'chemically-strengthened glass' made with potassium carbonate to begin with?

Instead of making potassium-strengthened glass by creating ordinary soda-lime glass first, then replacing the sodium atoms/ions with potassium by putting the glass in a bath/solution of potassium ...
1 vote
1 answer
2k views

What are some of the lowest melting point glasses available out there?

I'm wondering about lead-free "glass solder" or any glass frit powder or paste that has a very low melting point (under 400 c). What products are available to the layman, where can I find ...
2 votes
0 answers
92 views

Appropriate ways to remove aluminum from the surface of glass?

I'm looking for a way to treat the surface of borosilicate glassware such that it won't contaminate solutions of puriss reagents in conditions that pure $\ce{SiO2}$ wouldn't, yet keep the bulk ...
-2 votes
1 answer
371 views

Are diamonds as chemically inert as glass? [closed]

Every beaker that I have seen in a lab is made of glass. Glass, as I understand, is made of SiO2, or silicon dioxide, which has a crystalline structure that is similar to diamond. This property causes ...
7 votes
2 answers
10k views

How to identify a blow-out pipette?

Is my pipette a blow-out pipette? I suspect that it is a blow-out pipette, though the double lines aren't rings. My guess is it is a TC blow-out pipette. It's a big 50 mL pipette, longer than my arm. ...
0 votes
0 answers
20 views

Does the process of chemically strengthening glass change its volume?

The process of chemically strengthening glass replaces sodium ions in the glass's surface with potassium ions through a process that uses a potassium nitrate bath solution. These potassium ions are ...
3 votes
0 answers
191 views

Remove sticky PDMS from glasses slides

I prepared some PDMS mixing a Sylgard 186 (elastomer) and a curing agent with 10:1 ratio. I sucked all the bubbles and I sandwiched the PDMS between two glass slides to get flat surfaces. Finally I ...
1 vote
1 answer
2k views

when using glass to glass stoppers, is it best to have them dry or use lubricant?

I have some glass flasks that have glass stoppers. It’s basically the typical glass stopper with the frosted tip which fits into a glass opening. Basically think of a typical glass volumetric flask. i ...
9 votes
1 answer
2k views

Gold Plating on Glass?

I am considering labware options to handle NaOH solutions at ~150 °C. One appealing idea would be to coat my current glassware with gold. I've read different sources mentioning the possibility without ...
1 vote
1 answer
455 views

Can you measure an IR spectrum of a sample inside a glass vial?

If I have a sample of some compounds dissolved in water inside a glass vial (let's say quartz). Would it be possible to get a usable measurement through this glass vial without too much absorption by ...
1 vote
0 answers
72 views

Is the width of a Soxhlet Condenser Inherent to its Function?

Soxhlet extractors are often coupled to a specifically designed condenser with a very large lower joint. Is this inherent to it's function as a condenser in the apparatus or only because the Soxhlet ...
0 votes
1 answer
295 views

What temperature is really required to make fused quartz? [closed]

Glass transition temperature of fused quartz is 1200 °C. Does this mean it can be made by heating sand to 1200 °C, or does the melting point of $\ce{SiO2}$ has to be reached (~1700 °C) for that to ...
3 votes
3 answers
286 views

Carbon in Glass - XPS Analysis

I was reading a paper and found this elemental XPS analysis of an unmodified microscope glass slide surface. C (1s): 17.7% Si (2p): 28.47% O (1s): 53.83% It seems strange for a piece of normal ...
2 votes
2 answers
278 views

Does K2CO3 react in minute amounts with glassware at higher temperatures?

At a temperature of $\pu{750 ^\circ C}$, $\ce{K2CO3}$ and $\ce{SiO2}$ react with each other in substantial proportions, forming $\ce{K2SiO3}$ and $\ce{CO2}$ in the process$\ce{^{[1]}}$. We all know as ...
2 votes
0 answers
35 views

Non-conducting substance with a glass transition temperature around 400 to 600 °C?

Am looking for a substance to seel two pieces of ceramic that will have molten plastics flowing between at 300+ °C however silver solder circuit traces inside the device prevent me from going much ...
14 votes
2 answers
2k views

Can glass be deionized?

Is there a chemical treatment that could remove sodium and calcium ions from the surface of soda-lime glass to turn it into quartz glass, increasing the hardness?
4 votes
2 answers
4k views

Benefits of a Buchner funnel w/ a fritted disc instead of Quantitative Filter Paper Circles

I was wondering if someone could enlighten me on some example us cases where one would be better of using a Buchner funnel with a fritted disc (example), as opposed to a Buchner "style" filter (...
2 votes
1 answer
88 views

Cold process to make glass

Since glass is a mix of silicates of sodium and calcium produced by heating or fusing together $\ce{Na2O}$ (Lewis base) with sand or $\ce{SiO2}$ (Lewis acid). Since $\ce{Na2O/NaOH(aq)}$ is a strong ...
3 votes
3 answers
4k views

Does crystalline glass exist?

As far as I know, glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid. Does glass exist in crystalline forms? Or is it the definition of glass that it's non-crystalline, in which case my question is based off ...
3 votes
1 answer
502 views

How to identify lead crystal glassware?

I would like to identify if a wine glass is made of lead crystal (a destructive method is allowed). Lead crystal is said to be eroded by dishwasher detergent. I don't have a dishwasher, what causes ...
1 vote
1 answer
160 views

Cerium (CeO) behavior in Glass Polishing?

I am basically working in semiconductor industry and I specifically taking care of CMP (Chemical Mechanical Polishing). We did polish glass (borosilicate type of glass) and we are using slurry (which ...
0 votes
0 answers
763 views

Highly concentrated NaOH solution at high temperature vs borosilicate glassware and cellulose?

I've read here on stack-exchange that NaOH will react with glass through the following reaction: 4 NaOH + SiO2 ⤑ Na4SiO4 + 2 H2O I would like to briefly heat a highly concentrated NaOH solution to ...
5 votes
1 answer
269 views

What home products are reactive with glass?

Glass seems to be one of the most stable solid substances - which chemicals, particularly home products that react with glass?
8 votes
4 answers
5k views

Is glass an amorphous solid or supercooled liquid?

I have been informed that glass is a super-cooled liquid and is also considered to be an amorphous solid. Can it be both and, if not, what category does it fall into?
32 votes
2 answers
3k views

What makes Gorilla Glass more durable with each generation?

Gorilla Glass (GG) is one of the most recognizable brands of toughened glasses today, thanks to their marketing and widespread usage in various gadgets and automobile industry. According to Wikipedia,...
12 votes
2 answers
603 views

Can olivine be used to make glass?

This concerns ongoing work to find a plausible approach to large-scale production of clear glass on the Moon. It's for an ultra-hard science fiction project and I really want to get it right. Olivine ...
2 votes
1 answer
629 views

Does glass adsorb methanol to an exceptional extent?

Does (borosilicate) glass adsorb methanol to an exceptional extent? We are doing vapor density measurements of organic solvents using a microbalance and a sealed glass sphere. Other polar molecules ...
4 votes
1 answer
4k views

Why is sand/glass polar? How does lattice structure change polarity?

The molecular geometry of sand is linear. Dipole moment is thus cancelled. But we all know from the meniscus water makes with glass that the dipole-dipole/H-O attraction between sand and water is ...